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If you like tech, there’s a decent chance that you’ve seen inside a computer at some point. You may identify some or all of the parts by sight. The inside of a laptop may well be another thing entirely. Unlike desktop computers, you don’t really get laptops with sizeable tempered glass or polycarbonate panels to let you see inside.

Most people don’t open up their laptops, though you should probably clean the fans occasionally. With how thin RAM is, you’d be forgiven for thinking that you could just fit a standard RAM DIMM in a laptop without needing any changes. That’s not the case, though. Internal volume is at a high premium in laptops. So they use a smaller form factor, SODIMM.

Physical Appearance

SODIMM stands for Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Module. As you might expect from the name, SODIMMs are smaller than DIMMs. According to the JEDEC standards, SODIMMs must be 30mm high and 3.8mm thick. SDR, DDR, DDR2, and DDR3 SODIMMs were 67.6mm wide. While DDR4 and DDR5 SODIMMs were 2mm wider at 69.6mm. The other measurements are similar compared to PC DIMMS, which are almost twice as wide at 133mm.

Like the DIMM form factor, no generation of SODIMM form factored RAM is compatible. This is because the form factor is essentially the only difference between DIMM and SODIMM. There aren’t any performance impacts beyond increased thermal constraints and physical capacity limits inherent to the smaller form factor.

To keep each generation of SODIMM distinct and prevent hardware damage caused by the different voltage requirements between generations, each generation of SODIMM RAM uses a different cut-out “key.” The key position between DDR and DDR2 SODIMM memory was very similar. Making them hard to tell apart outside direct side-by-side comparisons. Other generations of SODIMM RAM have more distinct key locations.

Like desktop DIMMs, SODIMMs have also increased the number of pins over time. SDR SODIMMs had 144 pins, while DDR and DDR2 used 200 pins. DDR3 upped the pin count to 204, while DDR4 increased that to 260 and DDR5 to 262. This further ensures electrical incompatibility between generations of SODIMM memory.

Where Are SODIMMs Used?

The small volume of the SODIMM form factor makes them ideal for use in computers with unusually constrained space. As you might have gathered from the intro, SODIMMs are primarily used in laptops. Not all laptops use SODIMM memory, though. As much as it is convenient for users that want the option to upgrade RAM in the future. It’s slightly more complex and expensive to implement than simply soldering the RAM chips directly onto the motherboard. Similar to what you would see on a mobile phone.

Some small form factor motherboards may use SODIMM slots rather than full DIMMs. The Nano-ITX motherboard standard also includes a SODIMM slot rather than a full-sized DIMM slot. Some upgradeable office printers, routers, and NASs may also use SODIMM slots. However, this would be compared to soldering the memory chips to the motherboard rather than using full-sized DIMMs.

Capacity Issues

The main issue, at least historically, with SODIMM has been the reduction in the physical capacity compared to full-sized DIMMs. Single DIMM and SODIMM memory capacities have obviously increased over time as memory density has increased. The sheer lack of space has typically meant that available capacities in SODIMM form factors have been around half that of full-sized DIMMs.

Capacity shouldn’t be an issue with modern hardware. It’s possible to get 32GB SODIMMs with DDR4 or DDR5 memory, which are not even costly. That allows for up to 64GB of RAM in a laptop with the standard two SODIMM slots, which should be more than enough for almost any task.

Thermal Issues

One of the most significant issues with small form factor computers, especially laptops, is thermal constraints. It can be difficult to dissipate heat from such a small area, especially with the limited airflow. To make it even worse for SODIMM memory. Laptops typically only allocate the required space, meaning there’s no room for a large heat sink like you find on full-size DIMMs.

This all makes it harder to cool the RAM. This hasn’t been a massive issue in the p. Still, thermal management will get more complex as RAM speeds increase and the power management moves onto the SODIMM with DDR5. This will likely mean SODIMMs working on the lower end of the JEDEC standardized speeds. However, most use cases will see only a minimal difference with RAM speed changes.

The main tools to manage SODIMM thermals are airflow and surface area. Airflow is down to laptop designers, but the RAM manufacturers do their best by applying thermally conductive stickers. These provide as much surface area as possible without meaningfully impacting the size to provide the best conditions for cooling.


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What Is Dual Band Wifi, Exactly? (Quickly Explained)

Do you know what’s confusing about wireless Internet? Everything.

If you’ve been researching wireless routers for home or wifi adapters for gaming, you’ve probably noticed that there is an abundance of terminology — PCIe, USB 3.0, 802.11ac, Ghz, WPS, Mbps, MBps (those last two are different). Bewildered yet?

