Trending March 2024 # What Is Boot Time Defrag In Windows Operating System? # Suggested April 2024 # Top 10 Popular

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Fragmentation of files can happen due to the multiple operations running simultaneously in your computer. This could lead to its slow processing and even generates random errors.

Users can perform defragmentation to improve the performance of their PC. It is definitely going to solve the issue. You can check this link to get information on manual defrag.

Coming to the topic ‘boot time defrag’, it is done before the computer actually boots up. In case your drives keeps feeling up automatically you can have a check in this post to fix the issue.. Let’s discuss it in detail here-

This is not going to fix the problem related to the slow processing of computers. It may gradually increase the problem.

This happens because some files normally get locked during the operating system boots up the process. If users can do boot-time defragmentation, it will not allow the Windows to lock these files.

It means you can now run defragmentation to make it 100% successful.

There are few different software to achieve the same and three of them are listed below. First two are free and the last one is paid software.

Defraggler has a feature to enable this process. Follow this procedure-

Open this desktop app

Go to ‘Defraggler’ main menu

Choose ‘Settings’ and select ‘Defraggler boot time defrag’

Here you will get three unique options to choose from. It facilitates you to ‘Disable’ this option, ‘Run Once’ and ‘Run Every Time’ options.

Once done, it will ask you to reboot your PC. You can either choose ‘Yes’ to reboot it now or select ‘No’ to do a manual restart.

Upon the next reboot process, the chosen function will be turned on.

IObit is another free tool available online and worth installing on to your computer. It has an option to enable the discussed function.

Follow these steps-

Open ‘Smart Defrag’

Select ‘Boot-Time-Defrag’ tab

Choose C: Drive and tick on the settings

It will ask you to choose ‘Only next boot’, ‘Everyday first boot’, ‘Every boot’ and ‘Every 7-day first boot’.

PerfectDisk is a paid desktop app which also offers a 30-day free trial for the users. The process of enabling the boot-time feature is similar to above-explained methods.

The only thing which makes it different is that PerfectDisk can defrag Master File Table (MFT). It is a system file stored in the drive.

Reports suggest that it provides improved results and smoother running of computers. And, the best thing is that it will virtually remove any conflicts related to drives and ensures greater performance.

Many users find it an unhealthy task and prefer antivirus scanning to remove corrupted and error files from the computer.

Since it requires only 30 – 40 seconds completing the process, it is worth to do so.

Once done, you need to restart the computer. Also, the installation of apps such as CCleaner is going to remove junk files and helps in maintaining the performance.


After boot time feature is enabled, you need to defragment the drive again. Here you may find ‘Reserved Partition’ and it occupies a little space in the PC nearly 100MB or more.


Hopefully, you have understood the reason why there is a need for boot-time defrag and many users prefer it. Now, it is your time to enable this feature on to your computer.

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10 Best Operating System (Os) For Hacking In 2023

Ethical hacking is identifying weaknesses in computer systems or networks to exploit its vulnerabilities so they can be fixed later. Hackers use various techniques to identify threats and thereby increase the security of the device. These people can utilize Linux based operating system to hack PC or network. It contains a wide range of applications to prevent cybersecurity attacks.

Following is a handpicked list of Top OS for Hacking with their popular features and download links.

BEST OS for Hacking: Top Picks 1) Kali Linux

Kali Linux is a Security Distribution of Linux specifically designed for digital forensics and penetration testing. It is one of the best hacking OS which has over 600 preinstalled penetration-testing applications (cyber-attack performs against computer vulnerability). This OS can be run on Windows as well as Mac OS.

It can be used for penetration testing.

This platform is available in 32 bits as well as 64 bits.

Kali Linux can be updated without the need to download a new version.

This OS can encrypt the full disk.

You can easily automate and customize the Kali Linux installation on the network.

Support for USB live installs.

It has a forensics mode that can be used for forensic work.

2) Parrot OS

Parrot OS is a platform for hacking. It has an easy to use editor for software development. This platform enables you to surf the web privately and securely. Hackers can use Parrot OS to perform vulnerability assessment, penetration testing, computer forensics, and more.

