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What is PostgreSQL In ?

The IN operator is used in a WHERE clause that allows checking whether a value is present in a list of other values. In Operation helps to reduce the need for multiple OR conditions in SELECT, UPDATE, INSERT, or DELETE statements.

In this PostgreSQL Tutorial, you will learn the following:

Syntax

The IN operator takes the following syntax:

value IN (value_1, value_2, ...)

The value is the value that you are checking for in the list.

The value_1, value_2… are the list values.

If the value is found in the list, the operator will return a true.

The list can be a set of numbers of strings or even the output result of a SELECT statement as shown below:

value IN (SELECT value FROM table-name);

The statement placed inside the parenthesis is known as a subquery.

With Character

Let us demonstrate how you can use the IN operator with character values.

Consider the following table:

Employees:

Let us run the following query against the above table:

SELECT * FROM Employees WHERE name IN ('James John', 'Mercy Bush', 'Kate Joel');

It return the following:

We have a list of three names. We are searching for whether we can find any of these names in the name column of the Employees table. The Kate Joel was matched to one of the table’s records, and its details were returned.

With Numeric

Now, let us see how we can use the IN operator with numeric values.

Consider the Price table given below:

Price:

We can run the following query against the table:

SELECT * FROM Price WHERE price IN (200, 308, 250, 550);

This returns the following:

We have created a list with 4 numeric values. We are checking whether we can match any of these values with the values contained in the price column of the Price table. Two values were matched, and their details were returned.

Using NOT operator

The IN operator can be used together with the NOT operator. It returns the values that are not found in the specified column. We will use the Price table to demonstrate this.

SELECT * FROM Price WHERE price NOT IN (200, 400, 190, 230);

This will return the following:

We have created a list with 4 numerical values. We are checking the price column of the Price table for values that are not part of the list. Two values, 250 and 300, were not found. Hence their details have been returned.

Using pgAdmin

Now let’s see how the actions can be performed using pgAdmin.

With Character

To accomplish the same through pgAdmin, do this:

Step 1) Login to your pgAdmin account.

Step 2)

Step 3) Type the query in the query editor:

SELECT * FROM Employees WHERE name IN ('James John', 'Mercy Bush', 'Kate Joel');

It should return the following:

With Numeric

To accomplish the same through pgAdmin, do this:

Step 1) Login to your pgAdmin account.

Step 2)

Step 3) Type the query in the query editor:

SELECT * FROM Price WHERE price IN (200, 308, 250, 550);

It should return the following:

Using NOT operator

To accomplish the same through pgAdmin, do this:

Step 1) Login to your pgAdmin account.

Step 2)

Step 3) Type the query in the query editor:

SELECT * FROM Price WHERE price NOT IN (200, 400, 190, 230);

It should return the following:

Summary:

The IN operator is used with the WHERE operator. It allows checking whether a particular value is present in a specific table.

The IN operator helps in reducing the need for multiple OR operators in SELECT, UPDATE, INSERT, or DELETE statements.

When creating a character list to check for the presence of a value, each value in the list should be enclosed within single quotes.

The IN operator can also be used with numeric values.

When the IN operator is used together with the NOT operator, it returns all values that are not found in the specified column.

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How Does Unnest Function Work In Postgresql?

Introduction to PostgreSQL Unnest

PostgreSQL unnest is the type of array functions; the unnest function in PostgreSQL is basically used to expand the array into rows. Unnest function is converting an array into a table-like structure; we can also generate a table structure of an array using unnest function in PostgreSQL. Unnest array function is very useful in PostgreSQL for expanding the array into the set of values or converting the array into the table structure. If we need a table-like structure of array simultaneously, we have to use the unnest function on the array on which we have converted array data into the table-like structure.

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Syntax:

Below is the syntax:

Unnest(Any_array_number (Any array element number which was we have used with unnest function) Unnest (Any_array_text (Any array element text which was we have used with unnest function) Select unnest (any_array (Number of text value which was used in array.)) Select unnest (any_array (Number of text value which was used in array.)) limit number;

Below is the parameter description syntax of Unnest array function:

Unnest: This function we defined in PostgreSQL to set the element in a table-like structure. We have used unnest element with text as well as number array. We must define the number or text element with the unnest array function in PostgreSQL.

Any array text: This is defined as using an array of text values to convert the array into the table-like structure in PostgreSQL by using unnest array function.

Any array number: This is defined as a number. Using the unnest array function, we have used any number values to convert an array into the table-like structure in PostgreSQL.

Select: This operation selects the array’s value using the unnest array function in PostgreSQL. Select operations are very useful and important while using unnest array function in PostgreSQL.

Limit: In PostgreSQL, we have also using the limit clause with unnest function in PostgreSQL. While using the limit clause will show the number as per the limit we have used with unnest function.

How does Unnest Function work in PostgreSQL?

