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Definition of Redis Data Types

Redis data types is one of the most famous NoSQL databases, which finds its application in caching, storing, and managing user sessions, ad servicing, and recommendations. Redis is an open-source database server that stores data as key-value pairs in RAM memory. The keys manage, delete, and perform various operations on the values paired with them. The value can be any one of the data types supported by Redis. Some of the data types are strings, lists, hashes, sets, sorted sets, hyperloglogs, and bitmaps. Some of the commands are GET, LPUSH, HSET, and SISMEMBER.

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Key Highlights

Redis is an open-source database server that stores data in RAM as key-value pairs, which makes Redis remarkably fast.

Data types pair the keys with the values so you can perform various operations on them.

Some common Redis data types are strings, sets, sorted sets, hashes, lists, hyperloglogs, and bitmaps.

Each data type has its own command set for managing the access pattern regularly, providing transaction support, and performing a large number of operations in a constant time.

Redis Data Types

Data types and commands that are supported by Redis are given below.

a) Strings

Strings are a widely used Redis data type. It stores data in a sequence of bytes and is binary-safe.

Each string can store data up to 512 MB.

The data can be text, integers, floats, videos, images, and audio files.


String data type allows 3 types of commands.

SET command: It helps to create a new key-value pair in the database.

GET command: It helps to fetch the value of the specified key.

DEL command: It deletes the specified key and its value.


The command SET stores the value “project” in a key eduCBA.

The GET command retrieves and displays the value “project”.

The DEL command deletes the value in the key eduCBA and returns the number of values deleted.

b) Lists

Lists are strings sorted in an ordered sequence.

Lists allow simultaneous insertion of values both in the head and tail ends of the lists at a constant time.

The addition of values at a constant time is very helpful for faster writing operations.


LPUSH: It helps to push the value to the left end of the list.

RPUSH: It helps to push the value to the right end of the list.

LRANGE: It provides a range of items in the lists.

LPOP/RPOP: It helps to display and remove the value from both the right and left ends.

LINDEX: It helps to extract value from the specified position within the lists.


The addition of values to the list using LPUSH and RPUSH displays the number of values in the lists.

LRANGE provides the values in lists between 0 and 7.

c) Hashes

A Redis hash stores a large number of unordered objects or keys in minimal space.

It maps the unordered keys to the string values.

The value should always be a Redis string.

Other complex data structures are not allowed in Hash.

The Redis hash can store more than 4 billion key-value pairs.


HSET: It assigns a value to a key in the hash.

HGET: It fetches values associated with a key within the hash.

HGETALL: It displays the whole content of the hash.

HDEL: It deletes a key and its associated value from the hash.


The HSET command checks for the existence of the value.

It provides the output of the number of values entered in the hash.

Similarly, when the HDEL command is executed, it deletes the value and displays the number of values in the hash.

The HGETALL command displays all values in the hash key.

d) Sets

Sets are unordered collections of string values, and hence they prohibit duplication of data.

Since they are in an unordered sequence, you cannot add values to the right and left sides of the sets.

The values of the sets are very unique and non-repeatable.


SADD: It helps to insert a value into a set.

SISMEMBER: It helps to find the existence of value in a set.

SMEMBERS: It helps to fetch and display all values from a set.

SREM: It deletes the specified value from the set.

SRANDMEMBER: It helps to fetch a random set value from a set.

The SADD command adds the value “redis” to the set and returns the integer (1) since the number of values added is 1.

The SMEMBERS display all values in the set.

e) Sorted Sets

Sorted sets, otherwise known as Zests, are similar to the mix of Redis sets and Redis hash.

The key-value pairs in the sorted sets are made of distinctive string keys known as members and the value is known as scores.

The scores are nothing but a floating point value that sorts the elements or keys in the desired order.

If two scores are added to the same value, the last added score will exist in the sorted set by replacing the previously added one.


ZADD: It helps to insert a key-value pair with a score into the sorted set.

ZRANGE: It displays values in the sorted order from low to high, based on the range of scores. The actual score values are displayed by using the WITHSCORES option.

ZREVRANGE: It displays the values of a sorted set arranged from high to low based on the range of scores.

ZRANGEBYSCORE: It displays values from the sorted set based on the predefined range of scores.

