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The Internet went through massive shifts, starting in the ’90s, where some innovations were adopted by enough of its users and developers that they eventually became standards. Sites like YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and Reddit all represent what we now call Web 2.0.

The definitions can get a little fuzzy, but looking in the broad strokes helps us understand what kicked off the transition between Web 1.0 and the next iteration. This will also help us understand how the emergence of Web3 will work.

The Arrival of Web 2.0

When the Internet was just starting to enter homes around the world, servers and bandwidth were expensive commodities. Getting a site up and running that could handle large amounts of traffic required a large upfront investment. One way to mitigate this was to minimize the amount of assets you displayed to the visitor. That’s why sites from the ’90s have a reputation for being quirky and aesthetically unremarkable. There are still relics of this era around today.

Around the early to mid 2000s, the market around bandwidth and storage started loosening a bit. Startups that came with the “Dot-com Bubble” and survived the devastating blow kept adopting new ideas on how visitors can interact with their sites, transforming them into creators. This is how sites like YouTube and MySpace got their starts. The latter eventually collapsed, but the idea was picked up by Facebook. Behold, the Web 2.0 era.

Web 2.0 was designed by two crucial things:

Sites were more asset-rich, leading to significant aesthetic improvements that made themselves more navigable and pointed visitors in the proper direction without having to read the entire menu. Notice how sites like YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter attempt to minimize UI clutter by avoiding large menus and even going as far as to keep each item down to one single word (i.e., Home, Subscriptions, History, Tweet, Messages, Bookmarks, etc.). Items are emphasized by variations on one color scheme (like the Follow/Like buttons on social networks).

Most Internet traffic started to consolidate around sites that allowed user-generated content (tweets, videos, blogs, status updates, etc.).

Whereas the majority of people were consumers in Web 1.0, the next iteration saw websites that encouraged people to produce their own content and share it with the world.

As the 2010s approached, the websites we use to consume our media and socialize today began to take off and usher in this new era of the Internet.

What Is Web3?

One of the biggest problems with the Web 2.0 model is that it allowed for a significant amount of consolidation of the infrastructure of the Internet. Facebook, YouTube, and Google became quasi-monopolies, controlling a huge chunk of all Internet traffic. Because of this, both developers and their users have been put in an awkward position, as the former engages in activities that led to widespread accusations of censorship.

Since about 2023 (though it’s very difficult to pinpoint an exact year), some people have been thinking of decentralizing services on the Internet to solve this issue.

Put simply, the Web3 principle is focused entirely on using something known as a blockchain to decentralize certain aspects of the Web.

What Are Blockchains?

We have already written a detailed explanation about it, but in short, blockchains are just like databases, except that you can only use it to store and record – not delete. They’re generally immutable (you cannot delete something once it’s created) and redundant. (A large number of machines distributed around the world voluntarily hold th contents.)

Digital currencies like Bitcoin use blockchains because they provide a perfect platform with which to make an immutable ledger that cannot be “seized.” (You’re going to have a tough time seizing thousands or millions of personal machines around the world).

Blockchains usually come in two flavors:

Why Blockchains Are Important in Web3

Because blockchains are capable of being decentralized and hosted on numerous systems at the same time, they’re also incredibly resilient. At this moment, the technology is getting a bad reputation because of all the scams in the cryptocurrency and digital token world. However, as more mature implementations appear, and it stops being a “wild west,” we’ll likely see this become an integral part of Internet services, in the same way Facebook and Google became integral parts of Web 2.0.

The former has a hybrid permissioned blockchain, while the latter uses a fully permissionless implementation.

At this moment, Odysee pulls in millions of viewers from all over the world, demonstrating that this model is actually viable for the future of the Web.

You may think that a decentralized Web for platforms is a silly pipe dream, but the concept of decentralization is actually rather old. In fact, things like BitTorrent (a decentralized file-sharing protocol that makes use of trackers and other discovery layers) have been around since 2001!

The point is that decentralization was wildly successful with file sharing in the past and there’s no reason blockchains can’t help reinforce this in other areas, like social media and search engines.