It is available as lightweight software that runs with limited resources.

You can read and change the source code the way you like.

Provides support of experts to help you in cybersecurity.

This hacking OS has distributed infrastructure with dedicated CDNs (Content Distribution Network).

You can share this operating system with others.

3) BackBox

BackBox is an Ubuntu based open-source Operating System that offers a penetration test and security assessment facility. This system also provides a network analysis toolkit for security in the IT environment. It contains a toolkit that is needed for ethical hacking.

It helps you with computer forensic analysis, vulnerability assessment, etc.

Design with accuracy to avoid redundancies.

It consumes the minimum resource of your system.

This hacking operating system provides easy to use desktop environment.

Enables you to simulate an attack on application or network.

It offers stability and speed.

4) BlackArch

BlackArch is a free Linux based platform that contains a wide range of tools for automation, mobile, networking, etc. It is an open-source Operating System that is specially created for security researchers and penetration testers. You can install it individually or in a group.

It offers live ISO (International Organization for Standardization) with multiple window managers.

This operating system can be run using limited resources.

Supports more than one architecture.

The installer can be built from the source.

5) Fedora Security Lab

Fedora Security environment enables you to work on security auditing, forensics, and hacking. It comes with a clean and fast desktop environment. This OS contains essential networking tools like Wireshark, Medusa, Sqlninja, Yersinia, and more. Fedora Security environment makes pen-testing and security testing simple.

It has a customized menu that offers all the instructions needed to follow the right test path.

This tool can make Live USB creator (a full operating system that can be booted)

You can save your test result permanently.

It creates a live image to make it possible to install software while running.

6) Dracos Linux

Dracos Linux is an open-source OS that offers penetration testing. It is packed with a wide range of tools, like forensics, information gathering, malware analysis, and more.

Everyone can use this platform to study, modify, and redistribute.

Dracos Linux is a fast OS to perform malware analysis.

This hacker OS does not collect your sensitive personal data.

It makes it easy for ethical hackers to perform security research.


CAINE is an Ubuntu-based app that offers a complete forensic environment that provides a graphical interface. This operating system can be integrated into existing software tools as a module. It is one of the best operating system for hacking that automatically extracts a timeline from RAM.

It is an open-source project.

CAINE blocks all the devices in read-only mode.

You can integrate this OS into existing software.

An environment supports the digital investigator during the digital investigation.

You can customize features of CAINE.

It offers a user-friendly operating system.

8) Samurai Web Testing Framework

Samurai Web Testing Framework is a virtual machine that is supported on VMWare (cloud computing software) VirtualBox (virtualization product). This live Linux environment is configured to perform web pen-testing. It contains various tools for attacking websites.

It is an open-source project

Samurai Web Testing Framework focuses on attacking websites.

It is pre-configured for a web pen-testing environment.

Features that can be used for focusing on attacking the website.

It contains tools like WebScarab (web security application testing tool) and ratproxy (Web proxy server) tool.

9) Network Security Toolkit (NST)

Network Security Toolkit (NST) is a Linux-based Live USB/DVD flash drive. It offers free and open-source network and computer security tools that can be used for hacking. This distribution is used by hackers to perform routine security and network traffic monitoring task.

You can easily access open-source network security applications.

It has easy to use WUI (Web User Interface).

Network Security Toolkit can be used as a network security analysis validation.

It contains monitoring on a virtual server having virtual machines.

10) DemonLinux

DemonLinux is a Linux distribution that is used for hacking. It has a lightweight desktop environment. This platform comes with a dark theme and a user-friendly user interface. DemonLinux helps you to search or open anything by pressing just one key.

You can instantly search the needed things by pressing the Windows key.

It has a simple dock design (a bar located at the bottom of the OS).

Works with Firefox and Google Chrome.

Easily record desktop or take a screenshot using a quick access menu to save time.