The first overload of usefulness aims to transform the values from an array into a single array.

In the old version of PostgreSQL, when we have to convert an array into the table structure, we have to use an array with the cross join. After joining the array with cross join, we generated the same series.

After generating the series, all the array elements will be structured into the table using cross join and generate series function.

The below example shows that in the old version, we used cross join with generate series function to convert the array into the table structure.

Code:

SELECT test_unnest[A] as array_element FROM  (SELECT ARRAY[11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20] As test_unnest) as gen_ser CROSS JOIN generate_series(1, 10) As A;

Output:

The above example shows that we have used array element as [11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20]; we have used this array element with generate series function for converting an array into the table like structure.

We have also used cross join with the array element and generated a series function for converting an array into a table-like structure.

By using unnest function, we do not need to use a cross join or generate series function to convert an array into a table like structure. We have simply using unnest function with an array.

In PostgreSQL, we have also utilised an array for a number or text to create a table-like structure.

We can also use unnest function with an order by clause. Using an unnest function, we have an order by clause with a 1 in it.

We have also use the limit clause with unnest function. After using a limit clause, it will show the output as per the number which was we have used with the limit.

Examples of PostgreSQL Unnest

Different examples are mentioned below:

Example #1 – Unnest function with array as a number.

Below example shows that unnest function with array as a number. In the below example, we use an array of numbers as [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].

Code:

SELECT unnest(ARRAY[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]);

Output:

Example #2 – Unnest function with array as text.

Below example shows that unnest function with array as text. In the below example, we are using an array of text as [‘ABC’, ‘PQR’, ‘XYZ’, ‘ABC’, ‘PQR’, ‘XYZ’, ‘ABC’, ‘PQR’, ‘XYZ’, ‘ABC’, ‘PQR’, ‘XYZ’].

Code:

SELECT unnest(ARRAY['ABC', 'PQR', 'XYZ', 'ABC', 'PQR', 'XYZ', 'ABC', 'PQR', 'XYZ', 'ABC', 'PQR', 'XYZ']);

Output:

Example #3 – Unnest function with an order by clause.

Below example shows that unnest function with an order by clause. In the below example, we use an array of numbers as [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].

SELECT unnest(ARRAY[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]) order by 1;

Output:

Example #4 – Unnest function with limit clause.

Below example shows that unnest function with a limit clause. In the below example, we use an array of numbers as [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].

Code:

SELECT unnest(ARRAY[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]) limit 5; SELECT unnest(ARRAY[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]) limit 8;

Output:

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Working Of Kwargs In Python With Examples

Introduction to Python kwargs

In this article, we discuss the kwargs concept in Python. In Python, args is a variable with one star, which passes a variable number of the non-keyworded argument list, whereas kwargs have two stars that pass a variable number of the keyworded argument list to the function. These *args and **kwargs make the function flexible. In Python, we use kwargs, which are keyword arguments used when we provide a name to a variable as we pass it to the function. We use kwargs when we want to handle named arguments with a variable-length argument dictionary in a function.

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Working with kwargs in Python with examples

In this section, when we are unsure how many arguments are needed in the program, we use kwargs with two stars (**) before the parameter name. In Python, when using kwargs, we declare it with two stars (**). Now let us see the demonstration of kwargs in the below example.

Example #1

Code:

print("Program to demonstrate **kwargs for variable number of keywords:") print("n") def concatenate(**kwargs): r = "" for arg in kwargs.values(): r += arg return r print("The concatenated value is displayed as follows:") print(concatenate(a="Educba", b="Training", c="Institue"))

Output:

In the above program, we can see that we have defined a function using the argument variable as kwargs with two stars before it. So when we call this function to concatenate(), which will iterate through the given kwargs dictionary a= “Educba”, b= “Training”, c= “Institue” using “for” loop. Then it prints all these words together, as shown in the output and screenshot above.

Now we will see another use of **kwargs. Let’s see below a function that creates using a dictionary of names.

Example #2

Code:

print("Another use of **kwargs:") print("n") def print_values(**kwargs): for key, value in kwargs.items(): print("The value of {} is {}".format(key, value)) print_values(my_name="Rahul", your_name="Ratan")

Output:

In the above program, we have created a dictionary using **kwargs. As we know dictionary can be unordered; the output might display the name first “Rahul” or with another name, “Ratan” so the dictionary has no order to display the output. This can be seen in the above screenshot.

In Python, the known value within the argument list will remain small whenever the developers or users need a number of inputs without a fix. Let us see below how *args and *kwargs are used. Let us demonstrate below with examples.

Example #3

Below is the program that uses *args to pass the elements to the function in an iterable variable.

Code:

print("Program to demonstrate the *args is as follows:") def func(a, b, c): print(a, b, c) a = [1,2,3] func(*a)

Output:

This program utilizes *args to break the list “a” into three elements. We should also note that the above program works only when the number of parameters of a function is the same as the number of elements in the given iterable variable (here, it is list “a”).