The Pros and Cons

Before we hop on the hype train, it’s important to reassess exactly what we’re getting into with this shift in the Internet’s arterial structure:


A blockchain’s redundancy makes it extremely resistant to outages, breaches, state censorship (unless you shut the international pipelines down), and database corruption (nodes with the correct version will override corrupted ones).

The technology is more resistant to private censorship than the current Web 2.0 model.

Users don’t have to adapt to the change.

Once a site using the blockchain becomes derelict, a new one that revives it can be created with minimal infrastructure investment using the preexisting blockchain and building on top of it.


It’s very clear that the only real challenge that Web 3.0 providers will have to overcome is the issue of immutability. Yes, censorship resistance is great and all, but what about when it’s dealing with something truly criminal or vile in nature? This is where blockchain technology becomes a double-edged sword, and so far the discussion around it has been too small. It’s probably time we start to examine how we are going to be able to operate in this new paradigm.

Frequently Asked Questions 1. What does this mean for content creators?

For people who make content, nothing will really change on the surface. But since blockchains are immutable, nothing can truly be censored. Although websites can still ignore a particular block containing your content, there’s nothing stopping someone else from making a site that doesn’t do that.

There’s no need to reinvent the wheel. This new hypothetical site can use the same exact ledger and display it completely uncensored if they want to.

Web3 will not necessarily bring an end to censorship, but it will make it uncompetitive due to how little investment is required to make an uncensored version of a blockchain that already contains all the material it needs to populate its content.

2. Does Web 3.0 address data harvesting?

The question surrounding data harvesting/mining on the Internet can’t be answered by technology. It is in fact the infiltration of new tech into our lives that created this issue in the first place.

In theory, the same blockchain created by someone who collects data on its front end can be used to create another front end that doesn’t do this. It’s possible that the very existence of a public blockchain would put competitive pressure on sites to stop data mining.

The painful reality of the situation is that the only real pressure that can conceivably change anything has to come from the users themselves through their refusal to share data. Consent laws like GDPR and newer standards adopted by websites to let visitors manage how their data is collected have made some progress in mending this issue, but ultimately, the only real solution is to educate people until they become more conscious about how they use the Web.

3. How hard is Web 3.0 to implement?

The hardest part of Web 3.0 is the development effort required to make the backbone itself. However, there are many open-source blockchains people can just rip off to make derivatives. A huge amount of blockchain projects available today practically copy/paste the code from other projects. The uniqueness is in what data they store.

In the end, with the sheer amount of effort being put into making excellent open-source implementations of blockchain technology, it isn’t inconceivable for Web 3.0 projects that don’t focus on cryptocurrencies (which is still the flavor of the year at the time writing) to pop up everywhere like daisies at some point.

Image credit: Pete Linforth – Pixabay

Miguel Leiva-Gomez

Miguel has been a business growth and technology expert for more than a decade and has written software for even longer. From his little castle in Romania, he presents cold and analytical perspectives to things that affect the tech world.

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What Is Web3 And Is It The Next Internet?

If you’ve been online for the last couple of months you must have been flooded by news regarding the Metaverse and Web3 being the next digital revolution. Promised to be the best iteration of the Internet yet, Web3 is a concept some users love while some find skeptical. But what exactly is this Web3 and does it actually affect you? If you’re confused about it and want to find out more, you’re at the right place. This explainer will tell you all about Web3. So strap yourself in and let us begin.

What Is Web3

While this explainer will tell you all about Web3, I will also take the time to explain other related concepts including Web 1.0 and the Metaverse. However, if you would rather just skip to the definition, use the table below to do so.

Table of Contents

What Are Web 1.0 and 2.0?

What Is Web3?

Trustless and Permissionless

Making You the Owner

How Does the Metaverse Relate to Web3?

Will Artificial Intelligence (A.I) Be Involved in Web3?

Downsides of Web3

Examples of Web3 in Practice

What Are Web 1.0 and 2.0?

In order to understand what Web3 essentially is, we first need to go back in time and learn about the previous iterations of the Internet.

In its infancy, the first stage of the Internet was dubbed Web 1.0. During the time period of 1994-2004, Web 1.0 was essentially a collection of static HTML pages that users could visit. Also known as Read-Only Internet, Web 1.0 could only be accessed and not contributed to. Unless you had a working knowledge of coding languages, you could visit Web 1.0’s static pages and explore it like a giant Wikipedia directory.

