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While conducting professional development or discussing issues of equity, I am often asked, “How did you become so open-minded?” The question provides a teachable moment. Fostering educational excellence requires understanding equity, embracing diverse perspectives, and countering bias that hinders inclusionary work.

Looking Within

First, take a look within. Question how you came to your current perspective. How did you learn about differences? How were you taught to view people who look different from you or do not share your beliefs?

Examine your current social contexts. Do you interact only with people who look and think like you? Do you engage with others who may have different stories, upbringings, or backgrounds?

Analyze the relationships, or lack of relationships, between you and your students or colleagues. What factors strengthen your relationships? What aspects hinder connectivity? If bias is evident, where does it come from? 

It is difficult to promote identity-safe environments if you lack knowledge of your own identity. Before you formalize your thoughts about other perspectives, take a hard look at your own viewpoints and how your experiences have shaped your interpretations of others’ stories.

Identity Safety

Students want teachers to know that their identities matter. They want educational leaders to know that their racialized experiences are real. Gender-diverse students do not want their transitions to be perceived as a phase. Language learners do not want their native language to be viewed as a deficit. Religious students value practicing their faith without fear of judgment. Each student deserves an inclusive space and a person who validates their identity.

Adults are not exempt from identity-safety issues. Many adults struggle to express their identity and refrain from revealing their true self in fear of judgment. If authenticity is a challenge for you, make intentional efforts to understand where you are hesitating from fully expressing your identity, and find ways to frame your own differences as assets rather than hindrances.

Unpack and Reflect on ‘All’

In education, the word all is used to convey the importance of teaching each and every child. Our common goal is for all students to learn or show growth. But the desire for successful outcomes for all students should not make us unrealistic about the access challenges some students face. 

In a “Bird Box challenge,” inspired by the recent film where the characters are blindfolded to avoid looking at supernatural beings that force them to take their own lives, individuals go through a task in their daily lives blindfolded. The challenge provides an analogy for educators’ approach to student experience. Leading inclusively requires removing the blindfold and seeing students for their authentic selves. Equity requires acknowledging student identities and the different ways they learn best. We have to meet students where they are. 

Honoring the reality that all has exceptions enables educators to examine the systems, policies, and practices that breed inequitable outcomes.

Don’t Get Mad at the Messenger

When people approach you with their narrative from a place of vulnerability, listen and seek clarification. You do not need to craft a response for every situation. Sometimes people just want to be heard.

It’s important to be intentional about where attention is directed when listening to stories of injustice. Framing an inequity as a challenge to be addressed requires not criticizing the individual who makes the claim of discrimination. 

A parent, student, or colleague may bring up a concern for our support, not for us to judge their disposition or emotionality while listening to their narrative. As a former principal, I observed the frustration of teachers working with families angered by the way their student’s situation was handled. It is important to take the time to unpack the why behind the anger, rather than judging or labeling the family as difficult.

Growth Mindset

The question of open-mindedness reflects an obstacle to equitable practices: the lack of a growth mindset. Educators encourage students to work through challenges daily. We want students to think critically about the world and recognize the great learning that comes with failure. The theory of learning we convey to students must be applicable in our adult lives.

Immerse yourself in diverse perspectives and voices of marginalization, making an intentional effort to seek narratives outside of your own. Build on what you learn from those you serve—students and families. Welcome feedback, conversations, and opportunities that challenge your worldview, but remember that no one owes you their story.

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What Is Company Equity And Types Of Equity?

Investors have become increasingly aware of the importance of equity due to the growth of startups as well as growing businesses. This allows them to understand all the benefits they receive from companies they have invested in.

If you are an investor or a creator of a new company, then read on. This article will help you gain a basic understanding of equity valuation and types of equity.

What’s Company Equity?

The market views equity in the context of an ownership “share”. It is an ownership “share” in a corporation’s income stream. The “share price” refers to the relative value that a corporation’s earnings potential depends on different variables.

These include general economic conditions in the industry, expected corporate growth, profit projections, projected profits, company stage, and analysis of financial ratios.

Types of Equity

Market-linked investments such as equity do not guarantee a fixed return. Equity returns are determined by the performance of the underlying asset.

These are the three main types of equity. Each has its own set of rewards and risks.

Common stock

The ownership of common stock indicates ownership in a corporation. Ordinary shareholders have the opportunity to share in the company’s profits stream by receiving dividends and capital gains on a per-share base.