Example #4

Code:

print("Program to demonstrate the **kwargs used in function call is as follows:") def func(a, b, c): print(a, b, c) a = {'a': "one", 'b': "two", 'c': "three" } func(**a)

Output:

In the above program, we are using **kwargs with the name variable as “a” which is a list. Again the above program to work, we need to note that the name of the parameters passed to the function must also have the same name in the dictionary where these act as the keys. And we should also note that the number of arguments should be the same as the number of keys in the dictionary.

In the above section, we observed that args, which employs a single star (), generates the list containing positional arguments defined from the provided function call. Whereas we saw in the above **kwargs, which has a double star (**) which creates a dictionary with keys as each element whose contents can be keyword arguments after those defined from the function call. Hence *args and **kwargs are standard conventions to catch positional and keyword arguments, respectively. We should also note that when we use these two types of arguments in one function, we cannot place or write **kwargs before *args, or we will receive an error.

Conclusion

This article concludes that **kwargs is a keyword argument length list when creating the function with parameters. In this, we saw simple examples of **kwargs. We also saw the use of **kwargs when we were unsure of how many parameters to use we can use kwargs. Then we also saw the difference between *args and **kwargs and how they are used in the function call. In this article, we also saw some important notes to remember, such as we need to pass the same number of arguments with the same number of elements when calling the function. We also saw **kwargs creates a dictionary that displays an unordered element when executed.

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How Apply Works In Kotlin With Examples

Introduction to Kotlin apply

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Syntax

In kotlin language, it has a lot of functions, classes, and other keywords for utilising the kotlin logic in the application. Like that, apply is one of the scope functions that can be used to configure the object once initialized and returns the object itself.

class name{ var vars:datatype; fun demo(){ ---some logic codes depends on the requirement— } } name().apply{ ---some codes--- }.demo()

The above codes are the basic syntax for utilising the apply() method in the kotlin class object initialization and return type.

How does apply work in Kotlin?

The kotlin application has some default functions that can be used to approach the top-level site in the file. It is needed for to create the class in to hold the reference of that class method. Kotlin apply is one of the extension functions that can be used on any of the types it runs on the object reference that can be of receiver format into the expression, and it returns the object reference. The apply function is similar to the run functionality, and it is only in terms of referring to the context of the object using “this” and other keywords like “it” in providing the null safety checks.

Apply keyword used in many cases that can be used with various scenarios, and it should be returned with an instance of Intent and an Alert dialog, etc. When we add the specific attributes in the application to them, it can be improved approach from the code snippet helps avoid variable names. The redundancy it thereby enhancing the code readability and the principle of code cleaning. We can see the other keywords and similar methods like run that accepts the return statement whereas the apply that does not accept a return object.

Examples of Kotlin apply

Given below are the examples of Kotlin apply:

Example #1

Code:

class Firstclass { infix fun demo(s: String) { } fun example() { this demo "Please enter your input types" demo("Sivaraman") } } class Worker { var workerName: String = "" var workerID: Int = 0 fun workerDetails(){ lst.add("Employee Name is: XX, Employee ID is:001") lst.add("Employee Name is: XA, Employee ID is:001n") lst.add("Employee Name is: YB, Employee ID is:002n") lst.add("Employee Name is: YC, Employee ID is:003n") for(x in lst) print("The employee lists are iterated and please find your output results $x ") } } { Worker().apply{ this.workerName = "First Employee is Sivaraman" this.workerID = 52 }.workerDetails() data class First(var inp1 : String, var inp2 : String,var inp3 : String) var first = First("Welcome To My Domain its the first example that related to the kotlin apply() function","Have a nice day users","Please try again") first.apply { chúng tôi = "Welcome To My Domain its the first example that related to the kotlin apply() function" } println(first) with(first) { inp1 = "Please enter your input types" inp2 = "Please enter your input types" } println(first) }

Output:

In the above example, we performed the employee details using the default methods.

Example #2

Code:

interface firstInterface { val x : Int val y : String get() = "Welcome To My Domain its the second example that related to the kotlin also() method" } interface secondInterface { fun Sample1(){ println("Your Sample1 Method") } } class Second : firstInterface, secondInterface { override val x : Int get() = 52 override fun Sample1() { println("Have a Nice Day users please try again") } private val res = "firstInterface Second" fun eg() = "This is the second we discussed regarding kotlin also() method" } class Business { var bName: String = "" var GST: String = "" var Location: String = "" var year: Int = 0 fun enteredNewEmployees(bn: String, gst: String, loc: String, yr: Int) { bName = bn GST = gst Location = loc year = yr println("Please see the below new business name: $bName") println("Please see the Business id: $GST") println("Your Location is: $Location") println("The Cross year of the new business is : $year") } fun NewBusinessName(bn: String) { this.bName = bn } } { data class Car(var carName: String, var CarModel : String) var nw = Car("Benz", "AMGE53") nw.apply { CarModel = "RangeRover Evoque" } println(nw) nw.also { it.CarModel = "Audi A6" } println(nw) val ob = Second() ob.Sample1() var ob1 = Business() var ob2 = Business() ob1.enteredNewEmployees("VSR Garments", "33ACKPV67253278", "TUP", 1994) ob2.NewBusinessName("Raman") println("bName of the new Business: ${ob2.bName}") val s = Second() println(s) println(s.eg()) }