Privacy vs Convenience

Since Web 2.0 is the current version of the Internet, the above problems still exist. A lot of users consider Web 2.0 to be centralized in a strong way. What this means is that instead of freedom for online users, all their data is stored and controlled by a select few companies in the business also known as ‘Big Tech‘. This data is mostly stored on a few select servers and is at the mercy of the owners who run the infrastructure.

What Is Web3?

Note: You might have seen Web 3.0 being described as the ‘Semantic Web‘, a concept founded by the ‘father of the Internet’ Sir Tim-Berners-Lee. However, the term Web3 is a distinct concept coined by Ethereum co-founder Gavin Wood in 2014.

Decentralize: To take away control from a select few members/companies and distribute it among the larger masses.

Distributed Computing: The process of linking together multiple computers as servers so as to share processing power and optimize sharing data.

A Decentralized Web

Currently, in Web 2.0, almost all of the popular social media sites and services we utilize are owned by big companies and corporations. For instance – As a general user, your social media usage might consist of browsing through Instagram and Facebook. You very well must use WhatsApp for messaging and calls. This gives the companies control over your data and what they do with it. However, most of all, this gives them control over you as a user. While there are certain parts of your data you can have removed, there is no real guarantee about its deletion.

Blockchain technology is slowly coming up to be another way to store data online. Based on the concept of distributed computing, data on the blockchain is split (Sharding), copied, and stored across a number of computers. So instead of your data being on a select company server, it might be across hundreds of computers. This grants data security and privacy. How?

Since the files themselves will be across potentially thousands of computers, no single person can delete or modify the file without the keys or permission of the entire network. This also means that if a single or even dozens of the computers get taken out, your copied data can safely exist on the network. A potential Web3 network aims to employ these two core concepts into its infrastructure and hence why blockchain technology is important to it. However, there is more.

Trustless and Permissionless

Some other concepts fundamental to Web3 include it being Trustless and Permissionless.

A trustless network means that two parties involved in a transaction will not need to trust each other to commence it. This eliminates the need to have a third party like a reputed bank oversee the transaction. This is not the case in our current web since most transactions take place through a third-party system that may or may not be trusted. For instance – In a trustless system, User A can directly send Bitcoin to User B without the need for a third party. Since the transaction happens through Blockchain, User A does not need to trust User B for it. This also ensures that no third party can hijack this instance since it’s happening on the blockchain network.

A permissionless network eliminates the need for users to seek approval from anyone before performing transactions. So you can easily send and receive currency across to people without having to seek permission from any third party. This should mean extended freedom across Web3 for its users.

Making You the Owner How Does the Metaverse Relate to Web3?

You might have already seen some companies online referring to the Metaverse and Web3 together. If you’re someone with no idea about the Metaverse, I suggest checking out our explainer on what is the Metaverse first. However, to summarize it, the Metaverse is a digital universe that will combine a host of technologies into an entire online universe.

Many users online associate Web3 with the Metaverse even though they are very different concepts. However, the basic idea of involving the Metaverse in Web3 is that the former can be used to create immersive experiences that overlap both. So instead of just browsing a website in Web3, you might be able to use technologies like Virtual Reality to access the entire Web3 while using your digital controllers or even hands. The inherent connection that users make with both terms is the importance of digital currency in Web3. Since the Metaverse itself is poised to be basically another universe, it would make sense that cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin would be used inside it.

However, while a lot of people confuse the two terms, it is important to note that Web3 can exist without the Metaverse. But that hasn’t stopped the Metaverse from taking off by itself either. Besides just simple experiences, the Metaverse is evolving. From accessing the Metaverse on the Quest 2 to NFT Avatars, there’s a lot on offer. As for their combined existence, both the Web3 and the Metaverse are concepts under construction right now. Only time will tell if a legitimate and popular combination of both pops up.