Common stock investors are eligible for:

The Board of Directors selection

Selection of senior officers

Nomination of an auditor to audit financial statements

Establishing a dividend policy

Other aspects of organizational governance

You can also use a proxy to accomplish this. In that case, a third party has the right to vote for the shareholder.

Common stock has more obligations than other stock types, so the investor is entitled to a greater share of the company’s profits.

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Prefer shares

Preferred shares can be equity in a company that pays a set dividend or gives the holder common stock the first claim to the company’s profits.

Different companies issue preferred shares with different characteristics to make them more marketable. These characteristics are similar to those in fixed income markets and can be converted into common stock or call clauses.


To make the transaction more attractive to investors, warrants can be attached to corporate bonds issuances or preferred stocks.

If a warrant is held for a long time, it’s possible to take part in the company’s capital gains or losses without buying its common stock. The warrant holder holds a leveraged wager on the common shares of the corporation.

A warrant is a type of equity and has an expiration date and an exercise price. If the warrant is still valid, the holder can convert the warrant into common shares.

The expiration date of a warrant is the last day it can be converted to common stock.

A warrant is issued often to reduce the cost of a debt-issuer. The warrant’s expiration period is usually more than two years.

Additionally, warrants that are issued with bonds can be traded separately from the bond. This gives the investor an option to trade long-term shares of the company’s common stock.

Equity Benefits for a Company

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Why does a startup issue company equity?

If you have equity, you can have a financial stake. Equity is used to encourage employees to work together towards a common goal, regardless of whether it is to become the next unicorn, or be acquired by a major company. CEOs have good reasons to issue stock options. Let’s now see who and how these equities will be issued.

Equity for co-founders

They must ensure that shares are distributed in a productive manner. Although it may sound appealing to own all your company, full ownership can be detrimental to the company’s growth. Splitting shares lets you make the most of your employees’ talents to grow the business.

Equity for Advisor Equity for Investors

Equity for Employees

For employees, 10-15% is a good range of equity. If there are more founders, this range will decrease. This compensation may also be offered to employees, mentors and coaches, as well as board members and consultants.

Importance equity valuation

Valuation is crucial when it comes to startups because it helps in determining how much equity an entrepreneur must give up in exchange for the required cash from investors.

In return for an initial investment, a company that is more valued will need to give investors a lower amount of stock or shares. Startup valuation is important for entrepreneurs as well as investors. It allows them to calculate the return on their investment.

Calculation Equity in a Startup

Different individuals have different levels of interest in the stock’s value. There is no one standard procedure. To value an equity investment, there are four to five types of procedures that must be followed. Although the methods can vary, the goal remains the same regardless.

Anyone who does an equity calculation must consider the following:

Identifying the industry and nature of a company

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Forecast the company’s performance

It is impossible to make a reliable prediction on the financial statements of a business if you only look at the current financial statements. Solid predictions consider the possibility of the company’s production volume changing in the near future.

It then considers how changes at this scale might impact the associated expenses. It is impossible to shift revenues and costs in a linear fashion. An analyst must have a deep understanding of the company’s operations in order to make an accurate prediction.

Choose an appropriate valuation method

There are many different valuation models. There are many valuation models that can be used to arrive at the same conclusion. Analysts are responsible for choosing the best model based on the data they have available.

Calculate the estimated value using the chosen method

Next, you’ll apply the valuation model to arrive at a numerical number that, according to the analyst, will determine the company’s value. This number could be an estimated number or a range of expected amounts. Investors love a range as it gives them a clear understanding about their lower and higher bid limits.

Based on the estimated value, make a decision.

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What does startup valuation mean for company equity?

The company valuation that you determine will have an impact on many factors. The most obvious is the equity stake in your company. Let’s now take a look at what factors determine the valuation of a startup company.

What does startup valuation mean?

Startup Valuation is also known as Business Valuation. It’s the process of determining a company’s value. In return for some stock ownership, investors may contribute money during a seed funding round.

Entrepreneurs must value their business to determine how much ownership they will give up in exchange for seed investors or angel investors’ money.

Investors should also know the value of the stock in return for the seed stage investment. Startup Valuation can be a deal-breaker or deal-maker. This is why it is not possible to guess the company’s value based on other comparable companies.

There are many variables that can affect the outcome of startup valuation.

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Pre-valuation Revenues

Every business needs revenues. They make it easier for investors to assess the company’s value. Investors can make a decision based on whether a product is already in the marketplace and has been earning money. It could even be a factor in closing deals.

Distribution Channel

It is very likely that the product or service will be in its early stages of development during the initial phases of a company. Entrepreneurs must be careful when choosing the distribution channel to use, as this will directly impact the company’s worth.