ZREM: It helps to delete values from a sorted set.


The command ZADD adds the value “redis” to the key along with the score 1.

The ZRANGE along with the WITHSCORES command displays the values and their scores sorted in ascending order.

f) HyperLogLogs

Hyperloglogs (HLLs) are probabilistic data structures.

It gives the count of the distinctive values in a collection.

Generally, the counting process requires memory equal to the number of values, whereas HLLs use fixed memory and reduce memory consumption.

The maximum memory size of HLLs is 12KB.

The Redis server stores the HLLs as Redis strings.

HLLs provide an approximate count of the values.


PFADD: It helps to insert one or several values into Hyperloglogs.

PFCOUNT: It helps to display the count of unique values from Hyperloglogs.

PFMERGE: It combines two different HyperLogLogs into a single Hyperloglog.


The PFADD command adds the value “redis” to the key eduCBA and displays the count as 1.

The PFMERGE combines the two values of the keys eduCBA and tutorial.

g) Bitmaps

Redis allows bit-level operations on strings known as bitmaps.

Bitwise operations are executed using commands in two ways: operation on single-bit and operations on groups of bits.

It saves more memory space when storing information.


SETBIT: It establishes the bits based on a 0 or 1 value.

GETBIT: It helps to fetch the bit value specified by a key.

BITOP: It helps to perform bitwise operations between strings.

BITPOS: It obtains the first bit with a specified value of 1 or 0 in a string.

BITCOUNT: It counts the number of bits set to 1 in a string.


The SETBIT considers the first argument as a bit number and the second argument as the value of the bit.

The GETBIT displays the value of bit 11.

Benefits of Redis Data Types and Commands

Since Redis stores data in RAM, it provides a super-fast website browsing experience and session storage.

Easy setup and faster access are the greatest benefits of Redis.

Redis has a unique hashing mechanism called Redis Hashing.

It exhibits a data replication process, hence any change in the master node will affect the slave node, and the data will be updated automatically.

It has a mass insertion mechanism that helps in loading millions of pieces of data into the cache in a short period.


Redis is extremely fast and is used in various applications. Each Redis data type finds its own applications to perform various tasks. Some applications are as follows: traffic balancing applications, social media posts, user data, ordered leader boards of player scores in an online competition, and unique user interactions or queries.

FAQs Q1. What are the data types supported in the Redis database?


The Redis database commonly supports seven types of data, such as strings, sets, sorted sets, hashes, lists, hyperloglogs, and bitmaps.

Q2. Why is Redis super-fast?


Redis is a type of NoSQL database server that stores data on disk, it stores data in RAM, which is much faster than on disk.

It supports well-organized lower-level data structures.

Redis also supports input/output multiplexing and a single-threaded execution loop for efficient execution.

Q3. What is the maximum number of keys that can be handled by Redis in a single instance?


In a single instance, Redis can handle up to 2^32 keys irrespective of data types. It was proved that per instance, Redis can handle up to 250 million keys.

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A Comprehensive List Of The Different Python Data Types


Python is one of the most preferred programming languages these days. It allows developers to focus all their efforts on implementation instead of complex programs and data types in python are used for that purpose only to make our work easy.

Overview of the Different Data Types

The classification or categorization of data items is known as Data types. A kind of value is signified by data type which determines what operations need to be performed on that particular data.

It is used for integral values. In python 2 versions, there was different Int and long for small and big integral values, but from python 3 it is int only.

We can represent int in 4 forms.

Decimal form ( it is by default and digits are from 0-9)

Binary form (base-2, 0, and 1)a=1111, so if do print (a)It will be a normal chúng tôi to convert it into binary, we make a change like a=0B1111So basically zero(0) small “ b” or zero(0) capital” B” is used in prefix.

Octal form (0-7 )So in this zero(0) and capital “0” or small “o” is used in prefix.

Hexadecimal (0-9, A-F)In this zero(0) and small or capital “x” is used.

Now the thing to remember is by default the answer we will get will be in decimal forms, so we can change that as well.


Float is a data type in which decimal values are there. In float, we can only have decimal no binary, oct, or hex. Eg: a=15.5 So when we see the type of “a” It will be float type.

Complex :

Print (type(x)) #so it will be complex

The real part can be binary, octal, or hex anything, but the image should be decimal only.

