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Last Updated on June 14, 2023

The rise of the internet has made users have more access to information than ever before. While there are tremendous benefits to this, including convenience, there has also been an increase in cyber threats.

Network security keys minimize this risk, helping protect those who use the internet.

What is the Network Security Key on a Router?

Put simply, a network security key is basically a password. These passwords are needed in order to access a certain network. They are put in place to prevent unauthorized access to specific networks.

For example, to connect to the Wi-Fi network in your home, you should have a password that needs to be entered in order to have access to it. This enables you to have a secure connection and prevents unauthorized access.

The same goes for any other establishments you visit, like restaurants, stores, and airports. Enabling passwords in order to gain access to networks makes it difficult for cyberattacks to happen. While some experienced hackers may still be able to get access, this is highly reduced when there is a secure network security key enabled.

Benefits Of Network Security Keys

As mentioned, network security keys help keep any digital users’ information safe and secure. Security keys have certain encryption standards which prevent hackers from being able to access any user’s information.

These keys also keep all identities hidden, preventing any hackers from being able to find out who accessed what networks and when.

Online Threats Prevented From Network Security Keys

Unsecured wireless networks are susceptible to a variety of online threats, whether it’s a home network or a business. Below are a few of these risks:


Piggybacking can occur when someone is able to connect to an unsecured network when they are within range of it. This means that any neighbors could connect to someone’s network if it isn’t secure.

Users who connect to this network then have the ability to perform illegal online activities such as accessing credit card information, and other personal files.

Evil Twin Attacks

Evil twin attacks are more calculated than piggybacking. This is when users gain information on a public network in order to set up one that impersonates it. The impersonated signal is then made to have a stronger signal than the original, so users then end up connecting using the stronger network.

As users are then connected to the attacker’s network, these attackers are able to use tools in order to read the information that users send through the internet. This is especially dangerous if any online payments are completed using this network, as it can give the attackers credit card information.

The same goes for any passwords and login details for certain websites.

Final Thoughts

To conclude, network security keys are passwords or codes that need to be entered in order to gain access to a certain network.

These keys are made to be secure along with encryption standards that protect any information from users who have connected to that network.

Having a wireless internet connection without a network security key can expose users to a variety of online threats, some of which involve hackers gaining access to data and personal files, including credit card information.

Caution must also be taken when connecting to public networks, as hackers have the ability to mimic these in order to steal information.

This article has outlined the importance of network security keys, and the threats involved when they are not utilized correctly.

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What Is A Mesh Network? Here’S What You Need To Know

Eric Zeman / Android Authority

Home Wi-Fi used to be so simple. You could plug in a router and connect all of your devices. Now we have fancy gaming routers, gigabit speeds, and more options than you can count. One of the easiest modern ways to connect your entire house and your smart devices is with a mesh network. If you’re not familiar, we’re here to explain just what exactly a mesh network is and how to set one up.

We’ll do our best to give you an idea of what mesh networks are and how they work. They have their benefits and drawbacks, so this page gives you a complete picture.

See also: The best Wi-Fi routers: Which one is right for you?

Flexible signal — The fact that every point in your network produces its own signal means that you can stay online even if a point goes down. If you have to repair or replace part of your network, the rest of it should stay online for your continued use. You can also add extra points for even more powerful coverage.

Direct paths — Unlike a traditional router and extender setup, mesh networks send their signal in all directions. This means that you should always be able to get the fastest signal in your home. It almost works like shipping a package — the more options it has, the faster it should get to you.

Convenient controls — Google and Amazon are both key players in the home Wi-Fi game, and they offer some beneficial features. Both the Nest system and Eero network offer companion apps that allow you to manage devices, set downtime, and more.

Are there any drawbacks?

Of course, mesh networks aren’t perfect. There are a few reasons for you to stick with your current setup, or at least wait a while to upgrade. Think about a few of these drawbacks before you get shopping:

Expensive — Because each point in a mesh network produces its own signal, it often includes more expensive components. You can easily spend $200 to get off the ground, plus another $100 to $200 for each additional network point. On the other hand, plenty of traditional routers cost less than $50.

Require multiple outlets — Multiple access points mean that you’ll need to plug each one into its own outlet. It’s not a big deal on its own, but think about how many other lamps, smart speakers, and devices you plug into your house at any given time. You may need to invest in a few power surge protectors to make up space.

Range trumps speed — Mesh networks place a blanket of widespread connectivity over all else. You may be able to connect more devices over a wider range, but you may lose some of the top-end speed. Further, most people don’t have to worry about covering 3,000 or more square feet, so you may find yourself with more coverage than you need.