One of the most common terms that you might notice with any of these devices is “dual-band.” While some older equipment may not feature this option, most modern network routers and adapters provide dual-band capability. In today’s computing environment, it’s almost a necessity for your wifi devices.

So what is dual band wifi? Let’s take a closer look at what it is, how and why it’s used, and why it’s vital. You may already know more about it than you think.

What Does Dual-band Mean?

Dual-band — it sounds really cool, and all the new products are touting it. So, what does it mean? We’re not talking about rock bands, rubber bands, or even a band of merry men. What we’re talking about are frequency bands.

To better understand the meaning of dual-band, let’s first examine what the term band refers to and what it has to do with wifi. Remember, the band part of dual-band refers to a frequency band. A frequency band is what wireless devices use to communicate with each other.

Wifi is technically a radio signal. That’s all it is, really — radio. It’s transmitted just like other radio signals — hand-held radios, cordless phones, cell phones, baby monitors, over-the-air television, local radio stations, ham radios, satellite tv, and many other types of wireless transmission.

All these different types of signals are transmitted on different frequencies or groups of frequencies. These groups of frequencies are referred to as bands.

The bands shown in the image above are then broken down further into smaller sub-bands. They’re each reserved for specific uses. Take a look at the picture again — the parts marked VLF, LF, MF, HF, etc. — those are bands.

Notice that UHF (300MHz – 3GHz) and SHF (3GHz – 30GHz) both have wifi listed. Each sub-band is then divided into channels… but we won’t dive any deeper than that here. You might be starting to get the picture now of what dual-band is referring to.

You see that wifi sits in both the UHF and the SHF bands, and you may wonder why. This is because the original technology developed for computer wifi was designed in the 2.4GHz sub-band of the UHF band.

If you haven’t already figured it out, dual-band means that the wireless device can use either the 2.4GHz or the 5GHz frequencies. Dual-band routers are capable of providing networks on both bands at the same time. In other words, if you have a dual-band router in your house, you will be able to have two separate networks — one on each band.

The wifi adapter that your computer, phone, or tablet use will only connect to one of those networks at a time. If that adapter is dual-band, it can communicate on either 2.4GHz or 5GHz. However, it can’t communicate on both at the same time.

Why not just use 5GHz? Great question.

Why Do We Need 2.4GHz?

If routers can broadcast on both bands, but our devices can only talk to them one at a time, what is the purpose of having dual-band? As technology stands today, there are at least three important reasons that we need dual-band capability. We’ll take a brief look at them here.

Backward Compatibility

The primary reason that we want to have devices that are dual-band capable is for backward compatibility. If you set up a router in your home, there is a good chance one or more of your devices can only work on 2.4GHz. If not, you might have guests in your home with devices that are only capable of using 2.4GHz. There are still plenty of older networks out there that only have 2.4GHz available.

Crowded Bands

An abundance of wireless devices may cause overcrowding on either frequency location. The 2.4GHz band is also used by other radio devices like cordless landline phones, baby monitors, and intercom systems. The 5GHz group can also get overcrowded with desktop computers, laptops, phones, game systems, video streaming systems, and so on.

In addition, your neighbors may have network routers that are close enough to interfere with your signals. Overcrowding causes interference, which slows down networks, sometimes causing signals to be intermittently dropped. In short, it might create an unreliable network. Having dual-band allows you to spread your usage out if needed.

Band Advantages

So, having both bands available allows you to choose the one that works best for your environment. If you’re connecting from a basement, for instance, and it’s far away from the router, 2.4GHz may work better for you.

If you are in the same room as the router, 5GHz will give you a fast and reliable connection. In any case, dual-band gives you the option to select the one that will work the best for your particular device.

Final Words

Hopefully, this helped you understand what dual-band wifi is, what it is used for, and why it can be an important feature for any wireless hardware.

Via Eden X2 Cpu Is Most Frugal Dual

VIA has outed its latest CPU, the VIA Eden X2, a dual-core 64-bit chip intended for fanless systems. The company claims the Eden X2 sips the least power of any dual-core x86 processor around, and throws in an integrated AES Security Engine for data security.

Two VIA Eden cores are used, in a package that’s actually the same size as the company’s existing single-core processors for pin-for-pin compatibility. While VIA is targeting embedded devices, we could certainly see the Eden X2 finding a space in a Google TV set-top box, bypassing the work needed to port the OS to ARM chips and offering a lower-power alternative to Intel’s Atom.