We can type real part in any form like binary octal or hexadecimal but not for imaginary

OB111 + 20j  it is correct. But 14+ 0B101   it is incorrect

So we can do x+y, we can do x*y  or we can do x/y  or x-y

So addition or subtraction of the complex numbers is simple. We simply do addition or subtraction of the real part of both numbers and imaginary parts of both numbers.

(a+bi)  * (c+di)   = (ac-bd) + (ad+bc)i

So whenever we multiply two complex numbers the answer we will get is by this formulae Or we have actually simplified the formula.

Simply let’s say we take two complex numbers.

a= (2 + 4j)       ,      b=  (10 + 10 j)

So now when we multiply them It will be multiplied like this-– 2 (10 + 10j) + 4j(10+10j)

– 20 + 20j  + 40j + 40j^2

And we know ^2 of imaginary part is -1. So it will become-

-20 + 60j

a= p+qj

b= r+sj

So division would be

a/b  =   pr + qs     +    qr – ps      ,  x= under root of (r^2 + s^2)

———          ——–

X                    x

This complex is used much in machine learning or mathematics specific queries.


But one thing is to remember that the first letters should be in the capital True, False

a=True Type (a)

It will show bool

So let’s take an example.

it will show false

The type would be

Print (type(c))


Now one more thing to remember is True =1 and False =0

So if we print (True + True)

The answer would be 2 (1+1)

And if we print (True-False) The answer would be 1  (1-0)


So in string data type, we can use single, double, or triple quotes. So for eg: S= ”Aashish”


We can print type(s) it will give us string

Also s = ”a”

It will also give string unlike java etc because in java etc it must have given it as a character. but there is no data type as a character in python

Now comes the triple quotes. If we have to write the string in multiple lines, then we cannot use single or double quotes, what we can use is single triple quotes or double triple quotes

Like eg :




One more thing we need to know now is the let say we have one statement. Like-

s= Aashish is a very ‘good’ boy

Now in the above statement if we want that Good should be in quotes, so while writing the string we should know that the statement should not be in single quotes. Like-

“Aashish is a very ‘good’ boy”.

And the same goes if we want something in double-quotes, then we have to make the whole statement in a single quote. Now if we want to use both single and double quotes in a statement.

“Aashish” is a very ‘good’ boy

Then we have to put the whole statement in triple quotes.

Positive and Negative Index in strings

So there is indexing in python string, so if let say we want to access the character of the word for eg: from a=  Aashish, we want to access “i”

So we can do it like-

Print (a[4])

The first alphabet is represented by 0. Also, we can do like in python a[-1], which represents the last character.

So it will print h

Slice Operator in String: basically it’s a part of the string which is known as a slice. So to fetch that slice we use it.

Eg:  “Aashish”

In slicing let say we want only “shis”

format is s[begin : end]

Which returns from beginning to end-1. So if let’s say put s[2:6]. It will return to the 5th. Now if we are not specifying begin. Then it will start at 0 s[:5].

If are not specifying it will continue to the end s[2:]. And one case is s[:]. It will return the total string.

One more case s[5:2]. We will get an empty string, as it cannot move from 5 to 2.

And we want the output as “Aashish”

So we can do it like.

output= s[0].upper() + s[1:] print(output)

So we can do it like

output = s[0:len(s)-1]  + s[-1].upper() Print (output)

Now let’s say we need to have the first character in the capital and the last character in the capital and remaining as it is. So what we need to do is simply :

Output = s[0].upper() + s[1:len(s)-1] + s[-1].upper() Print (output )

And * operator for string data type :

Is used for concatenation, and both the arguments should be string only.

So  it can be “String” + “String” + “string” + …..

It cannot be like “String” + “Int”

Now * operator

s=”SUN” *3

So it is a string repetition operator. And used to multiply the string. One thing to notice here is one argument should be a string and the other should be an integer


The process of converting from one type to another type. 5 inbuilt functions are there-






Int: To convert from other types to the int type

Float to the int function, so like if we have 10.989 is there, so after the decimal point all digits will be gone so it will be done like int(10.989), it will give 10.

Complex to int: 10+ 20j, so int (10+20j), it will give type error, as we cannot convert complex to int type.