Can I get even more information?

Of course you can. In fact, our own Gary Sims has an extensive explanation of mesh networking and everything involved in it over on his YouTube channel, Gary Explains. He digs further into the topics we’ve covered here and even reviews the MikroTik Audience, a tri-band mesh network access point. Give Gary’s video a watch down below before you jump into a few of our favorite mesh network systems:

What are your options for mesh networks?

If you’ve decided that a mesh network is indeed right for you, it’s time to start shopping. We’ve already mentioned the Google Nest and Amazon Eero systems, but there are plenty more to consider. Here are just a few of our favorites:

Amazon Eero 6 Pro mesh system


Amazon purchased the Eero brand a few years back, and it’s been pumping out reliable Wi-Fi options ever since. In fact, I’m writing this while connected to an Eero network. The Eero 6 Pro system is the company’s latest offering, and it comes in a handy three-pack.

See also: The best Alexa-compatible devices for your home

It boasts an impressive coverage range of 6,000 square feet, which is more than enough for most people. The Eero 6 Pro mesh network also comes with a built-in Zigbee hub and connects to your other smart devices with Alexa. You can add as many as 75 devices to your network with the tri-band setup, and the Eero 6 Pro packs blistering Wi-Fi 6 connections.

TP-Link Deco X60 mesh Wi-Fi system


TP-Link is another top name in the mesh network game, and its Deco line is one of our favorites. You can choose from a few different models of various shapes and sizes to fit your home perfectly. The Deco X60 is slightly taller than some of its competitors, but it can reach up to 5,000 square feet.

Google Nest Wi-Fi system


If you prefer Google’s Nest family of products, this is the only way to go for mesh Wi-Fi. Unfortunately, a two-pack only covers 4,400 square feet, but that should still suit most setups.

See also: Google Nest Wi-Fi review

On the bright side, Google boasts that its Nest Wi-Fi can handle as many as 200 devices at once, and it has one of the better companion apps on the market. You can add parental controls to your network as needed, and you can manage it all from the palm of your hand. Each Google Nest router packs a pair of ethernet ports, so a wired connection is always on the table.

Meshforce M3s mesh Wi-Fi system


One more mesh network to consider, the Meshforce M3s, may not have the same name recognition as the others. However, it still packs a punch. The bundle says that it’s best for six bedrooms or up to 6,000 square feet, though it only supports 60 devices.

While you may not have as much device flexibility, most users probably don’t have that much to worry about. You can manage your connections right from your phone and establish guest networks whenever you have company over. Meshfroce’s M3s tops out at Gigabit speeds, and you can always tap into Ethernet options for extra speed.

There you go, everything you need to know about mesh networks. Hopefully, we’ve done our part to help you improve your home Wi-Fi. We’ll add new routers and information as technology continues to evolve, so check back often.

What Is The Tcp Protocol In Computer Network?

TCP represents Transmission Control Protocol. It is a transport layer protocol that facilitates the transmission of packets from source to destination. It is a connectionoriented protocol that defines it creates the connection before the communication that appears between the computing devices in a network.

TCP organizes information so that it can be sent between a server and a user. It maintains the integrity of the information being communicated over a network. Before it sends data, TCP creates a connection between a source and its destination, which it provides remains live until communication starts. It then divides huge amounts of information into smaller packets, while providing data integrity is established throughout the process.

TCP can send data from high-level protocols that require all information to arrive. These contain peer-to-peer sharing protocols such as File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Secure Shell (SSH), and Telnet. It can send and receive email through Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP), Post Office Protocol (POP), and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and for internet creation through the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

The TCP application in the network protocol stack of the operating framework is responsible for creating and removing the end-to-end connections and transferring information. The TCP application is contained by multiple network applications, including web browsers or servers, via particular interfaces. Each connection should continually be recognized by two represented endpoints (client and server).

Each packet contains the 32-bit sequence number. These numbers are used for both acknowledgement and window mechanism. This data is exchanged in the byte units called a segment. A segment consists of fixed 20 bytes plus followed by zero or more data bytes.

Segment Size

The TCP software decides the segment size. In this, some restrictions are put on the segment size as follows −

Each segment involving the TCP header must fit in the 65525 byte IP payload.

Each segment must fit in the maximum transfer unit (MTU). Each network has a maximum transfer unit (MTU).


If a segment becomes too large, then it is broken into small fragments. On each fragmentation done by a router, then to each fragment, a new IP header is appended. Therefore, the fragmentation increases the overhead.