Okay so all the users get freedom and everything is hunky-dory on Web3. But what about all the current companies; where do they go? This is where the existence of DAO comes in. Short for Decentralized Autonomous Organization, DAO is a concept in Web3. A DAO in theory is a group or a company that follows a set of rules through a Smart Contract that is coded inside the blockchain. This contract itself works in an unbiased way and must be followed by every member of the DAO. However, this code is also automated and in theory should take care of all the processes including legal, social, promotion, hiring, etc.

No aspect of the DAO can be changed without proper voting procedures. Moreover, all the financial data inside a DAO cannot be stolen or erased since they exist on the blockchain. There are some examples of DAOs already in action. DAOs like MakerDAO and MetaCartel have been in existence for a few years now.

Will Artificial Intelligence (A.I) Be Involved in Web3?

A lot of users speculate that Artificial Intelligence has a role to play in Web3. Since the concept of Web3 involves some aspects that require automatic decision, we just might see AI involved in the process.

Downsides of Web3

While Web3 sounds good in theory, there are some red flags that have yet to be properly discussed. Some of these downsides are:

1. Bad Actors

One of the principal concepts behind Web3 is the amount of freedom each and every user has. Full control of one’s data to the point it can’t be deleted without permission sounds good. However, the same freedom can quickly become a dual-edged sword. Since this freedom translates to everyone, it opens up room for malicious folks looking to post harmful and illegal things on Web3.

The same problem exists with too much anonymity. A fundamental concept of Web3 is the ability to have a digital identity that is separate from your real one. While that is amazing for privacy, the same anonymity can be again be used for illicit purposes. Moreover, the lack of oversight when it comes to Web3 is concerning for not just people but for governments. Since Web3 is only a little more than a concept, we will see how much actual freedom it ends up getting from governments and companies.

2. Difficult to Regulate

3. Who Will Own Web3?

While the concepts of freedom from Big Tech and safety are rampant in Web3, there are people who are skeptical. Most notably, Twitter’s Ex-CEO Jack Dorsey believes that Web3 is just another iteration that will have different owners but with the same problems. He said as much in his Tweet about Web3. How this plays out, however, only time will tell.

4. Higher Cost of Entry 5. Tough for Existing Businesses

If the implementation of Web3 goes right then the world will slowly start to shift to it. However, that will put a strain on businesses to shift their market to Web3 or risk losing profits. Since not every business will be able to do that, it stands to reason that the shift to Web3 will be damaging for some businesses.

Examples of Web3 in Practice

While worldwide Web3 implementation is not here yet, there are full-fledged ventures that exist on the Blockchain. You might even have heard about some of these. The most popular examples of Web3 are:

1. Bitcoin

Perhaps the most heard of example on this list, Bitcoin is a digital currency that has risen in ranks and defined cryptocurrency. Bitcoin itself is based on the blockchain and is decentralized. If you’ve done even a little research on crypto, you must already have seen the effect BTC has had in the cryptocurrency market and even the Metaverse.

2. OpenSea

One of the most famous websites in the crypto community, OpenSea (visit) is an online marketplace that is dedicated to the sale and purchase of Non-Fungible-Tokens (NFTs). If that’s hard to understand then just think of OpenSea as a big Amazon or eBay for digital collectibles. Users can sort across an innumerable number of collections and purchase NFTs they believe are suited to them. OpenSea itself is built on the Ethereum Blockchain and continues to be extremely popular among the digital community.

3. diaspora What Do You Think About Web3?

Average Check: What It Is And How To Increase It?

The Concept of “Average Check”

In fact, it is the amount by which a customer buys goods or services from you at a time. You can determine the average check of the whole business, and you can use a separate group of goods, branches, or departments of the enterprise. Of course, this requires appropriate financial accounting.

How to Calculate?

The average check per day = earnings per day/number of checks per day.

You can also calculate the average check for a week or a month. However, a one-time calculation does not give an understanding of the state of affairs, it is necessary to analyze the dynamics of the average check. By tracking how this figure changes over the months, you will see seasonality and other factors that affect sales.

Why Do You Need This Indicator?

The average check shows the state of your business. Both on its own and with other indicators, it provides answers to many questions, including:

how solvent your client is;

do you have a sufficient range of goods;

whether the system and sales managers work well;

whether the action you are conducting is effective;

the period of high and low sales season;

from what amount customers should be given discounts or bonuses;

which group of goods or services do customers buy the most.