Bool to int:  int (True)   will give 1

String to int :String internally contains an only integral value or in base 10 only, so no hexadecimal or binary, etc.Therefore int(“15”)  will give chúng tôi (0B1111) will give an error

int(“10.5”) , again error as it is not integral value it is a float value.

Float: Convert into the float type

Or Float(0XFace) will give 64206.0

Complex to float is not possible :

float(False), then the answer would be 0.0

String to float type is also possible, only in the case when the string contains an integral value or float value but they should be specified in base 10.

Float (10)  will give 10.0

Float (0XFACE)  error

Float (“Aashish”) error

Complex Type

Complex (x)

If only one argument then it will become a real value

Complex (10)

The answer would be 10 + 0j

Complex (0B1111)  would be 15+0j

Complex (10.5) would be 10.5 + 0j

Complex (True) would be 1+0j

Complex (False) would be 0j

Complex (“String”) it should have either int or float value in base 10

Complex (x,y)

When two arguments are there one will go to real and one to the imaginary complex(10, 20) would be 10+20j.

Complex (10.5, 20.6) would be 10.5 + 20.6j

Complex (“10”, “20”)

It will give an error if we are having the string argument, we can’t have the second value as a string as well

Complex (10, “20”)

It will also give an error, the second argument can’t be a string in complex



If it is non zero then it will be True

bool(10) will give True

bool(0) will give false


bool(0.1) true

bool(0+0j)    False

bool(1+0j)  True


bool(“True”)   True

bool(“False”)   True

bool(“Yes”)  True

bool (“No”)   True

bool( “ ”)   False

If the string is empty then only it is false, otherwise if it not empty then it will be True


str(10)  “10”

str(0B1111) “15”

str(10.5)    “10.5”

str(10+20j)  “10+20j”

str(True)   “True”

str(False)  “False”

Fundamental Data Types vs Immutability

Immutable → we cannot change

Once we create an object, we cannot perform any changes in that object. If we try to change, then the new object would be created. This non-changeable behavior is immutability.

Python Data Type: Lists

These are the collection related data type.

l=[07, “Aashish”, 20,30, “Nimish”] Print type(l)

It will give a list. The list is always in square brackets. If we print (l), the order will be in the same in which we have given. So the order of perseverance is there. Duplicates objects are allowed.

Heterogenous objects are allowed, like int, string, etc. Indexing and slicing are applicable. Now,

print (l[0])

So will give the first element. And similarly -1 for the last. Now if let say we have an empty list.

l=[  ]

So we can add elements like-


We can remove elements like-


Now let say, we have-

l=[10, 20, 30, 40]

Now the list is mutable so at l[0] we can add value. Like-

l[0]= 100

So now 100 will be added to the starting. List will become l[100, 10, 20, 30, 40].

Python Data Type: Tuple

Now we will learn the data type Tuple. It is the same as the list except it is immutable, if we create one object so we cannot add or remove any object or value. It is like a read-only version of a list. We represent tuple by (10, 20,”aashish”).

Performance is better than the list. And it also uses less memory than a list.

Python Data Type: Set

Now we will learn about the new data type i.e Set. It is used for the group of objects or entities but duplicates are not allowed and I don’t care about the order. So if we have such a type of requirement then we go for the Set.


s1 = {1,2,3} s2 = {3,1,2}

So basically s1 and s2 are equal. So in the set, there is no first element no last element kind of concept. Curly brackets are used inset.

s= {10, 10, 20, “Aashish”, 30}

But output will come s= {10, 20, “Aashish”, 30}

But order can be anything. So indexing cannot be there or slice operator-

Print s[0]

Will give an error.

Heterogeneous objects are allowed.


In the list, it was appended. In set, it is added.

Append vs add

Append was used in the list to add items in the last. So add is used in the set, as we don’t know where it is going to get added.

s= {   }

So it is not known as an empty set it is known as an empty dictionary. As the dictionary gets privilege because of the frequent use of it more than the set.

If we want to create the empty set then we can create it like

s= set() Python Data Type: Frozen set

It is exactly like a set except it is immutable. Because inset we can make changes, but not in the frozen set. So we create the frozen set like-

s={ 10, 20, 30, 40} fr= frozenset(s) Print type(fr)

It will be frozen set s.