The basic protocol used by TCP entities is the sliding window protocol. A sender starts a timer as soon as a sender transmits a segment where the destination receives the segment. It sends back acknowledgement along with data, if any. The acknowledgement number is equal to the following sequence number it expects to receive. If the sender’s timer goes out before the acknowledgement is received, then the sender will send the unacknowledged packet again.

Problems Related to TCP Timer Window Protocol

As the segments can be fragmented, a port of the transmitted segment can reach the destination, while maybe lost the remaining part or segments arrive out of order. Sometimes segments get delayed so much that the timer is out, and retransmissions take place.

In retransmitted segments, they can take a different route than the original segment. Then fragments of the initial segment & retransmitted segments both can sporadically reach the destination. So a careful administration technique is required to achieve a reliable byte stream. There is a possibility of congestion along the path.

Google Find My Device Network Upgrades Are Key: Sharing And Automotive

Google Find My Device network upgrades are key: Sharing and Automotive

Both Apple and Google have helpful phone, tablet, and computer-finding networks in play right now – but they aren’t created equal. In a bit of a teardown of an app this week, the Google “Find My Device” app and system indicate there’ll be a relatively major upgrade coming to Android devices soon. In addition to expanding the ways in which a user can find a lost device, this upgrade looks to drop in on smart vehicle systems, creating what might be future smart vehicle’s greatest boon.Recently a report from 9to5Google revealed a bit of a teardown this week showing the Google Find My Device app in dogfood mode. This means the features we’re seeing here might never make their way to the final build – but they’re certainly in testing. This was the second in a line of updates where crowdsourcing appeared as a major part of the equation in Find My Device’s future.

One interesting bit added to this latest build is the word “spot.” It’s unlikely Google would change the name of their Find My Device network, but a codename “spot” suggests they’re giving enough attention to new features that they need to call them out with a new codename. At the same time, Spot would be a pretty cute name for an app that’s meant to be a friendly seeker of hidden items – like a keen-nosed doggy. It’s likely a coincidence that this dogfed version of the app includes said element that is sometimes associated with a friendly family pet.

The latest dogfed version of Find My Device adds the long-awaited “share” of devices. Share Device will be helpful for families with devices that are shared with children during the day and used by parents at night, or devices that are lent out to individuals for short periods of time. The sharing of a device makes it ever-so-slightly more likely that a lost device would be spotted, as all owners agree to be part of the same Find My Device network.

One part of the latest round of update text includes: “When the device is with you, you implicitly share your location with its co-owners.”

The same dogfed app includes information about Vehicle Data. Users will be able to locate vehicles that’ve been logged in to their Google account. This won’t work for every single vehicle that works with a Google login, but with Android Automotive, users could potentially lock their profile the same as they would for any tablet or smartphone.

Android Automotive doesn’t (currently) control any major vehicle functions, so this won’t be the sort of remote kill switch desired by European authorities, but it COULD potentially allow a user to locate their vehicle if it’s been stolen and a thief hasn’t thought to remove the user account from the vehicle’s infotainment system.

Take a peek at the GMC Hummer EV video above to see what Android Automotive was capable of in around May of 2023. This was shown during Google I/O 2023 – does it all look like the right direction to you?

Men’S Hockey Terriers: Continuity Is Key

Men’s Hockey Terriers: Continuity Is Key As season begins, experience is on their side

Chris Connolly (MET’12) is one of only five Terrier hockey players remaining from BU’s NCAA championship 2008–2009 team. Photo by Steve McLaughlin/BU Athletics

The BU men’s ice hockey team launches its season tomorrow night with a bull’s-eye on its back. The Terriers are ranked 6th in the country by USA Today and 10th by United States College Hockey Online.

Their home opener against the University of New Hampshire Wildcats will be the start of what promises to be a fiercely competitive Hockey East battle. But that’s not the only challenge. The Terriers’ schedule is relentless. And they have the task of recovering from the 2010–2011 season, when the team, one of the youngest in the program’s history, came up short.

But the 2011–2012 squad has something that last year’s team sorely lacked: experience.

“We’re comfortable with each other, there’s a lot of camaraderie in the locker room, and we’re a tight-knit group off the ice as well,” says captain Chris Connolly (MET’12). “Being that much older and being more mature can only help us this season.”

Connolly, one of only five players remaining from BU’s NCAA championship 2008–2009 team, says last year’s 19-12-8 record was a decent outcome given the team’s youth. But he was disappointed by the Terriers’ failure to make the NCAA tournament and their elimination in the Hockey East quarterfinals at the hands of Northeastern.