The Industry

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Evaluate your company

Startups are not always easy to value. There are many subtleties involved in them. They can also be predictable for components not found in other markets. A better strategy will not only enhance the company’s value but also help you build a stronger organization.

Private Equity Vs Hedge Fund

Difference Between Private Equity vs Hedge Fund

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The investment capital in private equity is taken into use to enhance the working capital (WC) of an entity, strengthen the balance sheet, or introduce and install newer technology in an entity solely to leverage the output and so on. Private equity requires a larger amount of funds, and it is why the majority of the investors who participate in the same are institutional and accredited investors.

On the other hand, hedge funds can be defined as an alternative investment mechanism where funds from various sources are assembled through various strategies to maximize the earnings of the investors. Hedge funds are also regarded as investment partnerships.

Head to Head Comparison Between Private Equity vs Hedge Fund (Infographics)

Key Differences Between Private Equity vs Hedge Fund

The key differences between private equity and hedge funds are provided and enumerated as follows:

Hedge funds are closed-ended investment funds, while private equity funds are closed-ended investment funds.

Hedge funds are riskier when compared with private equity funds.

Private equity funds are invested with a motive to earn rewards within a longer period of time. Hedge funds are invested with a motive to earn rewards returns within a shorter span of time.

The returns earned in private equity funds are free from the implications of tax, whereas the returns earned in hedge funds are subjected to be tax implications.

Private equity funds will require the investors to invest the capital whenever required or asked for, whereas, in the case of hedge funds, investors will need to make a single-time investment only.

Private equity funds have a higher level of control over asset management, whereas hedge funds have a lower level of control over asset management.

The investors in a private equity fund are actively involved as compared to the investors in a hedge fund that enjoy passive status.

In private equity, the life of a fund is defined contractually, i.e. pre-stated in the contract, whereas, in a hedge fund, the life of a fund has minimal or no limitation at all.

Private Equity vs Hedge Fund Comparison Table

Given are the Major differences between Private Equity vs Hedge Fund:

Basis of Comparison

Hedge Funds

Level of Control Private equity funds have a higher level of control over the management of assets. Hedge funds have a lower level of influence over the management of assets.

Investment Horizon Private equity funds are held for long-term purposes. Private equity firms prefer investing in portfolios that can generate returns for a longer span of time. Hedge funds are held for medium or short-term purposes. Hedge funds prefer investing in portfolios that can generate positive returns within a shorter span of time.

Level of Risks Involved In comparison to hedge funds, private equity funds are not that risky. Hedge funds are riskier in comparison to private equity funds. Hedge funds are considered highly risky as a result of the fact that these tend to generate higher returns within a shorter frame of time.

Tax Implications The amount earned from Private equity funds is free from any sort of tax implications. The amount earned from hedge funds is mandatorily taxed.

Capital Investment Investors of a private equity fund shall be required to make an investment in the capital whenever they are asked for the same. In the case of hedge funds, the investors are required to make an investment in one go, and unlike private equity funds, they will not be required to pay in installments as and whenever they are asked to do so.

Level of Participation In a private equity fund, investors have active participation. In a hedge fund, investors are levied with a passive status.

Fees are taken by the Management. In a private equity fund, the fees taken by the management is one to two percent of the financial assets that are actively managed. In a hedge fund, the fees taken by the management is one to two percent of the financial assets that are still under management.

Exit Private equity firms exit by selling off the financial securities they own. Hedge funds exit by selling their securities on a public stock exchange.

Control Private equity companies have a greater amount of control upon the entities that are owned by them with respect to changing or redesigning business strategies, implementation of governance, and making operational improvements. Hedge funds do not have any sort of control over the companies that they have made an investment in.

Percentage of Investment Private equity entities invest almost 100% in another company. Hedge funds are minority shareholders making a maximum of 50% investment in another company.

Restrictions on transferability Private equity funds cannot be easily transferred as these are close-ended investment funds. The restrictions on the transferability of these funds are applicable only for a limited span of time. Hedge funds can be easily transferred since these are open-ended investment funds.

Term The life of an investment in a private equity fund is contractually defined. The life of an investment in a hedge fund is free from any sort of restrictions.


Private equity funds are the funds taken into use to acquire the stakes of public limited companies and convert them into private limited companies or make an investment in private companies to gain control over their asset management. The purpose of a private equity fund can be the acquisition of an organization, expansion, strengthening the balance sheet of an organization, etc. Hedge funds are privately-owned companies that choose to raise funds from their investors and then reinvest them into risk-bearing portfolios.