So now we cannot add or remove the values from the frozen set and will get the attribute error if we try to do that.

Python Data Type: Range

Now we will learn about the Range.

R = range(10)

So we will get 10 values starting from the 0. So basically it is an inbuilt function used in python. If we print r-

It will give 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

We can use it like

For x in r :    print(x)

So we will get all the values printed. How we can make the range objects.

Form:   range (n)

So will give values to 0 to n-1

Form :  range(begin : end)

So will give values from the beginning to the n-1

r= range(1, 10) For x in r :     Print (x)

So we will get 1,2,3 ….  9


Range (begin, end, increment/Decrement)

R = range(1,21,1) So 1 to 20

1,2,3,….. 20

R = Range(1, 21,2 )

1,3,5… 19

Also, we can do like for decrement

Range (20, 1, -2)

So 20, 18 ….

So now we have known things go in order in range, so wherever order is there, we can do the indexing or slicing. But the range is immutable, as the values are in sequence and if we try to add the values, an error will occur.

Python Data Type: Dict

Now we will learn about the dictionary. Dictionary is different from the above data types in the manner that it is used to represent the key values.  Represent by Dict

d={ k1: v1, k2 : V2}

So let say we have an empty dictionary

d= {   }

So we can add value like

d[100]=”Aashish” d[200]= “Ayush”

So it will look like-

{ 100 : Aashish , 200 : Ayush}

Now there would be one concern about the duplicity of the values. So duplicate keys are not allowed but values can be duplicated. S-

d[100]  = “Abhishek”

So the old value i.e Aashish will be replaced by the Abhishek, so the duplicate key is not allowed, anyhow there would be no error, but the value will get replaced by the new value.

No order there, similarly like a set. Heterogeneous values can be there. It is mutable, we can make changes. Slicing, indexing, etc are not there, due to no order.

Python Data Type: Bytes and BytesArray

l= [10, 20,30,40]

Till now it is a list. Now to convert it into the bytes we need to




Now It is used for the binary creation of the data. Bytes can only have values from 0 to 256. So basically if we add the value 256, 257 …

We will get the value error. Now in this as well indexing, slicing is there. But it is immutable, we cannot change its content. We will get an error. But if we want mutable bytes then it is known as Bytearray

l= [ 10, 20, 30, 40 ] b=bytearray(l) b[0]= 77 print(b[0])

None data type is nothing i.e no value is associated with it. To make the value available for the garbage collection-


None is also stored as object internally-

Print (type(a)) Escape Characters,  Comments, and Constants :

These are –

n  :   for the next line

t   :  for the tab space

r   : carriage return, means starting from the starting

  b : backspace

f : form feed

‘ : for single quote

“ : for double quote

\ :   for backslash symbol

We need to put # in every line.

Constants :

The things of which we cannot change the values

So as such no constant concept is there in python, but if we want the value to be constantly put it in the upper case.


For the convention purpose only.

End Notes

So we learned that Datatypes are an important concept because statistical methods and certain other things can only be used with a certain python data type. You have to analyze data differently and then categorize data otherwise it would result in a wrong analysis.


Guide To Various Types Of Qlikview Tools

Introduction to QlikView Tools

Hadoop, Data Science, Statistics & others

One can utilize QlikView in mobile applications to access Qlik documents. Furthermore, QlikView is user-friendly and requires no special skills to operate, making it a popular choice for monitoring business processes and operations in various departments such as marketing, sales, and human resources. The tool supports ODBC connectivity, which allows users to access numerous data sources.

Different QlikView Tools

The following are the various QlikView tools available:

1. Qlik Power Tools

Qlik Power Tools are a collection of small software programs that provide additional functionalities to QlikView. These tools are primarily used for troubleshooting purposes and are not official Qlik products, i.e., they come without a warranty. There are different types of QlikView power tools available, each serving a specific purpose:

This QlikView Power tool provides facilities to repair large shared files and legacy files. It allows users to view server objects and other files in the Qlik server repositories. This tool also supports viewing the content of binary shared files to repair the loaded files on it.

b. Qv Server Object Connector:

Server objects are available when working with documents on the Qlik server. This tool is a customized data connector to load data from shared files to a document for analysis.

c. QlikView Server Agent:

This tool helps in managing server services more elegantly on many servers at multiple sites from a single location. It is easy to use and manages stopping and starting services at a time.

d. QlikView Server Super-Agent:

It is a powerful tool that is free of charge and acts as a monitoring tool for the QlikView server. It allows users to perform hands-on exercises with data structures and activate the user by sampling a test on every function based on call-based usage of data from the QMS API.

e. QMS API Client:

QMS API Client is an API that allows users to interact with QMS API functions on the QlikView server without needing to write code. It lets users work with data structures and test each function by making calls to the QMS API.

f. Qv User Manager:

This tool prompts the CALs process by assigning and removing CALs used in CSV format. In other words, it helps to clear documents that were not used in recent days and monitors the QLik server remotely.

g. QvsDetector:

This tool tests the QVS machine and helps in detecting QVS from the server on the same network. It helps to fix issues in the customer environment by detecting QVS with the same credentials.

h. Server Object Handler:

This tool takes responsibility for monitoring and administrating server objects in documents that are located remotely. It also enables the ownership changing process on a selected degree of server objects.

i. Schedule Migration Tool:

It outlines how to remove old work from a distributed service process by having issues in the Publisher service after an upgrade. It is the responsibility of QlikView administrators who consider migrating from version 9 to 11/10. Since shared storage is not used, it is recommended to run the service with domain service.

j. Shared File Repair:

This command-line tool is preferably used as a cleaning tool. It helps in defragmenting a shared file to decrease its size. It provides a GUI to perform repair functions on more shared files.

This tool performs an object handler function on the batch script.

l. XMLDBsviewer:

This tool identifies users and groups in Qlikview and permits searching and editing tasks in the QlikView Publisher Repository database in XML format.

2. Qlik Developer Tools

Qlik Developer Tools are designed to help developers explore the resources built by connecting to other developers and within the Qlik Sense desktop. The developer tool view can be accessed to link multiple data information in QlikView. The various developer tools available are:

a. Qviewer: 

A paid tool used to view QVD file contents in a tabular form and named as one of the top apps. It helps manage and validate data or schemas.

b. QlikView Document Analyzer:

This tool analyzes the QlikView document to extract metadata. Users can efficiently view document views in several aspects and monitor their document using this analyzer tool.

c. QVSource:

d. NPrinting:

It is a reporting mechanism that generates reports and distributes them to users via email for publishing.

e. TortoiseSVN:

f. SnagIT:

This tool has built-in program software to read screen recording and screen capture. Users can edit, share, and organize the visuals to grab user attention.

g. Notepad ++:

This tool is popular for its text editing tool and uses Qlik Language definitions. They are the read-me file with basic instructions.

h. Screenshots:

This is a popular tool for taking screenshots of selected regions.

i. Mapping tools:

This tool maps GIS locations and provides sufficient points on the maps.

j. Perfmon:

This tool is used for performance monitoring and explains configurations. It monitors CPU, speed, network performance, bandwidth, and the processor’s clock counters.

k. RightQlik:


QlikView tool stands out due to its visual analytics features, making dashboards visually appealing to users. Furthermore, it has robust client-server communication owing to the QlikView server in the backend system. QlikView is considered to be the business intelligence tool of the future.

Recommended Articles

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Quick Guide To Video Annotation Tools And Types In 2023

Video annotation tools make it possible to annotate difficult and complicated videos with higher accuracy, precision, and consistency. The global market for data annotation tools is projected to surpass $3 billion by 2028.

This article explores the types of video annotation tools and how to choose the best one for your business.

Before choosing the most suitable annotation tool for your business needs, you need to know the types of video annotation techniques. This will give you an understanding of your annotation requirements.

2D boxes: In this type of video annotation, square and rectangular boxes are used to mark objects in the videos. Annotators draw boxes close to the object of interest.

3D boxes: As the name suggests, this method uses 3D cuboid boxes to label the objects allowing the AI model to accurately measure all 3 dimensions of the object and its interaction with surrounding objects.

Polygon Labelling: When the object of interest has an irregular shape, polygon labeling provides more precision. This requires the annotator to know precision labeling.

Landmarks / Keypoints: Keypoint labeling is done by adding points to the objects. This is useful for capturing the movement of facial expressions, body parts, and other moving skeletal objects. 