“The ultimate goal is to get back on top and win a national championship, because there’s nothing that compares to that feeling,” Connolly says. “At the same time, I just want to be able to improve on last year and take a step in the right direction.”

Head hockey coach Jack Parker (SMG’68, Hon.’97) concurs with Connolly’s assessment.

“It was a solid year for us because we were third in Hockey East, with a young team in a difficult league, but we didn’t go anywhere near where we’d like to,” Parker says.

Among this season’s returning players are all seven of the Terriers’ top scorers from last year and five of their six most experienced defenders.

Connolly was captain last year also, so he’s familiar with the role. He’s the first two-year captain since Jack O’Callahan (CAS’79), a member of the legendary “Miracle on Ice” U.S. Olympic team that won a gold medal in 1980. Connolly finished last season tied for second on the team in points, with 28, trailing only newly appointed assistant captain Alex Chiasson (CAS’13).

Forward Charlie Coyle (CGS’12), last year’s Hockey East Rookie of the Year, was drafted 28th overall by the San Jose Sharks in 2010 and has been listed as the 20th-best prospect in the National Hockey League by the site Hockey’s Future. And top goalie Kieran Millan (MET’12), a runner up for Hockey East Player of the Year honors last season, returns as well. Millan, a 2009 draftee of the Colorado Avalanche, holds BU’s single-season record for saves and was named the Terriers’ Most Valuable Player last season.

Beyond the Terriers’ stars, there is no lack of talent on this season’s team. Of the 26 players on the roster, 13 are NHL draftees, and a 14th—Ben Rosen (CAS’13)—was invited to the New York Islanders minicamp earlier this year.

Parker says that while talent is obviously important, it’s only one of the factors that will determine the team’s success this season. “Talent doesn’t win,” Parker says. “There’s not a team in this league that doesn’t have talent. Attitude and effort are what win in this league.”

Connolly agrees, and says that what will determine the Terriers’ success is how well they play in late winter and spring. “We have to make sure our team is playing our best hockey at the end of the year, and that’s something that’s hard to achieve,” he says. “It usually works out that the team with the older players can make more of a run come playoff time. Hopefully we’re playing our best hockey come April.”

Parker says he is confident that the Terriers will be able to maintain a high level of play all season.

“Last year’s team was the youngest team I’ve ever coached, both as far as class year and age,” he says. “We had 17- and 18-year-olds playing against 24- and 25-year-olds, and the long season wore on them. Some who had great starts fizzled at the end. But I think the best thing that happened to us is that we got older this summer. We’ve been through the war a bit, and that in and of itself will make us a better team.”

The Terriers begin their season tomorrow, Saturday, October 8, when they take on the University of New Hampshire Wildcats at 8 p.m. at Agganis Arena. Tickets are $19 for BU students, faculty, and staff, and $26 for the public. Tickets may be purchased ahead of time here or at the Agganis Arena ticket office.

Ben Carsley can be reached at [email protected].

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What Is A Snapchat Handle?

Did someone recently ask you for your Snapchat handle?

This article will guide you on everything you need to know about a Snapchat handle.

By the end of the article, you should be able to know the definition of a Snapchat handle, its requirements, and what makes it good.

Without further ado, let’s get right into it.

What is a Snapchat handle?

A Snapchat handle is your Snapchat username. You can find it below your Snapchat name on your profile.

Here’s an example of a Snapchat handle:

In other words, your Snapchat handle is the same as your Snapchat username.

Your Snapchat handle = your Snapchat username.

So the next time someone asks for your Snapchat handle, just tell them your Snapchat username. Sharing your Snapchat URL will also do the trick.

The word ‘handle’ is a common term for username in social media which is originated from the radio.

Hence, instead of saying ‘username’, people might refer to it as a handle.

How do I get a Snapchat handle?

You’ll get to choose your Snapchat handle when you sign up for an account.

Here’s how you can create a Snapchat account.

Download Snapchat on the App Store or Google Play Store.

Go into the app and tap on ‘Sign Up’ to create a new account.

Follow the instructions on the screen (e.g. enter your first name, last name, and so on).

In the middle on the sign up process, you’ll get to choose your Snapchat username.

Do note that you can only choose your username once on Snapchat and you cannot change it after.

Unlike other social media platforms (e.g. Instagram) where you can change your username multiple times, you cannot change your username on Snapchat.

Snapchat handle requirements

Are you curious to know about the Snapchat username requirements?

If so, then this section is for you.

Here is a list of Snapchat username requirements.

Snapchat username character limit

Snapchat username character limit: 15 characters

The maximum number of characters a Snapchat username can contain is 15 characters.