Press Release:

VIA Eden X2 Unveiled at Embedded Word 2011, World’s Most Power-Efficient Dual Core Processor

VIA Eden X2 processors bring unrivalled power efficiency and fanless stability to embedded markets without compromising on performance

Taipei, Taiwan, 1 March, 2011 – VIA Technologies, Inc, a leading innovator of power efficient x86 processor platforms, today announced the new VIA Eden X2 processor, the industry’s lowest power dual-core processor, optimized for fanless implementation in a broad range of industrial and commercial embedded systems. VIA Eden X2 will debut at Embedded World 2011, Nuremberg, Hall 12, Booth No. 574

VIA Eden X2 processors combine VIA’s signature ‘Eden’ fanless design principles, in a highly optimized, power-efficient dual-core architecture. This guarantees rock-solid stability for mission critical embedded systems without compromising on performance or features. With a component longevity guarantee of 7 years, VIA Eden X2 processors are guaranteed to extend the reach of fanless system design for years to come.

“Eden X2 shows how once again VIA is setting the pace when it comes to highly optimized, power-efficient processing,” said Daniel Wu, Vice President, VIA Embedded Platform Division, VIA Technologies, Inc. “Embedded developers will relish the opportunity to integrate a native 64-bit, dual-core processor in passively cooled, ultra stable systems.”

VIA Eden X2 – Dual-Core Processing on a Fanless Power Budget

Leveraging the latest 40nm manufacturing process, VIA Eden X2 processors combine two 64-bit, superscalar VIA Eden cores on one die, offering enhanced multi-tasking and superb multimedia performance on a rigidly low power budget. VIA Eden X2 processors are the most power-efficient processors on the market, designed to offer the ideal solution for fanless system design.

VIA Eden X2 processors bring additional features that include VIA VT virtualization, a technology that allows legacy software and applications to be used in virtual scenarios without impacting on performance. The unique VIA AES Security Engine offers hardware-based data encryption on the fly, and essential tool in content protection and system security.

VIA Eden X2 processors are natively 64-bit compatible, facilitating an essential transition for the future of the embedded industry as 64-bit operating systems such as Windows® Embedded Standard 7 allow for vastly improved data throughput per clock cycle. This makes it easier to manipulate large data sets and improves overall performance. VIA Eden X2 processors are also fully compatible with Windows CE and Linux operating systems.

VIA Eden X2 processors are based on the latest 40nm manufacturing process using a VIA NanoBGA2 package of 21mm x 21mm with a die size of 11mm x 6mm. All VIA Eden X2 processors and are fully pin-to-pin compatible with VIA Eden, VIA C7 and VIA Nano E-Series processors.

Product Highlights

l Industry-leading power-efficient architecture

l 7 year longevity guarantee

l Advanced multi-core processing

l Native support for 64-bit operating systems

l High-performance superscalar processing

l Out-of-order x86 architecture

l Most efficient speculative floating point algorithm

l Full processor virtualization support

l Advanced power and thermal management

l VIA AES hardware security features

l Pin-to-pin compatibility with VIA processors range

VIA Eden X2 Processors are sampling now to project customers. Systems and boards featuring the VIA Eden X2 will be available in Q2 2011.

For information about VIA Eden X2 processors, please visit:

Create Dual Axis Charts In Tableau

Note: If you are more interested in learning concepts in an Audio-Visual format, we have this entire article explained in the video below:


Tableau is the gold standard for Business Analytics and Data Visualization tools in the industry

Learn how to make a Dual axis Chart in Tableau


Data visualization is a key aspect of any analytics profession. It communicates a data story in a simplistic, yet aesthetically pleasing and impactful manner. According to Vitaly Friedman, the “main goal of data visualization is to communicate information clearly and effectively through graphical means”.

And there’s no better tool than Tableau for achieving this! Tableau is one of the most trusted tools by the community. It has been recognized as a Leader in the Gartner Magic Quadrant for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms for 8 years in a row. That’s incredible!

In this article, we are going to see how to create the most desirable and useful dual axis charts.


For the article and task make sure you have tableau installed in your system. I am using Tableau Public, which you can download for free. The data we’ll be using is the US sample superstore dataset widely used in the Tableau community. Here is the link to download the Superstore dataset (but the dataset will be available for you inside Tableau itself).

Let’s get into it!

Create Dual Axis Charts

A dual axis chart is used to present the relationship between two variables. More specifically, these charts are useful for demonstrating the relationship between two or more measures with different amplitude and scale. The dual axis charts help in presenting plenty of information in the limited space present on your dashboard and also allows you to understand the trends, you may have missed otherwise.

