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By Benjamin Kessler, INSEAD Knowledge Managing Editor
Conventional companies new to remote working can learn from the successful start-up GitLab, which has never had an office since its inception in 2014.
Thanks to Covid-19, all-remote companies – that select group of (mainly tech) firms that function without a physical location of any kind – have gone from eccentrics to exemplars in the eyes of the larger business community. Companies contemplating a possible open-ended future of obligatory remote working for much of their staff would do well to learn from these elite early adopters.
INSEAD professor Phanish Puranam and post-doctoral fellow Marco Minervini’s ongoing research into software development start-up GitLab explores how a company with no office and more than 1,200 employees scattered across more than 60 countries can successfully manage itself. Emphasis on the word successfully – in September 2023, GitLab was valued at US$2.7 billion ahead of an IPO set for November 2023.
GitLab: The basics
There is a hall-of-mirrors aspect to GitLab. Its core product is a set of “continuous integration” (CI) tools for collaborative coding that GitLab’s own employees use every day in their projects. Essentially, these tools help solve the coordination challenges affecting dispersed teams of developers, by automating the process by which individual contributions are assimilated into the existing code base. This saves the expense (in terms of time and money) of having a human being check the compatibility of each new line of code with overall group output.
In other words, not only is GitLab a pioneering (formed in 2014) all-remote company, but it is also at the forefront of creating the invisible infrastructure that would allow much of the tech industry to abandon physical offices too.
GitLab emphatically does not treat its people like glorified gig workers. It aims to replicate the intangible benefits of conventional employment (cultural cohesion, collective identity, etc.), while reinventing the work experience to suit the decentralised paradigm.
Also towards that end, new hires are required to initiate virtual meet-and-greets with at least five other employees (preferably from other departments and time zones) during the first week. All GitLab employees, regardless of length of tenure, are encouraged to chat with one another informally several times a week. For those who might be introverted, shy or feel awkward, planned spontaneity primes the conversational pump, in the form of twice-weekly “take a break calls” in which participants choose what to talk about from a rolling list of five topics. Further satisfying the need for social interaction, GitLab’s Slack dashboard features channels dedicated to non-work topics such as gardening.
“Asynchronous and public”
The company’s “Git-based workflows” take some getting used to. They are designed to facilitate what GitLab calls an “asynchronous and public” process, ideal for teammates scattered across the world, who may communicate in real time erratically if at all. Full transparency is necessary so that projects can continue despite being attended to by different sets of developers over the course of 24 hours. Ideally, this should result in heightened productivity, compared to conventional co-located teams that are totally logged off for as much as two-thirds of every working day.
The pursuit of full transparency is behind one of GitLab’s most countercultural rules: a total ban on internal emails. For example, employees seeking information or help are required to request it through the appropriate Slack channel, which may eventually trigger changes to the employee handbook or another key document. The intent is to crystallise and capture the pooled expertise of the collective, rather than letting it slip through the organisation’s fingers. In this way, GitLab aspires to be a company where nothing valuable is lost or wasted.
Further, these workflows have a bias towards “minimum viable changes” instead of completion. Employees are encouraged to lock in their work via merge requests to the code base at each significant step, enabling others to keep track of their activity and, if appropriate, contribute (presumably pushing the project forward faster). In asynchronous (i.e. time-lagged) environments, it pays for employees to be liberal about what they expose to the light of day, because work done in darkness may invite costly redundancy and knowledge gaps.
As I described in a previous piece about all-remote working, GitLab’s transparency doctrine ensures near-total availability of salient information throughout the organisation – but that does not necessarily translate into democratised decision making. Indeed, the company has a fairly standard-looking org chart. Like team leaders everywhere, GitLab’s managers are responsible for assigning and prioritising tasks to employees (the in-house term for this is “triaging”).
Managers are free to triage however they see fit. The case study covers several approaches. For example, one manager prefers to raise proposed issues or problems for group discussion within a shared document. After everyone’s feedback has been submitted and absorbed, this manager converts the items into tasks for specific team members to tackle. Another manager opts to generate tasks herself with no prior input, but allows employees to choose what they’d like to work on.