Here are the top 5 effective ways to increase the average check:

cross-selling + up-selling;

implementation of a loyalty program;

determination of the threshold for free delivery of goods;

formation of sets of goods or services (bundles);

introduction of discount coupons for a limited time.

Cross-selling and Up-selling

It is better to combine these two methods into one category.

Up-selling is an offer to the buyer of a more expensive, refined, the premium analog of a product or service. For example, a more modern model, a well-known brand, a new trendy service, or a dish made of organic products. This method is appropriate if you have a range of goods or services with a wide range of prices.

Cross-selling involves cross-selling when the customer is offered related products and services during the purchase. This method is suitable for any business: online and offline applies to both goods and services. Of course, the range should include these related products.

Most businesses use cross-sell technology. You buy a product, and you are immediately offered to buy something auxiliary to it. A classic example: the phone offers a case, headphones, protective glass, and a power bank. In this case, we do not sell something that a person does not need but help him protect his new phone, conveniently listen to music, and charge it on the go. This is the most organic way to increase the average check.

What Is Pizzagpt And How Does It Work

In light of recent privacy concerns, OpenAI has restricted access to ChatGPT in Italy. This has left many businesses and individuals in search of a reliable alternative for language processing. Fortunately, there is a solution: PizzaGPT. This alternative AI language model uses the same APIs as ChatGPT, but with one key difference – it does not record any user data. In this article, we will explore what PizzaGPT is, how it compares to ChatGPT, and why it could be the perfect solution for those looking for a secure and privacy-conscious language model.

ChatGPT was banned in Italy due to concerns raised by the Privacy Guarantor. However, the internet quickly organized itself and created its own version of the popular OpenAI chatbot in just a few days. This resulted in the birth of PizzaGPT, an unofficial clone created as an attempt to bypass the ChatGPT block in Italy.

PizzaGPT is an AI language model that has been gaining popularity as a secure and privacy-conscious alternative to ChatGPT. Developed by a team of experienced software developers, PizzaGPT offers all the benefits of ChatGPT, with the bonus of not recording any user data.

Unlike ChatGPT, which is owned and operated by OpenAI, PizzaGPT is a completely independent project that is not affiliated with any particular company or organization. This means that users can rest assured that their data will never be shared or used for any purpose other than improving the performance of the language model itself.

Also read: Why Italy banned ChatGPT?

PizzaGPT is a chatbot that serves as an alternative to ChatGPT, created by an Italian resident abroad. The founder of PizzaGPT created the chatbot in response to ChatGPT’s blockage in Italy. According to a post on Y Combinator, the founder explained the motivation behind PizzaGPT: “I think that artificial intelligence is a revolutionary tool that should be available to everyone, just like the Internet has been.”

PizzaGPT was an idea conceived by an Italian user who lives abroad. The chatbot uses Nuxt 3, Tailwind, and DaisyUI and relies on OpenAI’s turbo-3.5 model API for chat and interface. In simpler terms, PizzaGPT’s answers are expected to be similar to ChatGPT’s, although its aesthetics appear more rudimentary, like a homemade pizza.

Currently, Bing Chat, the Microsoft Bing AI based on GPT 4, remains accessible and is arguably the best conversational artificial intelligence available online.

— Sam Altman (@sama) March 31, 2023

PizzaGPT uses OpenAI’s turbo-3.5 model API, similar to ChatGPT. The chatbot’s graphics are simple and schematic, similar to those of ChatGPT. However, since the website was created in a couple of hours, it is full of bugs and potential improvements. The founder mentioned the goal was to launch something quickly.

PizzaGPT is accessible from any device with an internet connection. Users can access it by visiting the website and typing in their message. The chatbot processes the message and provides a response, similar to ChatGPT. As of now, it is not clear what the future of the platform will be.

In terms of performance, PizzaGPT is on par with ChatGPT. Both language models use the same APIs and algorithms to generate high-quality, natural-sounding text. The only difference is that PizzaGPT does not collect any user data, which makes it a more secure and privacy-conscious option.