For example, in our US Super Store dataset, we have the Profit and Sales measures. These two measures have different magnitude and scale. Let’s directly dive into the implementation in a stepwise manner.

Here, for our visualization, we are going to use three attributes Sub-Category from the dimensions and two measures i.e. Profit and Sales.

Open a new worksheet and add the Sub-category from the dimension pane to the Columns shelf.

Now pick Sales from the Measures pane and drop in the Row shelf below the Sub-Category. Similarly, Select Profit measure and drop next to the Sales in Row shelf. After this step, your visualization will look as shown in the image below.

Hereafter, you will have a drop-down menu just select the Dual axis option from that.

Once you select the Dual axis boom! your visualization changes completely. Like this

Here is the result you have your Dual axis chart with synchronized axes.

To make it more interesting you can further play around with it. Like changing the shape of Sales from Automatic to bar in the markets card or changing the respective colors, adding borders.

Similarly, you can go to Profit and change its shape to a line. Your final visualization will look like this. Interesting right!


To summarize, in this article we learn how to create a dual axis chart, put together multiple measures, and visualize the insights hidden deeper in the data. A Tableau is an exciting tool that allows users to apply their creativity and play around with magnificent visualizations.

In case you are interested to learn more about visualization and Tableau, I will recommend you to go through our course Tableau for Beginners.


What Is The Tcp Protocol In Computer Network?

TCP represents Transmission Control Protocol. It is a transport layer protocol that facilitates the transmission of packets from source to destination. It is a connectionoriented protocol that defines it creates the connection before the communication that appears between the computing devices in a network.

TCP organizes information so that it can be sent between a server and a user. It maintains the integrity of the information being communicated over a network. Before it sends data, TCP creates a connection between a source and its destination, which it provides remains live until communication starts. It then divides huge amounts of information into smaller packets, while providing data integrity is established throughout the process.

TCP can send data from high-level protocols that require all information to arrive. These contain peer-to-peer sharing protocols such as File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Secure Shell (SSH), and Telnet. It can send and receive email through Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP), Post Office Protocol (POP), and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and for internet creation through the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

The TCP application in the network protocol stack of the operating framework is responsible for creating and removing the end-to-end connections and transferring information. The TCP application is contained by multiple network applications, including web browsers or servers, via particular interfaces. Each connection should continually be recognized by two represented endpoints (client and server).

Each packet contains the 32-bit sequence number. These numbers are used for both acknowledgement and window mechanism. This data is exchanged in the byte units called a segment. A segment consists of fixed 20 bytes plus followed by zero or more data bytes.

Segment Size

The TCP software decides the segment size. In this, some restrictions are put on the segment size as follows −

Each segment involving the TCP header must fit in the 65525 byte IP payload.

Each segment must fit in the maximum transfer unit (MTU). Each network has a maximum transfer unit (MTU).


If a segment becomes too large, then it is broken into small fragments. On each fragmentation done by a router, then to each fragment, a new IP header is appended. Therefore, the fragmentation increases the overhead.


The basic protocol used by TCP entities is the sliding window protocol. A sender starts a timer as soon as a sender transmits a segment where the destination receives the segment. It sends back acknowledgement along with data, if any. The acknowledgement number is equal to the following sequence number it expects to receive. If the sender’s timer goes out before the acknowledgement is received, then the sender will send the unacknowledged packet again.

Problems Related to TCP Timer Window Protocol

As the segments can be fragmented, a port of the transmitted segment can reach the destination, while maybe lost the remaining part or segments arrive out of order. Sometimes segments get delayed so much that the timer is out, and retransmissions take place.

In retransmitted segments, they can take a different route than the original segment. Then fragments of the initial segment & retransmitted segments both can sporadically reach the destination. So a careful administration technique is required to achieve a reliable byte stream. There is a possibility of congestion along the path.

What Is Close Cursors At Commit In Jdbc

CLOSE_CURSORS_AT_COMMIT is the constant value of the ResultSet interface representing the holdability value. If the ResultSet holdability is set to this value whenever you commit/save a transaction using the commit() method of the Connection interface, the ResultSet objects created in the current transaction (that are already opened) will be closed.