11) ArchStrike

ArchStrike is an OS that can be used for security professionals and researchers. It follows Arch Linux OS standards to maintain packages properly. This environment can be used for pen testing and security layer. You can easily install or remove it without any problem.

It gives two selection of major view packages and all tracked packages.

This environment includes open source applications for investigation.

It has a hardware detection facility.

FAQs 💻 Which OS are Best for Hacking?

Below is a list of the best OS for hacking:

Kali Linux

Parrot OS


Fedora Security Lab


Samurai Web Testing Framework



What Should Be The Frequency Of System Restore Points In Windows 11/10?

System Restore Points have been present since Windows XP, as far as I can recall. I don’t remember if Windows 98 or Windows 2000 had the option. Speaking of system restore points, they are just a bit over a screenshot of your system drive. They capture the resident program, their settings, and Windows Registry as an image and back up a few things that are necessary to reconstruct the system drive to the point if you opt to go back.

Difference between System Backup & System Restore Point

Backing up the system and creating a system restore point are two different things – like day and night. When you back up your computer – say only the system drive – you are literally copying all the data from the system drive to a location other than the system drive. I have never heard of anyone creating a backup of a system drive on the system drive itself. That spoils the very purpose of system backup.

The purpose of system backup is to create another set of files that you can use in case the original ones are damaged. These files can be program files only or may include your data files also. That depends upon how you configure your system backup program. You may also manually back up your files using XCOPY command. We’ll talk about manual backup in a separate article.

When you create a system restore point, Windows just takes a snapshot of programs and settings related to the operating system. In Windows 7, it employs the Volume Shadow Copy service that allows it to compress the snap into a very small file – thus allowing you to create as many restore points as you want.

Ideally, 1GB should suffice for storing restore points. At 1GB, Windows can easily store over 10 restore points on a computer. Also, when you create a system restore point, Windows does not include your data files. For example, if you delete your music files and want them back, you will have to use some file recovery program. System restore cannot bring them back.

A System Restore will affect your system files, programs, and registry settings. It can also make changes to scripts, batch files, and other types of executable files on your Windows computer. So any changes which have been made to these files will be reversed. You can read more here: Find out programs & files which will be affected after System Restore.

Read: How to configure System Restore Space and set System Restore Intervals.

Frequency Of System Restore Points

Frankly speaking, there is no specific set of rules for the frequency of creating a system restore point manually. It completely depends on how a person uses his or her computer. You must – however – create system restore points:

Before installing any program;

Before making changes to the Windows Registry (includes registry clean up using third party programs);

Before cleaning Junk files in an aggressive mode as some programs store their information in the user profiles and if such files go missing, the computer/program may not act stable; However, restore is not always guaranteed in this case;

Allowing any website to perform any specific task on your computer – such as allowing a website to check your system for errors and correcting them;

In most cases, Windows will create a system restore point automatically periodically by default. Windows also creates a system restore point when it detects a major change happening to your system – like when you are installing Windows Updates, Drivers or at times Software.

It is up to you to decide the frequency of creating a system restore point. If you use the computer only for certain office work and/or desktop publishing, the frequency can be less.

If you are among the people who play plenty of games – different games in real-time with others on the Internet, the frequency of creating restore points should be more. Games tend to change settings – especially the ones related to graphics and sound.

If a game doesn’t reverse settings to what they were prior to loading the game, you will need a system restore point created before you started playing games. That does not mean you should be creating a restore point every time before you start a game. But the frequency could be something that keeps your graphics and audio settings intact in case some game goes wrong.

Then there are people who love to experiment with different programs: whether already existing on the computer or installing new ones. I, for example, keep on changing the settings in almost every session. Basically, they would be services, audio and other administrative tools including manual registry editing.

In my case, I create a restore point at every boot. Since using the Graphical User Interface (GUI) version of a system restore point causes delay – keeping me waiting until it says the restore point is created – I use a script that creates a restore point silently in the background. I will share the process of creating manual restore points in my next post.

I hope this above explains the ideal frequency of a system restore points in Windows 11/10/8/7 as based on computer usage.