In addition, PizzaGPT has a number of features that set it apart from ChatGPT. For example, PizzaGPT offers faster response times and more accurate predictions, thanks to its state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms. It also has a wider range of language options and can generate text in multiple languages, making it a versatile tool for businesses and individuals alike.

If you’re looking for a reliable and secure language model, then PizzaGPT is definitely worth considering. Here are just a few reasons why:

Privacy – Unlike ChatGPT, PizzaGPT does not record any user data, which means that your privacy is always protected.

Versatility – PizzaGPT offers a wide range of language options and can generate text in multiple languages, making it a versatile tool for businesses and individuals alike.

Speed – PizzaGPT offers faster response times than ChatGPT, which means that you can get the results you need more quickly.

Ease of Use – PizzaGPT is easy to use and requires no technical expertise, making it accessible to anyone who needs to generate high-quality text.

It is still uncertain whether ChatGPT will become available again. OpenAI, the chatbot’s parent company, issued an indefinite block on ChatGPT after the Privacy Guarantor temporarily suspended the AI. Sam Altman, the founder of OpenAI, stated in a tweet that the move was a preventive measure and that ChatGPT complies with all user privacy laws. Altman also assured that OpenAI will collaborate with the Italian government to resolve the issue soon.

In conclusion, PizzaGPT is an alternative chatbot to ChatGPT, created to allow Italian residents to access artificial intelligence technology. The software uses OpenAI’s turbo-3.5 model API and has similar responses and graphics to ChatGPT. However, since the website was created in a couple of hours, there are bugs and potential improvements. The future of the platform is still unclear, but it serves as an innovative solution to the blockage of ChatGPT in Italy.

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What Is Substack And How Does It Work?

“What is Substack” is a question with a deceptively simple answer. Yes, it’s an email newsletter platform. But it’s also much more than that.

The social media sphere is chock full of jargon and buzzwords, so much so that it can be hard to keep track of them all. It’s enough to keep track of Wordle, NFTs and the metaverse, but what is a Substack?

Resisting the urge to make a joke about a pile of sandwiches, we’ll tell you that Substack is a major game-changer in the world of online publishing. In fact, it’s the biggest disruption to journalism, personal writing and thought leadership since the blog boom of the 2000s. And it might just be the missing piece in your social media marketing plan.

Read on to learn everything you need to know about Substack, and whether or not it’s the right choice for your brand.

Bonus: Read the step-by-step social media strategy guide with pro tips on how to grow your social media presence.

What is Substack?

Substack is an email newsletter platform. Its simple interface and ability to publish (and monetize) posts on the web have made it a game changer for writers of any skill level.

For journalists, the app is alluring because it doesn’t rely on editors or ad sales to get their message across. For thought leaders, it’s a great way to jot down some thoughts and deliver them directly to their pupils. For new writers, it’s a great way to build a portfolio while finding an audience, however niche the topic might be. For creators, it’s a great way to monetize the loyal following you’ve built on social media.

Substack is known for its hands-off approach to censorship. While there are still some publishing guidelines (no porn, hate speech or harassment, for example), the platform’s lack of gatekeeping has attracted both ground-breaking journalists and some seriously controversial writers.

In other words, the site is simply a tool to facilitate publishing for, well, anyone. And it’s working. There are over 1 million people paying for subscriptions to Substack publications each month.

How does Substack work?

But that’s not all — there’s also Substack for Podcasts, a relatively new tool that allows audio creators to publish and grow their podcasts. In early 2023, Substack also started beta testing a video player for creators, meaning the potential for content creation is only growing.

Once you get your Substack up and running (and more on that in a minute…), you’ll notice the simplicity of the interface. It really is a blank canvas, but people are doing amazing things with the platform.

Sure, traditional writers are the main draw of Substack, and you’ll find hundreds of media figures, journalists, thought leaders and, well, anyone else with a keyboard and something to say. Some major Substack players include Gawker’s Will Leitch, feminist journalist Roxane Gay and historian Heather Cox Richardson.

Authors Salman Rushdie and Chuck Palahniuk have used the platform to publish their new novels, while filmmaker and activist Michael Moore uses it to pontificate on politics.