Once assigned to a task, an employee may be granted “directly responsible individual” (DRI) status, making them the final authority on the matter. GitLab’s cultural norms encourage open-minded solicitation of feedback, but the DRI is entirely empowered to adopt colleagues’ suggestions, or go with her gut. The flipside, of course, is that she and no one else will have to answer for the success or failure of the task she’s responsible for.
In addition, changes to the code base or handbook are never automatically accepted, but must first pass muster with a “maintainer”, or an authorised employee with expert knowledge of the area the proposed change pertains to.
Are we all GitLab now?
Of course, a gulf lies between GitLab and most companies that have had all-remote working forced on them. As mentioned above, GitLab’s “asynchronous and public” way of working stems from the need to coordinate team members when their ability to communicate cannot be taken for granted. Conventional companies do not have this challenge. Their employees live fairly close to each other and to the temporarily unavailable office. They can hop on a Zoom call at a moment’s notice.
Even so, Puranam and Minervini’s research suggests GitLab’s style should perhaps be more widely emulated. Asynchronous tools are more flexible, they observe, despite being much less popular with companies that are relatively new to remote working. Freeing employees from the temporal chains binding them to one another and the company restores their autonomy and enables them to set healthy work-life boundaries. Full transparency, a focus on “minimum viable changes”, etc. are apt adaptations to our new normal of tele-working that can act as a buffer against mounting Covid-19 burnout.
This article is republished courtesy of INSEAD Knowledge. Copyright INSEAD 2023
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Introduction to PHP queue
Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others
The syntax to declare queue in PHP is as follows:enqueue(item_to_added_to_the_queue); dequeue();
where item_to_be_added_to_the_queue is the item that is going to be added to the queue at the end of the queue or the tail of the queue.Working of the queue in PHP
Queue in PHP is a data structure that operates based on First In First Out, which is also called FIFO.
Four basic operations define a queue, namely init, enqueue, dequeue, and isEmpty.
init operation is used for the creation of the queue.
enqueue operation is used to add an item at the end of the queue or the tail of the queue.
The dequeue operation is used to remove an item from the front of the queue or the head of the queue.
isEmpty operation is used to check if the queue is empty or not; that is, it returns if the queue contains no more items or not.Examples of PHP queue
Here are the following examples mention belowExample #1
PHP program to add the items to a queue from the end of the queue using enqueue() function and remove the items from the front of the queue using the dequeue() function, and display the contents of the queue:
Code:<?php $newqueue = new SplQueue(); } print_r ($newqueue); print_r ($newqueue);
In the above program, we are creating an instance of the SplQueue() class. Then we are adding items to the queue from the tail of the queue or the end of the queue. Then we are making use of the rewind() function to bring the file pointer to the beginning of the queue. Then we are using the valid() function to check if the queue is valid or not after using the rewind() function and then displaying the elements of the queue. Then we are printing the contents of the queue in a human-readable format by using the print_r function. Then we remove the first two items from the head of the queue using the dequeue() function and then display the queue contents after using the dequeuer() function in human-readable form using print_r function. The output is shown in the snapshot above.Example #2
PHP program to add the items to a queue from the end of the queue using enqueue() function and remove the items from the front of the queue using the dequeue() function, and display the contents of the queue:<?php $newqueue = new SplQueue(); } print_r ($newqueue); print_r ($newqueue);
In the above program, we are creating an instance of the SplQueue() class. Then we are adding items to the queue from the tail of the queue or the end of the queue. Then we are making use of the rewind() function to bring the file pointer to the beginning of the queue.