How To Fix ‘Bad System Config Info’ Error In Windows

Bad System Config Info is a common bug check error on Windows systems, caused mainly by a malfunctioning of the system and registry files or the Boot Configuration Data (BCD) file. Some boot order files in the BCD, or even some older ones, may conflict with newer, stable files. When this happens, the error otherwise known as the Blue Screen of Death (BSoD) occurs.

The bug check error can also be caused by:

faulty hardware

incorrect system settings

a bad driver

installing an important update

However, most error messages will often have a description of what the problem may be. Below are some tried and tested solutions to help you fix a Bad System Config Info error in Windows 10 and 11.

1. Try Restarting Your Computer

There’s a reason that many IT people jokingly ask, “Have you tried turning it off and on again?” It’s because, in many cases, a simple restart can clear the issues your PC is having. Before you try anything else, give this suggestion a try.

If this error started occurring soon after a Windows update, then that probably is where your problem lies, and the solution should be simple: roll back the Windows update!

3. Check your RAM and Hard Drive

For some, it may seem daunting to look inside your PC and start twiddling around with the physical components. However, the health and fitting of your RAM and hard drive can be the cause of the bad system config info error.

Your RAM sticks will look a bit like this. Make sure they’re nice and snug in their slots

If you’re comfortable with opening up your PC, you can take a look inside to make sure that your RAM is correctly fitted into the slots and that your hard drive SATA cables are properly connected too.

These checks shouldn’t take more than a couple of minutes.

If you have more than one RAM stick, you could even remove the excess sticks so that only one is left, and see if the error goes away. If the error only appears when certain RAM sticks are slotted in, then it’s likely those sticks are causing the error, in which case you may need to run your PC on less RAM (and, down the line, look into buying new RAM).

Assuming your RAM and hard drive are properly fitted, you should then check on the health of your RAM and health of your hard drive, both of which we have guides for here on the site. If you get back bad results on either front, this could be causing the errors, and it may be time to look into replacing the relevant components.

Incompatible or outdated drivers are a source of several issues. The worst thing bad drivers can do is bring up BSoD errors, such as the Bad System Config Info.

To resolve this, followo the instructions below:

5. bcdedit Command

Quite often the Bad System Config Info error can appear when system configuration is incorrect or not configured properly. Additionally, the error will also appear if the memory and processors in the configuration file have the wrong value, preventing access to Windows 10 and Windows 11.

To resolve this, you’ll need to go to the Advanced Startup menu:

In the Troubleshoot window, select “Advanced Options.”

In the Advanced Options window, select “Command Prompt.”

Your computer will restart, then display the Command Prompt blue screen. You’ll be asked to select an account to continue. Press Enter, then type in your password for that account.

Enter the following lines once Command Prompt starts:







numproc bcdedit







Close Command Prompt.

Start Windows again.

6. Fix BCD file

If your BCD file is corrupt or damaged, the Bad System Config Info error may appear and deny you access to Safe Mode and Windows altogether.

To resolve this, you need your bootable USB flash drive with Windows or the installation DVD. You can also use the Media Creation Tool if you don’t have a bootable USB drive.

Here’s what to do next:

Enter the following lines when Command Prompt starts. (Press enter after each line to execute it.)



repairbcd bootrec


osscan bootrec



Close Command Prompt.

Restart your computer.

Note: the last command you enter will delete, then recreate Master Boot Records. Be careful using it.

7. Fix the Registry

There are specific registry issues that can bring up the error, but you can repair the registry to resolve it by following these steps:




C:WindowsSystem32configDEFAULT DEFAULT.old


C:WindowsSystem32configSAM SAM.old


C:WindowsSystem32configSECURITY SECURITY.old


C:WindowsSystem32configSOFTWARE SOFTWARE.old


C:WindowsSystem32configSYSTEM chúng tôi the folders of each of these commands are renamed as you press Enter, and once this is done, Windows won’t use them again. They can be deleted, but you’re better off renaming in case you need to do a system restore much later.