Dig deeper, and you’ll find Substacks for any niche:

Beauty critic Jessica DeFino critiques the beauty industry with her newsletter The Unpublishable.

Cultural trends are forecasted and broken with Jonah Weiner and Erin Wylie’s immaculately designed Blackbird Spyplane.

And TrueHoop, one of the world’s longest running NBA podcasts, publishes its episodes through the platform.

Patti Smith also uses Substack’s audio feature to publish regular poetry readings.

Because of its simple interface, your Substack can be as straightforward or complicated as you’d like.

Source: Blackbird Spyplane

How to start a Substack

It’s incredibly easy to sign up and start posting on Substack. Follow these steps, and you’ll be publishing in minutes.

1. Define your niche

This is, of course, the first step for any endeavour on the web. Your work, topic of discussion or content type may evolve, but early planning will still be helpful before you start.

Are you going to be writing newsletters for beginner knitters? Lord of the Rings fans? Politics junkies?

Choose an audience and find out everything you can about their concerns, desires, reading habits, and more before you get started.

2. Sign up for an account

You can either use email or sign up with your Twitter account. Substack’s Twitter integration is great — it’s easy to link your contacts and you can even prominently feature your newsletter near your bio — so definitely choose that option if you have a large following on your Twitter account.

3. Set up your profile

Yes, the steps are this simple. This is the place where you confirm your email address and username. You’ll also want to upload a profile picture, which will be used on your page.

4. Create your publication

Name your publication, give a summary of what it’s about and confirm your URL. Here’s where you should flex your creativity (but don’t worry too much — you can always make changes later).

Make sure your summary is as short and descriptive as possible, as in the example below. People will be more likely to sign up if they know what they’re getting into — and they’re excited about it.

5. Subscribe to publications

If you’ve linked your Twitter and follow people who have Substacks, you can easily follow them here. This is a good idea for two reasons — it’ll get you started on a similar content path as the one you have on Twitter, and it will alert your mutuals that you’ve joined Substack.

6. Import your mailing list

If you’re coming to Substack from another service like Mailchimp, TinyLetter or Patreon, you can upload a CSV file and import your contacts.

7. Add subscribers

Here, you can manually add friends and family to your subscriber list as a way to build a subscriber base. It might seem tiny, but you’ve got to start somewhere. Consider signing up with a second personal email address too — then you can see your newsletter exactly as it looks to subscribers.

8. Create a post

Once you’ve signed up, you’ll be directed to the Dashboard, where you can create a New post, New thread or New episode. As you’ll see, the interface is incredibly straightforward. You’ll have no trouble writing, formatting and publishing your first post.

How to grow your Substack

Substack is, again, more of a tool than a social network. In that sense, you’ll have to brush off your marketing skills and promote your work the old-fashioned way.

Here are some tips:

Call to action Link up

Post your Substack on your homepage, social media sites, company email signatures or, well, anywhere else that will allow URLs. This will also help with search engine rankings so people can come across your Substack organically.

Get social

Perhaps the most obvious thing on the list, but it bears repeating: post your newsletters on social media. Break down your content in a Twitter thread, screencap key takeaways for Instagram or set up direct integration with Facebook.

Comment away Build partnerships

It doesn’t have to feel like marketing, even if it is. You can offer to guest post on other people’s Substacks, interview other creators on your own, ask relevant accounts on social media to share your publication or even pay for a sponsorship.

Substack did their own case study, following Ali Abouelatta and his blog First 1000.

Using a series of experiments, he gained over 20,000 subscribers in just three years. Ali achieved this growth through hard work, determination and a willingness to engage with his niche outside of the platform, marketing through Quora, Discord, WhatsApp and Slack.

Learn more with Substack’s video:

Is Substack free?

As a publisher, Substack is completely free. There are no costs associated with having an account, and you can publish text and audio without paying for storage.

Similarly, a large majority of Substack posts are free to read. It’s up to content creators whether or not to place their work behind a paywall. Typically, a user will have a mixture of free and premium content on their page.

A subscription to a paid Substack averages around $5 a month (although some of them go up to $50).

Fans can also subscribe as a Founding Member, which allows users to pay extra as a show of support. Substack describes it as being like a donation. An average of founding member payments is available in the chart below.