Then we are using the valid() function to check if the queue is valid or not after using the rewind() function and then displaying the elements of the queue. Then we are printing the contents of the queue in a human-readable format by using the print_r function. Then we remove all the three items from the head of the queue using the dequeue() function and then display the queue contents after using the dequeuer() function in human-readable form using print_r function, which is an empty queue. The output is shown in the snapshot above.Recommended Articles
This is a guide to the PHP queue. Here we discuss the introduction, syntax, and working of queue in PHP along with different examples and their outputs. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –
The Camera app is something that a lot of iPhone users will open and use every single day, sometimes multiple times per day. The convenience of a point-and-shoot camera app at your fingertips, anywhere you go, is nothing short of a technological miracle that comes standard on today’s modern mobile devices.
On the other hand, as Apple introduces more features into the Camera app with each iOS release, the interface becomes more cluttered with features you may or may not use, and that’s why a new free jailbreak tweak called Camera Tools by developer Justin Petkovic has just been released in Cydia.
If the spiel sounds somewhat familiar, it’s probably because Petkovic just released another similar tweak for the Photos app earlier this week. On the other hand, the version of the tweak for the Camera app is sure to be welcomed by many jailbreakers, whether they’ve opted to use the tweak intended for the Photos app or not.
As you can see above, Camera Tools can make some pretty extensive changes to the Camera app that may or may not look better depending on two things: 1) the way you use it; and 2) how much of a minimalist you consider yourself to be.
The tweak comes with a toolbox of options to work with, so even if you don’t like the configuration we’ve picked out above, you can always mix and match the options that are available to your own tastes and get the look and feel you’re after.
To do that, you simply go to the Camera Tools preferences pane from the Settings app after installing the tweak. There, you’ll find all of the following options:
Among the list of settings you can fiddle with are:
Toggling minimal toolbar icons
Toggling a minimal video capture UI
Toggling a vertical camera mode switcher
Toggling a simplistic UI
Hiding any of the camera modes you don’t use
Enabling Live Photos mode on unsupported devices
Enabling the iPhone 7 Plus-only “Portrait Mode” interface on unsupported devices (non-functional, of course)
Some of these options can actually be really convenient for a number of users who want to reduce the amount of swipes they have to use to get to the camera modes they use the most. For example, not everyone uses the Square mode, or the panorama mode. Rather, they just use their iPhones for point-and-shoot photography and recording videos, so hiding the unused sections can be quite useful by reducing the finger work it takes to get to the mode you want.
We also found that the vertical camera mode switcher, which is shown in our screenshots above, is much cooler looking than the stock Camera app UI. This feature alone is something that might push the bill for a number of jailbreakers who are looking at the screenshots and saying, “dang, I wish I had that!”
Fortunately, you won’t have to spend any money to enjoy all this modification, as Camera Tools can be downloaded from Cydia’s BigBoss repository for free. If you’re jailbroken on iOS 9 or iOS 10, you can head there right now and give it a whirl.
In the construction industry, working with subcontractors is a daily part of completing and managing a project. These sub-hired contractors are typically used to carry out specific activities that others do not have the skill or resources to do.The Pros Develop a Specialised Skill Set
More often than not, contractors will expect subcontractors to have a specialized skill set that their own team of workers cannot address. For example, a contractor may hire you to focus on specific tasks such as outdoor plumbing. Therefore, you can focus on developing your skills in the areas you are truly interested in.Be Your Own Boss
Choose Which Jobs to Accept
As we noted, you can be your own boss. This also means you get to choose what jobs you would like to do. If you’re asked to jump on a project that is too demanding or not paid well enough, you are at your liberty to refuse. Similarly, you can simply take time off work whenever you want and get back to looking for gigs when you’re ready.The Cons You Depend on General Contractors
Responsible For Your Taxes
Nobody likes dealing with taxes, however, as a freelancer, it’s your responsibility to ensure you pay your dues. There are several self-employment fees you’ll need to cover, which may not be worth your effort if you aren’t receiving a steady influx of high-paid jobs. Nevertheless, you can always hire some external help to assist you in the process of filing taxes.