4. Enter the lines below into Command Prompt:


C:WindowsSystem32configRegBackDEFAULT C:WindowsSystem32config


C:WindowsSystem32configRegBackDEFAULT C:WindowsSystem32config


C:WindowsSystem32configRegBackSAM C:WindowsSystem32config


C:WindowsSystem32configRegBackSECURITY C:WindowsSystem32config


C:WindowsSystem32configRegBackSYSTEM C:WindowsSystem32config


C:WindowsSystem32configRegBackSOFTWARE C:WindowsSystem32config

This process copies the registry’s backup and replaces old files. Close Command Prompt and restart your PC.

8. System Restore

If the other methods don’t help, this may be one of your last two solutions to try. Note that you will not be able to use this method if you don’t have saved restore points to pull from. However, the system will let you know if you don’t. To perform a system restore, follow the steps below.

Move to the “System Protection” tab, then select “System Restore.”

9. Reset Windows 10/Windows 11

This is the last solution to try if none of the others worked. Before resetting, create a backup, as once you reset Windows, all files will be deleted from the C partition.

The reset should fix the problem if it was related to your PC’s software.

Frequently Asked Questions How can I find Windows Stop Codes like this and fix the errors?

There are third-party apps that can help you look for stop codes in your system’s programming. BlueScreenView is the most notable one.

How do I boot in Safe Mode?

Sometimes BSoD errors make it hard to perform any of the suggested fixes in this article. In that case, you can try booting in Safe Mode by holding down the F8 key while starting Windows. Then, switch to Safe Mode before the system finishes loading.

Can Windows automatically repair a Bad System Config error?

Anytime Windows has trouble booting properly, the Windows Automatic Repair tool will run as a way to fix the error. Unfortunately, this isn’t always a helpful solution for BSoD errors.

Image credit: Pexels Screencaps taken by Megan Glosson

Megan Glosson

Megan Glosson is a freelance technology writer based in Nashville, TN. She has extensive experience working with everything from printers to smart home systems, and serves as the go-to “tech guru” for a small business that sells digital products. Megan has created thousands of articles for online publications and company blogs, including How-To Geek, Clean Email, and Review Geek.

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Fix: System Thread Exception Not Handled In Windows 10/11

FIX: System Thread exception not handled in Windows 10/11




The system thread exception not handled in Windows 10 is a very common BSoD error.

It has many variations, such as the system thread exception not handled loop error.

Fixing it is fairly easy, as it can be done via a driver update, or by using recovery media.

Disabling your antivirus can also be a good

system thread exception not handled Windows 10 fix.



To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool

Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:

Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

Fortect has been downloaded by


readers this month.

One of the problems that bothered users of Windows 7 and Windows 8.x is still present in Windows 10. That problem is annoying BSOD caused when the system thread exception is not handled.

So, in this article, I’m going to give you a couple of solutions for fixing this problem. The most common cause of the ‘system thread exception not handled’ problem in Windows operating systems is an outdated graphics card driver.

This is especially the case in Windows 10 because we already know that some manufacturers still don’t have all necessary the drivers for their hardware so as to make them compatible with Windows 10.

So if you faced this issue only after the upgrade to Windows 10, it’s probably driver-related.

Another, less-common thing that could cause the BSOD because system thread exception is not handled is a conflict between two programs (probably an antivirus) or features. So we’re going to cover this case, as well.

This particular BSoD error has many variations, including:

system thread exception not handled installing windows 10 system

system_thread_exception_not_handled ffffffff`c0000005 stop code

system_thread_exception_not_handled msdn bugcheck

How do I fix system thread exception BSoDs? 1. Install the latest graphics drivers

Let’s talk about the most common cause of this problem, first, an outdated graphics driver. There are two possible scenarios for your computer.

First: BSOD appears, but you’re able to restart your computer and work for some time.

Second: BSOD appears, and even after you restart your computer, it’s still here.

If you’re facing the first scenario, things are lot simpler, you just need to uninstall your current driver and then install the latest version.

On the other hand, there’s always the option of using third-party tools that can help you with any driver issue, especially if you want things to be done fast.