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What Is The Role Of Deferred Scripts In Javascript?

We must be aware of the JavaScript application’s loading speed while running any script on an HTML necessary resources and boost efficiency. A boolean type attribute called defer exists.

unexpectedly comes across a script tag. At that point, the browser halts parsing because it detects executes it. After that script tag, the browser once again begins parsing. Because of the blocking nature this circumstance produces, loading times are slow.

The boolean attributes Defer have been introduced to the script tag as a solution to this problem. While ensuring that all scripts are downloaded, this attribute will not actually execute any scripts until the DOM is ready.

How Does the JavaScript Defer Tag Operate?

The following details describe how defer tag operates −

JavaScript has an attribute called defer, which preserves a boolean value of true or false.

to decrease the running duration of the application.


//Your code goes here


Remember − Scripts will load in the order given by the defer attribute. Users can structure whichever script is read first using this method.

Example 1

In this example let us understand how to use defer script with paragraph content.

HTML Source Code − index.html

h1 { text-align: center; color: green; } .firstPara { border-style: dashed; border-color: rgb(15, 157, 162); border-width: 2px; font-size: 19px; color: rgb(183, 45, 188); width: 900px; } .secondPara { border-style: dashed; border-color: rgb(194, 39, 11); border-width: 2px; font-size: 19px; color: rgb(26, 89, 205); width: 1040px; }

JavaScript Source Code − defer_file.js



"After HTML content, I'm loading."




The above code will give the below output −


The HTML content will be executed first when the application is first launched. Due to the fact that this programme is already cached in the browser cache, when the alert box is later executed, content may come first.

Example 2

In this example let us understand how to use defer script with buttons element.

HTML Source Code − index.html

JavaScript Source Code − defer_file.js

alert("The execution of the buttons will come first, then an alert will appear."); Output

The above code will give the below output −


The HTML content and buttons is executed first when the application is launched for the first time. Due to the fact that this programme is already cached in the browser cache, the content could be executed later after the alert box.

Example 3

In this example let us understand how to use defer script with Navigation Bar.

HTML Source Code − index.html

JavaScript Source Code − defer_file.js

alert("Deferred alert is executed after the execution of the Navigation Bar"); Output

The above code will give the below output −


The HTML content and Navigation Bar is executed first when the application is launched for the first time. Because of the fact that this programme is already cached in the browser cache, the content could be executed later after the alert box.

The Role Of Cognition In The Gradual Release Of Responsibility Model

The gradual release of responsibility model is a familiar concept. This traditional approach to teaching is centered around the idea that a teacher will model a skill or strategy for a few minutes, briefly allow students to practice with some support, and then release the students to begin practicing on their own.

However, when we consider complex tasks, like learning a dance for a recital, for example, this model doesn’t provide a sufficient amount of time for mastery. And learning complex academic tasks is no different.

Ultimately, the goal of learning is that the student can transfer and apply their learning in different settings independently. As we begin to look more closely at our teaching practices, it’s time to ask ourselves if we’re providing enough time for students to practice skills and strategies they’re learning in order for them to gain independence and control over the task for the long term. It’s most important for teachers to understand the foundations of this work when they’re planning instruction.

Understanding the 5 Stages of the Gradual Release Model

In their book Shaping Literate Minds: Developing Self-Regulated Learners, Linda Dorn and Carla Soffos unpack Douglas Fisher and Nancy Frey’s work on the gradual release model, which originated from David Pearson and Margaret Gallagher’s research in 1983. The book outlines how to achieve student success by focusing on the change over time that happens within the student when learning occurs.

1. No awareness: In this phase of learning, the teacher introduces a focused skill or strategy to the students and models using relevant and engaging resources. The teacher models metacognition through thinking out loud so that students can see an example of how to think about this new information.

When students are made aware of new information, it enters their immediate memory inside the brain. Your immediate memory decides within about 30 seconds if there’s a connection to this new information, and if not, it will automatically begin filtering it out.

As educational neuroscientist David Sousa indicates in his book How the Brain Learns, it’s important to build a bridge from prior knowledge to new knowledge in order for students to engage in this new task and take it to working memory.

2. Becoming aware: After the students enter awareness, the teacher continues to carry most of the work with the new concept but begins to invite the students to interact more with the learning. This may look like class discussion around the theme of a text, sharing the pen in writing, or having students help the teacher through the steps of solving a math problem. Students are beginning to be more metacognitive by discussing and reflecting on what is being taught.