Lines & Splines: One of the main purposes of lines and splines is to identify lanes and boundaries of an area that are popularly used in autonomous vehicle systems.

How to approach video annotation

Before deciding on which video annotation tool to choose or whether to outsource the service entirely, take the following steps:

1. Recognize the need

Before choosing your video annotation tool, you need to clearly understand what value you want to achieve from it. Why do you wish to annotate your video data? If you wish to use video annotation for a long-term project, then acquiring a dedicated tool and upgrading your workforce would be a better option. On the other hand, if you have short-term goals, such as using a supermarket surveillance system, then outsourcing would be a more economical choice. 

2. The selection criteria

For outsourcing the service, you need to consider technical aspects as well as financial aspects. A video annotation tool should be considered:

Based on efficiency: The tool should have a user-friendly interface; it should also have hotkeys and other features which increase annotation efficiency

Based on functionality: The video annotation tool should be selected based on the types of labeling you require. Considering the previous section on the types of video annotation and the nature of the project are important factors in choosing the right tool,

Based on formatting: Video annotation can be done in various formats, including COC JSON, Pascal Voc XML, Ternsorflow TFRecord, etc. Having a tool that directly converts to various formats can be more efficient.

Based on application: Consider whether your project requires a web-based or an offline application. Offline tools are better for private or confidential data since it is risky to upload that data to third-party tools. 

3. Thoroughly evaluate

The next step is to search and evaluate available vendors and tools on the market. It is important to ensure that the vendor provides the flexibility and post-purchase services that align with your annotation needs. 

You can also check out our sortable and filterable video annotation tools and data annotation services lists.

Further reading

If you have further questions please do not hesitate to contact us:

Shehmir Javaid

Shehmir Javaid is an industry analyst at AIMultiple. He has a background in logistics and supply chain management research and loves learning about innovative technology and sustainability. He completed his MSc in logistics and operations management from Cardiff University UK and Bachelor’s in international business administration From Cardiff Metropolitan University UK.





Types And Examples Of A Special Journal

Definition of Special Journal

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This type of special journal is required in the case of manual accounting. By this method, the finalization work is eased out since the accountant of the company usually takes some care to check the posting of the special journal into the proper ledgers and thus avoids the mistakes of debit and credit while doing accounting.

Types of Special Journal

Various types of the special journal are explained below:

Cash Receipt Journal: It records all the cash receipts which are done in the company in the financial year. It is a specialized transaction that records the sales of the items, which are done using cash and when it is received.

Cash Payment Journal: It records the payments which are done by using cash. It is also a special journal that records the cash payments made to the creditors by the company in the financial year.

Purchase Journal: The purchase journal helps to record all the purchases which are made on credit in the financial year. It helps to keep a check on the orders placed.

Sales Journal: This type of journal helps to record the sales made during the year. This account keeps a track of the debtor’s balances or customer balances who purchase the items from the company and the company keeps a check whether the dues are received or not.

Examples of Special Journal

A company has recorded sales for the financial year for $4,000. The company will record the same in the sales journal which is also known as a special journal. Now while recording the sales the company will create a sales invoice in the name of the company ad it will present the same before the other party on the future date when the payment is required to be made. In the year-end when the accountant will check the books of accounts the Accounts Receivable A/c will be debited with $ 4,000 and the sales will be credited with $ 4,000

The ledger of Accounts receivables will be taken care of and all the payments, if not settled by the customers, will be settled on the given dates. Thus this helps to eliminate the efforts to check all the ledgers in case of any mismatch in the books of accounts also it provides detailed information of the debtors of the company thus making it easy for the company to rely on the special journal i.e. Sales Journal.

Advantages of Special Journal

The special journal is designed in such a way that it is very helpful for the company to post the entries in the books of accounts. The accountant can get detailed information about the ledgers. The changes of getting the posting wrong are minimal to a greater extent.

The transactions of the company are recorded in the special journal and each transaction can be easily traced and checked because the entries are done on an individual basis for example the accountant will clearly mention the name of the debtors in the Account receivable A/c so that in case of the settlement the accountant can inform the higher authority regarding the payment which is still due with the customers.

A continued checking process is always there when it comes to posting the entries. When a posting is done it affects two ledgers and thus it is always checked before and after posting the transactions and so the chances of frauds and mistakes are reduced in the company.