PDF stands for Portable Document Format, which is secure – but a bit tricky to edit file format available on the internet. You can use PDF for sending a CV to making a digital book – everything can be converted into a PDF. If you often work with PDF’s, you need to be introduced to PDF Candy. PDF Candy is a website, which comes with twenty-four different web apps to work with PDFs. In other words, you do not have to search for any other site for an alternative task. Let’s take a look at some of the more most useful tools on this website.PDF Candy – Manage PDF files
The PDF Candy website offers over 24 free tools to help you process PDF files. Convert to or from PDFs. Split, Merge, Rotate, Compress, Watermark PDFs & more! Let us take a look at them.
PDF to Word: Sometimes we want to edit the PDF file. Although there are some tools that allow people to edit any PDF file, it is convenient to edit a .docx file. You can convert a PDF file to a Word document and start editing it.
Word to PDF: With this app, you can convert your Microsoft Word document to PDF and send them to anybody.
PDF to JPG: In case you need to convert all the pages of a PDF file into JPG image format, you can do so with this tool. You should use the PDF to PNG converter if your PDF file contains a lot of text. You can even select the image quality.
PDF to PNG: You can also convert PDF files to PNG format, and select the image quality as well.
JPG to PDF: If you have an image and you want to convert it to a PDF file, you can use this tool. The problem is you cannot make a multi-page PDF file.
Merge PDF: if you have two or more PDF files and you want to merge PDFs, using their Merge PDF tool.
Split PDF: It is the exact opposite of merging PDF. Let’s assume that you have a PDF file containing ten pages and you want to split it into two parts. You can use this tool and split the single large PDF into multiple small PDF files.
Compress PDF: PDF consumes more space than a Word document. Therefore, if you want to compress a PDF file to reduce the file size, you can use this tool.
Unlock PDF: If you have a locked PDF file and you want to unlock the PDF, you can use Unlock PDF option. It will let you enter the password after uploading the PDF file – and then download the unlocked version of your PDF file.
Protect PDF: If you have an unlocked PDF file and you want to password protect the PDF, you can use this tool. After uploading the file, you need to enter the password twice to confirm. Following that, you can download the password-protected file from the PDF Candy website.
Rotate PDF: This may not be useful to all, but if you wish to rotate your PDF you can do so using this tool. You need to select the pages and rotation degree. You can choose 90, 180, and 270 degrees.
Add Watermark: If you are distributing a PDF file on the internet and you want to use a watermark to protect, you can use either a text watermark or an image watermark. You can choose the location and custom text/image. One limitation is that you will not get an option to select the page where you want to paste your watermark.
Deleted pages: Let’s assume that you have a PDF file and you want to remove some pages from it. Enter the page numbers that you want to delete. E.g. 2 or 2-4. The first option will let you delete page number 2, whereas the second option will remove 2nd, 3rd, and 4th
EPUB to PDF: If you have an eBook with EPUB format and you want to convert EPUB to PDF, use this tool.
MOBI to PDF: This is another eBook file format, and it can be converted to PDF with the help of this option.
FB2 to PDF: If you have an XML-based eBook with the FB2 file format, use this tool to convert that to PDF.
PNG to PDF: Just like JPG to PDF, you can also convert PNG images to PDF format.
TIFF to PDF: If you have raster graphics with TIFF format, you may use this tool to convert them to PDF.
BMP to PDF: BMP may be old but still used by many. If you have a BMP image and want to convert that to PDF, this tool is for you.
ODT to PDF: ODT or Open Document Text file can be converted to PDF with the help of this tool.
Excel to PDF: If you need to convert Excel files to PDF, this is probably the best option for you.
PPT to PDF: Like Word and Excel files, you can convert PowerPoint files to PDF as well. In this case, you may not be able to retain any animation or moving object.
PDF to BMP: This option allows users to convert Bitmap images to PDF.
PDF to TIFF: It lets you convert PDF files to TIFF format or Tag Image File Format.
Whichever tool you use, you would have to provide the source file from your computer. Once the file is processed, you can either download the file to your computer, or you can authorize Google Drive and Dropbox to send them directly to your cloud storage.
If you need any of these tools, you can visit the chúng tôi website.