It’s through the subscription model that Substack makes their money, as they keep 10% of the subscription fees.

The company uses Stripe, which takes another 2.9% in fees, plus a 30-cent transaction fee per subscriber.

Source: Substack

How to make money on Substack

There’s really only one way to make money on Substack — selling subscriptions to your content. But Substack readers love to pay, so it’s not out of the ordinary to make money on the platform.

Some key things to remember:

Be Consistent. You want to convert your readers from being casuals to being fans. The best way to do that is to publish regularly and reliably. Consider publishing a free post on Thursdays and a paid post on Tuesdays. Find a schedule that works for you, and stick to it.

Be Interesting. It may be tempting to flood your feed with content, but it’s also important to make sure what you’re writing is actually good. And since Substack has no editors, that means it falls on you. Make sure you copy edit your work, and ask yourself questions like “If I was the one reading this, would I enjoy it?”

Stay Free. Even if your goal is to build a subscriber base, you should still make the majority of your content free. Substack readers aren’t necessarily looking to buy content — if they like you, they’ll throw money your way regardless of how much of your writing is free. Ideally, you won’t want to paywall any more than 50% of your content, and even that could be a stretch.

Learn more about how to make money on social media in our complete guide.

Is Substack worth it?

Thinking of Substack as a blank canvas, the platform will be worth it depending entirely on your brand, end-goal and skill set. If you’re looking for new avenues to market a product or service, you’d be better off expanding your strategy to include TikTok or Pinterest. But if you want to tell larger stories, engage in thought leadership and consistently commit to a writing practice, there’s no better option than publishing with Substack.

Bonus: Read the step-by-step social media strategy guide with pro tips on how to grow your social media presence.

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What Is A .Tbl File And How To Open It On Your Computer

What is a .tbl file and how to open it on your computer




To open a certain .tbl file on your computer you have to use suitable software.

A .tbl file is the shortened version of the word table and is a type of file often used as a generic table file.

If you have wondered how to open a .tbl file, Adobe’s tool can be used for the task.

TBL files can also be opened and processed with an app from the Office suite.

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Almost surprisingly, the .tbl file extension is fairly common. A large variety of programs use it. Despite its general ubiquity, you may still be curious about what information a TBL file contains.

As you might have guessed, TBL is a shortened version of the word table, and thus what we can say that it contains tabular data for programs to use.

This may confuse you a bit. Why would a program use a .tbl file instead of a database or database file?

TBL files can be more flexible and easier to work with than databases, especially if you’re working with a small set of data. They’re particularly great for handling and archiving directory list data.

While software like Adobe InDesign, Creo, FX AccuCharts, Chem3D Ultra, and AutoCAD Civil 3D can be used to create and access .tbl files, you can create and modify your own using Microsoft Excel.

Once the file is saved to your computer you can then convert it into a .tbl file by changing the extension. In gaming, .tbl files are used for creating mods.

Computer games usually save information in the form of XML and TBL files. These can be accessed and changed using a text editor or Excel.

How do I open a .tbl file on my computer? 1. Use Microsoft Excel 2. Use third-party programs

Use Adobe InDesign

Adobe InDesign is a professional layout program for print and digital content. Many of you have heard of it before as the ideal tool to create multicolumn pages with rich graphics, images, and tables.

Expert tip:

The authority of Adobe InDesign is being constantly challenged and it’s pretty much up for every single task, as difficult as it may seem.

If you are new to this program, then let us tell you that opening documents and template files requires minimum effort, .tbl files included.

This also applies to InDesign Markup (.idml) files, InDesign Interchange (.inx) files, and even QuarkXPress Passport 4.1 files.

⇒ Get Adobe InDesign

Use Autodesk Civil 3D

You may have noticed that a long list of CAD (computer-aided design) programs use .tbl files. An especially popular one is Autodesk Civil 3D.

If you can’t use Autodesk to open the file, then a good alternative is Microsoft Excel. If neither Autodesk Civil 3D nor Excel can open the file, then you can try using a text editor to open the text.

Be careful not to modify or change anything in your file, as this may stop some programs from working.

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