You cannot go more than 15 characters.

Minimum characters

Snapchat username minimum characters: 3 characters

The minimum number of characters a Snapchat username can contain is 3 characters.

You cannot go less than 3 characters.

Letter requirements

Snapchat letter requirement: Usernames must start with a letter

Your Snapchat username needs to start with a letter. Starting your username with a number or special character is prohobited.

For example, if you were to start your username with a number (e.g. 1) or a special character (e.g. _), it will not be accepted.

Special characters

Special character guidelines: Usernames cannot end with a special character.

Your snapchat username must end with a letter or a number and not a special character.

Unlike other social media platforms (e.g. Instagram) where your username can end with a special character (e.g. _), you cannot do so in Snapchat.

Should I use my real name on Snapchat?

Are you wondering whether you should use your real name on Snapchat?

Yes, it’s highly recommended that you use your real name on Snapchat.

However, you should use it as your Snapchat name and not your username. This is because if you use your real name as your username on Snapchat, you can’t change it after.

On the other hand, if you were to use your real name as your Snapchat name, you can always change it later.

It’s important to use your real name as your Snapchat name because of a couple of reasons.

Firstly, people (e.g. friends) searching for you on Snapchat can easily recognize you from your name.

So if you were to use your real name, people can easily find and add you.

Secondly, it validates your identity whenever you’re communicating with someone on Snapchat.

People (e.g. strangers) are more inclined to communicate with someone that is using a real name as compared to someone that uses an alias.

Using your real name in Snapchat is also generally safe. What’s unsafe is if you share your login info, address, etc. Never share sensitive information as people can exploit it.

To summarize, using your real name as your Snapchat name is important as people can easily identify you.

Hence, it’s highly recommended that you use your real name as your Snapchat name.

What is a good Snapchat handle?

A good Snapchat handle is one that is short and easy to remember.

The best handle is an english word with minimal characters (e.g. fun). A username like this is known as an OG username.

However, you’re not going to obtain a username under 3 characters because most of them are already taken. Instead, you’ll have to go with whatever that’s available.

However, as a general guideline, you should try to refrain from incorporating numbers and special characters in your username.

Having numbers and special characters in your username makes it seem unprofessional and unexceptional.

Conversely, a username without any numbers or special characters is easier to remember. It’s also a good idea to keep your handles consistent throughout all your socials.

Having the same handle for each social media platform allows people to easily find and follow you.

This is especially important if you’re running a business or building your personal brand. The goal is to encompass everything in one brandable name.

Snapchat handle suggestions if your first choice is taken

There are close to 200 million users on Snapchat, so obtaining a desired username can be challenging.

Some people might result to adding random numbers or special characters in their username which they might regret later.

So, before you decide to add numbers or special characters in your username, you can try different combinations of words first.

Alternatively, you can utilize a prefix or a suffix to produce a unique username.

At the end of the day, a letter-only username is far better than a username that contains numbers or special characters as it is more professional.

Hence, you should only utilize numbers and special characters in your username if you really don’t have any other choices.

Here are some suggestions you can use when your first choice is taken.

Add ‘the’ at the front of your username

The first suggestion is to add ‘the’ at the front of your username if your first choice is taken.

You should add ‘the’ at the front of your username if you’re looking for something simple yet strong.

It acts as an emphasis to your username.

Add ‘thereal’ at the front of your username

Secondly, you can add ‘thereal’ at the front of your username.

Typically, celebrities or public figures utilize this whenever their first username choice is taken.

In addition, it shows that the account is not an impersonation of them and that they are the real owner behind it.

Use ‘its’

Using ‘its’ is another way to add on your username if your first choice is taken.

If you’re looking for something simple, adding ‘its’ is a great idea.

This is great for individuals running a personal account.

Use ‘not’

Next, you can add ‘not’ in front of your username.

If you’re looking to add enigma or curiosity, you can add ‘not’ in front of your username.

It manifests that your social media persona is a tad bit different from real life.

Include ‘im’

Lastly, you can include ‘im’ in the front of your username if your first choice is taken.

‘im’ is the shortest prefix you can add to your username.

If you want your username’s length to be as short as possible, you should utilize ‘im’.


In this article, you’ve learnt the definition of a Snapchat handle, what makes a good Snapchat handle, and suggestions if your first choice is taken.

To recap, here are some of the main takeaways:

A Snapchat handle is your Snapchat username.

Good Snapchat usernames are short, easy to remember, and does not contain any numbers or special characters.

If your first choice is taken, try adding a prefix to your username.

Happy snapping!

Further reading

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