The special journals are very useful techniques when it comes to recording transactions but it can be difficult for the accountant who has limited knowledge regarding the posting. The accounting entries in special cases can be very tedious for those who are not able to understand the accounting concepts and its double entries effect.

The company may have to hire some account experts to do the task for them for that they have to pay some extra salary to the experts and this will increase the cost to the company.

The special journal entries are very beneficial but it is also very time-consuming. Many small companies may not be willing to adopt this kind of practice.

Conclusion Recommended Articles

Guide To Different Types Of Operators Used In Go

Introduction to Go, Operators,

Any programming language comes with certain operators that are used to perform some logical/mathematical operations. Operators are typically constructed that typically work like functions. Operators are basically denoted by special characters and used for additions(+), subtractions(-) and even like assignments(=)

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Languages generally have built-in operators, and some languages allow user-defined operators.

The elements or numbers on which the operator is applied are called operands. The position of an operator with respect to operands can be prefix, postfix or Infix.

Different Go Operators

Different operators are as follows:

Arithmetic Operators

Logical Operators

Relational operators

Bitwise Operators

Assignment Operators

Miscellaneous/Other operators

1. Arithmetic

Let us assume a=6, b=3

Add: This is used for the addition of numbers

Eg: c = a+b ;

Subtract: This is used for the subtraction of numbers

Eg: c = a-b;

Multiply: This is used for the multiplication of numbers

Divide: This is used for the division of numbers

Eg: c = a/b;//c gives 2

Modulus: This is used to get the remainder after a division of numbers

Eg: c = a%b;

Increment: This is used for increasing the integer value by 1

Eg: a++

Decrement: This is used for decreasing the integer value by 1

Eg: a– 2. Logical

Logical operations like AND, OR operations, NOT are done by these operators.

Let x = 0, y=1

AND (&&): If both operands are non-zero valued, the AND of them becomes true.

Eg: x && y = false

NOT (!): Not is used to reverse the logical value of the operand.

Eg: !x = true

!y = false

!(x&&y) = true

3. Relational

Relational operators return true or false based on operations on operands.

Let a = 3; b = 4; c = 3;

Equals (==): This returns true if the operands are equal

Eg: a==c returns true

a==b returns false

NotEquals (!=): This returns true if operands are not equal

Eg: a!=c returns false

a!=b returns true

LessThan (<): This returns true if the left operand is less than the right

E.g.: a<b returns true

LessThanOrEqualTo (<=): This returns true if the left operand is greater than or equal to the right operand

E.g.: a<=b returns true

4. BitWise

These Operators work bit by bit and output the logic based on bit operations.

Below is the truth table for reference:



0 0 0



1 0 1



0 0 1


1 1 1 1


Eg: Let A = 10, B = 13

A = 0000 1100

B = 0000 1101

&: Used to perform bitwise AND Operation

Eg: A & B = 0000 1100 = 12

^: Used to perform XOR operation

Eg: A ^ B = 0000 0001 = 1

<<: This is the left shift which is used to shift the bits to the left by a number that is specified on the right

E.g., A << 2: This would shift the A value by 2

i.e: 0000 0010

0000 1000 = 8

0000 0001 = 1

5. Assignment

These are used for assigning values from the right operand to the left based on the operator.

Let a=4, b = 2

=: Used to assign the value simply from right to the left.

Eg: a = b

+=: Used to add the value and assign it to the left operand

-=: Used to subtract the value and assign it to the left operand

*=: Used to multiply the value and assign it to the left operand

/=: Used to divide the value and assign it to the left operand

%=: Used to assign the reminder after division

<<=: Used to left shift and assign the value to the variable

&=: Bitwise AND Assignment.

^=: Bitwise XOR Assignment.

6. Other/Miscellaneous

& and * are two more operators that Go supports

&: This is used to get the actual address of a variable

Usage: &a;

*: This is used to get the pointer to a variable

Usage: *a

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to Go Operators. Here we have discussed different types of Go Operators with examples for better understanding. You may also look at the following article to learn more –

Update the detailed information about Redis Data Types: A Comprehensive Guide To Types And Commands on the website. We hope the article's content will meet your needs, and we will regularly update the information to provide you with the fastest and most accurate information. Have a great day!