Download and install the Outbyte Driver Updater app.

Launch the software and wait for the app to detect all incompatible drivers.

Now, it will show you a list of all faulty drivers to select the ones to Update or Ignore.

Restart your PC to ensure the applied changes.


Keep your GPU in a flawless state without worrying about possible driver issues.

Free trial Download now

Ensure your system performs smoothly and avoids all GPU driver errors by using a complete driver update assistant, namely Outbyte Driver Updater, that will do the job for you. Here’s how to safely update your drivers:Disclaimer: You may need to upgrade the app from the free version to perform specific actions.

2. Use Windows 10 Recovery Media

Expert tip:

If an outdated driver is a cause, one of these solutions will probably solve the problem. On the other hand, if the third-party software causes the problem, disabling it will probably solve the problem.

3. Disable third-party antivirus

As I said, a third-party program, most commonly an antivirus could have some sort of conflict with some other program or system feature.

So, just in case, disable your antivirus first, and replace it with Microsoft’s built-in Windows Defender.

Don’t worry, because Windows Defender is almost as powerful as some expensive, third-party antivirus. In my opinion, it is enough to keep your system safe.

Also, your antivirus may not be compatible with Windows 10, so before you decide to install the new antivirus on your computer, you should check the list of all antivirus programs that are compatible with Windows 10.

4. Use SFC Command Line

Hit Windows Key + X on your keyboard, select RUN and type in the dialog box CMD to open Command Prompt

In the box type in sfc /scannow and hit Enter key

Wait until the scan is complete

Restart your Windows 10 computer.

This command will scan your computer and if there are some errors, Windows 10 will automatically solve them.

By following these methods, you should be able to fix your Windows 10 PC and no longer encounter the Exception Thread BSoD error.

If you have any other Windows 10-related issues you can check for the solution in our Windows 10 Fix section.

Still experiencing issues?

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System & User Environment Variables In Windows 11/10 Explained

System and User Environment Variables has always been a complex topic of discussion for day-to-day Windows OS users. What do they do? A tutorial on the internet said to add a PATH variable, but what is it? Where do I find these variables? All of these questions will be shortly answered in this post. We’ve tried to give you a high-level overview of what System and User Environment Variables are and how you can utilize them.

In this post, we will discuss Environment Variables, System and User Environment Variables and how to add and modify them. Then we will move on to Dynamic System Variables and see how to use them in the command prompt.

What is an Environment Variable In Windows OS

Environment Variable is formed up by two separate words, ‘Environment’ and ‘Variable’. Let’s discuss ‘variable’ first. It means that the entity can store a value and vary from computer to computer. Windows provide an ‘Environment’ for applications to execute and perform operations and that is what makes the first word. Combining both, Environment Variables are those dynamic objects that store the values provided by the environment. Now environment provides values that help other programs in obtaining some crucial information about the system. Like there is an environment variable called ‘windir’ that corresponds to the directory where Windows is installed. To see this in action, open up an explorer window and type in ‘%windir%’ in the address bar. The Windows installation folder will open up.

Very similarly, you can make reference to the Windows directory using ‘windir’ variable in other programs and scripts. There are numerous other variables that can be accessed, ‘TEMP’ or ‘TMP’ is the variable that points to the directory where all temporary files are stored. The most popular, ‘Path’ variable is the one that points to the directories containing executable files. So that you can run a program from the Command Prompt in any other directory. We’ve explained Path later on in this post. All these variables come in handy when you are developing something or using the shell a lot.

What are System & User Environment Variables

Very similar to how the Registry works on Windows, we have System and User Environment Variables. The system variables are system-wide accepted and do not vary from user to user. Whereas, User Environments are configured differently from user to user. You can add your variables under the user so that other users are not affected by them.

Just for your information since we are discussing the topic in depth. System Variables are evaluated before User Variables. So if there are some user variables with the same name as system variables then user variables will be considered. The Path variable is generated in a different way. The effective Path will be the User Path variable appended to the System Path variable. So the order of entries will be system entries followed by user entries.