Ideally, in this phase the brain is interacting with the information in working memory. Keep in mind that working memory can hold on to only a few bits of information at a time. If you begin to see kids disengage from the content, their brain has entered information overload. When you keep your content focused and provide students time to process and practice the concept, their brains will stay engaged. Too much teacher talk will cause yet another filtering-out effect.

3. Performing with more help: The students are now released to practice the new concept but are provided with built-in support. Scaffolds such as working in a small group with other students, working with a partner, or working with the teacher allow them to begin practicing and talking through the task step by step but still have a knowledgeable expert nearby to intervene if necessary. The students use metacognition to help them identify what they know and reflect on areas where they still need support or intervention.

4. Perform with less help: At this point, students have been given multiple opportunities to practice the task and are now ready to take on even more ownership with less scaffolding. For example, students who are learning how to summarize a text might read independently and fill out an organizer that summarizes the events from the story. The organizer provides some support and guidance, but the students perform the bulk of the task on their own.

The brain has now been given repeated exposures to the concept being taught and in various ways. This allows for the information in working memory to strengthen the pathways necessary to recall the concept quickly and automatically. Consider bringing students back together after their structured practice time to have a reflection or sharing of the learning, so that these pathways continue to strengthen and the content stays relevant.

5. Perform with no help: Here is the real “you do.” In this final stage of the gradual release of responsibility model, students have been given the tools and time to be able to take on new information and are ready to show and apply what they’ve learned. This can include taking an assessment, creating a presentation, teaching someone else what they have learned, or simply performing the task independently. Most important in this phase, the student has gained control over the task, and the brain is able to quickly retrieve the information to carry it out.

It’s important to keep in mind that as students work through the phases to increase their control, the phases don’t have to go in only one direction. Teetering between the phases as students encounter roadblocks and shore up misconceptions may be necessary and is absolutely fine.

Advocate General: Meaning And Role

The governor, chief minister, council of ministers, and attorney general of the state make up the state executive. The Advocate General for the States, who is the top legal official in each state, holds office pursuant to Article 165 of Chapter 2 (The Executive) of Part VI (The States) of the Indian Constitution. Therefore, the office of the Advocate General is crucial to the ongoing operations of the state governments in India’s federal system.

Who is Advocate General?

In India, the Advocate General of State is regarded as the top state legal official. The Advocate General of State is appointed in accordance with Article 165 of the Indian Constitution. Additionally, the governor of the state appoints this highest legal official. The Indian Constitution discusses the duties of the Advocate General of State in Articles 165 and 177.

Powers of Advocate General

To learn more about the function and authority of the Advocate General of the State, let’s now examine both of these articles.

The authority, appointment, and duties of the Advocate General of the State are primarily discussed in Articles 165 and 177.

The Indian Constitution’s Article 165 states that

Every state’s governor appoints an individual qualified to serve as a judge of the high court for the position of Advocate General of State.

In accordance with the Advocate General’s recommendations, the government of the state addresses any legal issues or obligations of a legal nature.

The Governor may appoint this highest legal official to the position at any time.

Depending on what the governor decides, this authority may receive compensation.

The Indian Constitution’s Article 177 states that

The legislative committee’s sessions are open to them.

Functions of Advocate General

The Advocate General has the ability to assume the identity and perform the duties of any legal persona that the Governor assigns them.

The Advocate General is entitled to be heard in any state court of law in accordance with their official responsibilities.

The Advocate General may participate in proceedings of either house of the state legislature or of any committee thereof as a member without having a vote.

In front of the High Court and Supreme Court, the Advocate General can represent the State Government.

Appointment and Term of Advocate General

The Governor of the State, who must be eligible to serve as a judge of a High Court, appoints the Advocate General.

That is, he or she must be an Indian citizen and have served as a judge for ten years or as an attorney in a high court for ten years.

The Advocate General’s tenure of office is not fixed by the Constitution, nor does it outline the process or justifications for dismissal.

The Advocate General serves at the leisure of the Governor of the State, and as such, the Governor may choose a successor at any time.

The Advocate General may also retire from his or her position by sending a letter of resignation to.

He or she may pursue a private law practice since the position is not fulltime.

After leaving office, the Advocate General is still available for re-appointment and other government appointments.

Conclusion FAQs

Q1. Has an Advocate General more power than a judge of High Court?

Q2. Who does appoint Advocate General?

Ans: The Governor of a state shall appoint an Advocate General for the respective State.

Q3. What is the qualification of an Advocate General?

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