Let us create a table with name MyPlayers in MySQL database using CREATE statement as shown below −

CREATE TABLE MyPlayers(    ID INT,    First_Name VARCHAR(255),    Last_Name VARCHAR(255),    Date_Of_Birth date,    Place_Of_Birth VARCHAR(255),    Country VARCHAR(255),    PRIMARY KEY (ID) );

Now, we will insert 7 records in MyPlayers table using INSERT statements −

insert into MyPlayers values(1, 'Shikhar', 'Dhawan', DATE('1981-12-05'), 'Delhi', 'India'); insert into MyPlayers values(2, 'Jonathan', 'Trott', DATE('1981-04-22'), 'CapeTown', 'SouthAfrica'); insert into MyPlayers values(3, 'Kumara', 'Sangakkara', DATE('1977-10-27'), 'Matale', 'Srilanka'); insert into MyPlayers values(4, 'Virat', 'Kohli', DATE('1988-11-05'), 'Delhi', 'India'); insert into MyPlayers values(5, 'Rohit', 'Sharma', DATE('1987-04-30'), 'Nagpur', 'India'); insert into MyPlayers values(6, 'Ravindra', 'Jadeja', DATE('1988-12-06'), 'Nagpur', 'India'); insert into MyPlayers values(7, 'James', 'Anderson', DATE('1982-06-30'), 'Burnley', 'England');

Following JDBC program sets the holdability value to CLOSE_CURSORS_AT_COMMIT starts a transaction by disabling the auto-commit, retrieves the contents of a table named MyPlayers to a ResultSet object, inserts a new row into the result set (as well as the table) and commits the transaction.

After committing the transaction, you can verify whether the ResultSet object retrieved during the transaction is closed or, held open using the isClosed() method.

If you do so since we have set the ResultSet holdability to CLOSE_CURSORS_AT_COMMIT, you can find that the ResultSet object rs is closed after the transaction is saved/committed.

Example import java.sql.Connection; import java.sql.Date; import java.sql.DriverManager; import java.sql.ResultSet; import java.sql.SQLException; import java.sql.Statement; public class ResultSetHoldability_CloseCursorsAtCommit {    public static void main(String args[]) throws SQLException {             DriverManager.registerDriver(new com.mysql.jdbc.Driver());             String url = "jdbc:mysql://localhost/mydatabase";       Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection(url, "root", "password");       System.out.println("Connection established......");             con.setAutoCommit(false);             con.setHoldability(ResultSet.CLOSE_CURSORS_AT_COMMIT);             Statement stmt = con.createStatement(ResultSet.TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE, ResultSet.CONCUR_UPDATABLE);             ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery("select * from MyPlayers");       System.out.println("Contents of the table");       while( {          System.out.print("ID: "+rs.getString("ID")+", ");          System.out.print("First_Name: "+rs.getString("First_Name")+", ");          System.out.print("Last_Name: "+rs.getString("Last_Name"));          System.out.print("Date_Of_Birth: "+rs.getString("Date_Of_Birth")+", ");          System.out.print("Place_Of_Birth: "+rs.getString("Place_Of_Birth"));          System.out.print("Country: "+rs.getString("Country"));          System.out.println("");       }             rs.moveToInsertRow();       rs.updateInt(1, 8);       rs.updateString(2, "Ishant");       rs.updateString(3, "Sharma");       rs.updateDate(4, new Date(904694400000L));       rs.updateString(5, "Delhi");       rs.updateString(6, "India");       rs.insertRow();             boolean bool = rs.isClosed();       if(bool) {          System.out.println("ResultSet object is closed");       } else {          System.out.println("ResultSet object is open");       }    } } Output Connection established...... Contents of the table ID: 1, First_Name: Shikhar, Last_Name: DhawanDate_Of_Birth: 1981-12-05, Place_Of_Birth: DelhiCountry: India ID: 2, First_Name: Jonathan, Last_Name: TrottDate_Of_Birth: 1981-04-22, Place_Of_Birth: CapeTownCountry: SouthAfrica ID: 3, First_Name: Kumara, Last_Name: SangakkaraDate_Of_Birth: 1977-10-27, Place_Of_Birth: MataleCountry: Srilanka ID: 4, First_Name: Virat, Last_Name: KohliDate_Of_Birth: 1988-11-05, Place_Of_Birth: MumbaiCountry: India ID: 5, First_Name: Rohit, Last_Name: SharmaDate_Of_Birth: 1987-04-30, Place_Of_Birth: NagpurCountry: India ID: 6, First_Name: Ravindra, Last_Name: JadejaDate_Of_Birth: 1988-12-06, Place_Of_Birth: NagpurCountry: India ID: 7, First_Name: James, Last_Name: AndersonDate_Of_Birth: 1982-06-30, Place_Of_Birth: Burnley Country: England ResultSet object is closed

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