How to add & modify Environment Variables

A small warning before we go deeper. Create a system restore point, and try not to tamper with the existing settings configured for your system. Until unless you are very sure about your actions. To open the ‘Environment Variables’ Window, follow these steps:

Now in this window select ‘Advanced System Settings’ from the left part.

Hit the last button saying ‘Environment Variables’ to open our destined window.

Once you’ve opened this up, you will be able to view User and System variables separately. The variable name is in the first column and its value in the second. The corresponding buttons below the table let you ‘Add’, ‘Edit’ and ‘Delete’ these variables.

Using the Path variable

Path is the most used environment variable. As I mentioned, it points to directories that contain executable files. Once you’ve correctly setup your Path variable, you can use these executables from anywhere in the system. Let’s try to understand this with an example. Open up the environment variables window and look for ‘Path’ in system variables.

Now to run your application, open up Command Prompt and type in the name of the executable file that was in the folder. You can provide additional arguments if the program supports it. The program will run from the command prompt without actually being in the directory from where you executed the command. That is the beauty of the Path variable.

Read: How to add or edit a PATH Environment Variable in Windows.

List of all Environment Variables

Open command prompt and type ‘SET’ and hit Enter. The entire list of variables with their current values will be displayed and you can refer to it for making changes to your computer.

Read: How to see Names and Values of Environment Variables in Windows

Dynamic Environment Variables

Unlike, conventional variables, dynamic environment variables are provided by the CMD and not by the system. You cannot change the values of these variables and they expand to various discrete values whenever queried. We usually use these variables for batch processing and these are not stored in the environment. Even the ‘SET’ command will not reveal these variables. Some of the dynamic environment variables are listed below.

Read: How to add Environment Variables to Context Menu.

List of environment variables in Windows 11/10


%CD% – Typing in this command will give you the current directory you are working in.

%COMMONPROGRAMFILES% – C:Program FilesCommon Files

%COMMONPROGRAMFILES(x86)% –  C:Program Files (x86)Common Files

%COMMONPRGRAMW6432% –  C:Program FilesCommon Files

%CMDEXTVERSION% – This variable expands to the version of the command-line extensions.

%COMSPEC% – C:WindowsSystem32cmd.exe

%DATE%: – This variable will give you the current date according to date format preferences.

%ERRORLEVEL% – Determines the error level set by last executing command.


%PATH% – C:Windowssystem32;C:Windows;C:WindowsSystem32Wbem

%PROGRAMDATA% – C:ProgramData

%PROGRAMFILES% – C:Program Files

%PROGRAMW6432% – C:Program Files

%PROGRAMFILES(X86)% – C:Program Files (x86)



%SYSTEMROOT% – C:Windows

%TIME% – Similarly, it gives you current time according to the time format preferences.

%USERDOMAIN% – Userdomain associated with current user.

%USERDOMAIN_ROAMINGPROFILE% – Userdomain associated with roaming profile.

%WINDIR%  – C:Windows

%PUBLIC% – C:UsersPublic

%PSMODULEPATH% – %SystemRoot%system32WindowsPowerShellv1.0Modules

%DRVERDATA%  – C:WindowsSystem32DriversDriverData

%CMDCMDLINE%  – Outputs command line used to launch the current Command Prompt session. (Command Prompt.)

%COMPUTERNAME%  -Outputs the system name.

%PROCESSOR_REVISION% – Outputs processor revision.

%PROCESSOR_IDENTIFIER%  – Outputs processor identifier.

%PROCESSOR_LEVEL%  – Outputs processor level.

%RANDOM% – This variable prints a random number from 0 through 32767

%NUMBER_OF_PROCESSORS% – Outputs the number of physical and virtual cores.

%OS% – Windows_NT

This was pretty much about System and User Environment Variables on Windows. Windows does come with a lot more variables – don’t forget to check them using the ‘SET’ command.

TIP: Rapid Environment Editor is a powerful Environment Variables Editor for Windows.

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