Some free PDF editor software that may interest you:
PDF24 Creator is a free PDF Creator to create, convert, merge PDF files
iLovePDF is a fFree Online PDF Editing Tools
Edit PDF documents with free PDFHammer Online Editor
LightPDF is a comprehensive online PDF Editor tool for all your PDF needs.
The Central Council of Ministers is an important part of the Indian parliament. Also, this is backed by the Constitution of India. This makes it an important topic for students who preparing for competitive exams to study.
We have listed all the constitutional provisions for the central council of Ministers in detail under this article. if you are also here to increase your knowledge about constitutional provisions related to CCM then please stay with us till the end of this article.
So, let’s start-Constitutional Provisions for the Central Council of Ministers Article 74
The President’s decision in such matters is final and cannot be questioned in any court of law.
The Constitution does not prescribe the number of Ministers that can be appointed by the President, but it requires that the Council of Ministers should be collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha.Article 75
Article 75 of the Indian Constitution deals with the appointment and term of the Prime Minister of India.
According to this article, the President of India shall appoint the Prime Minister who is the leader of the majority party or coalition in the Lok Sabha.
The Prime Minister holds office during the pleasure of the President.
The Prime Minister can resign by submitting his/her resignation to the President.
The Prime Minister can be removed from office if he/she loses the confidence of the Lok Sabha.
The Prime Minister is the head of the Council of Ministers.
The Prime Minister is responsible to the Lok Sabha.
The Prime Minister is responsible for the formation of the Council of Ministers.Article 77
Article 77 of the Indian Constitution deals with the conduct of government business.
According to this article, all executive actions of the government of India shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the President.
The President has the power to make rules for the allocation of business among the Ministers of the Union.
The President can also make rules for the more convenient transaction of the business of the government of India.
The business of the government of India is conducted by the Council of Ministers.
The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha.
The President can require any Minister to submit a matter for consideration of the Council of Ministers.
The Council of Ministers can make rules for the allocation of business among themselves.
The Prime Minister is the head of the Council of Ministers.Article 78
Article 78 of the Indian Constitution deals with the duties of the Prime Minister.
According to this article, it shall be the duty of the Prime Minister to communicate to the President all decisions of the Council of Ministers relating to the administration of the affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation.
The Prime Minister is also responsible for furnishing such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation as the President may call for.
The Prime Minister is responsible for the overall functioning of the government of India
The Prime Minister is responsible for the conduct of business in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.
The Prime Minister is responsible for the maintenance of law and order in the country.
The Prime Minister is responsible for the formulation of policies and programmes for the development of the country.
The Prime Minister is responsible for the management of the economy of the country.
The Prime Minister is responsible for the conduct of foreign affairs.
The Prime Minister is responsible for the coordination of the activities of various Ministries of the Union.Article 88
Article 88 provides that Members of Parliament (MPs) shall have the right to freedom of speech in Parliament.
MPs are not allowed to say anything that is defamatory, obscene or derogatory about any person or institution.
The right to freedom of speech is an essential feature of Parliamentary democracy, as it allows MPs to express their views and opinions freely and openly.
The provisions of Article 88 are subject to the rules and regulations of Parliament, which can impose reasonable restrictions on the right to freedom of speech.
The rules of procedure and conduct of business in Parliament provide guidelines for the conduct of MPs during Parliamentary proceedings.
MPs can be punished for breaches of parliamentary privilege, such as making false or misleading statements, or for using abusive language in the House
The Speaker of the Lok Sabha or the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha is responsible for maintaining order and decorum in the House, and for ensuring that the rules of procedure are followed.
If an MP breaches the rules of conduct or parliamentary privilege, the Speaker or Chairman may take action against them, such as suspending them from the House or imposing a fine.
The right to freedom of speech in Parliament is an essential component of the principle of parliamentary sovereignty, which holds that Parliament is the supreme law-making body in the country.
The provisions of Article 88 are aimed at ensuring that MPs can express their views and opinions without fear of reprisal and that the House is able to function as a forum for open and free debate.
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