Output:

Example #3

Code:

{ data class Third(var str1: String, var str2 : String) var third = Third(“Siva”, “Raman”) println(“Welcome To My domain its the third example that related to the kotlin apply() method”) third.apply { str2 = “Sivaraman” } println(third) third.also { chúng tôi = “Dell” } println(third) with(third) { str1 = “Sivaraman is the Employee working in XX company” str2 = “He is using the DELL Laptop which provided by his office” } }

Output:

In the final example, we used default methods like also(), apply(), and with() methods for to perform the user operations in the application.

Conclusion

In kotlin language has some default scope functions for performing the operations in the kotlin application. Moreover, it has some default extension functions for doing something with an object, and it returns the value. Also, if we need to perform some other operations on an object and it returns some other object, we can utilise it.

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How Stack Works In Docker With Examples?

Introduction to Docker Stack

The ‘docker stack’ is a Docker command to manage Docker stacks. We can use this command to deploy a new stack or update an existing one, list stacks, list the tasks in the stack, remove one or more stacks, and list the services in the stack. Stacks can only be deployed in Docker swarm mode, which comes bundled with the Docker engine, eliminating the need for additional package installations.

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Syntax: 

docker stack [OPTIONS] COMMAND

Options:

deploy: It is used to deploy a new stack or update an existing stack

ls: It is used to list stacks

ps: It is used to list the tasks in the stack

rm: It is used to remove one or more stacks at the same time

services: It is used to list the services in the stack

We can use the ‘–help’ option to learn more about this command, as shown below:

docker stack --help

We can get more information on any of the above commands using the ‘–help’ command as shown below: –

docker stack deploy --help

How Stack works in Docker?

We must pass a ‘docker-compose.yaml’ file as an argument to the ‘docker stack deploys’ command using the ‘–compose-file’ or ‘-c’ option. The ‘docker-compose.yaml’ file comprises services, volumes, networks, and other necessary configurations to launch a comprehensive application. The Docker daemon adds a stack name before service, volume, or network names.

The Docker images mentioned in the compose file are either available on any Docker registry, it might be a private or public registry, or available on all nodes in that swarm, otherwise, container creation will fail.

Examples

Let’s create a simple Python application and deploy it in a Docker Swarm.

First of all, create a local Docker register running as a service using the below command:

docker service create --name my-registry -p 5000:5000  registry:2

Note: We need to initialize the Docker swarm (if not initialized already) using the ‘docker swarm init’ command before running the above command.

Now, let’s verify that the service is running fine and the registry is accessible, as shown below:

docker service ls

Explanation:  We can see that the service is replicated and can access the local host successfully.

Let’s work on the application now; we are going to create a Python application with the code mentioned below, however, we can use any application: –

test-app.py

Code:

app.run(host=”0.0.0.0″, port=8000, debug=True)

We have used Flask and Redis in our Python application, so we need those packages to run the application, so here is the chúng tôi file that we are going to use while building the Docker image.

Here is the snippet of Dockerfile to build a Docker image: –

Dockerfile

CMD [“python”, “test-app.py”]

Let’s build the Docker image now and push it to the local registry as shown below: –

docker push localhost:5000/test-app

Let’s create the ‘docker-compose.yml’ file with two services: ‘web’ and ‘redis’.

docker-compose.yml

image: redis:alpine

Finally, deploy our first Docker stack using the above ‘docker-compose.yml’ file and name it ‘my-first-stack’ as shown below: –

docker stack deploy --compose-file chúng tôi my-first-stack

The given example shows that the services and networks have been labeled with the stack name.

Let’s check if it is deployed successfully using the ‘docker stack ls’ command as below: –

docker stack ls

We can use the below command to know more about services running under this stack: –

docker stack services my-first-stack

In the above snapshot, we can see that 1 replica is running out of 1 for both services. Suppose there is 0 replica showing, which means that the service is not deployed successfully. Check the containers and their logs to troubleshoot.

docker stack ps my-first-stack

Let’s test the application by connecting to it as shown below: –

Hurray, we are able to access our application. Let’s do other ‘docker stack’ commands.

docker stack rm my-first-stack

Based on your description, in the provided snapshot, it appears that all services and networks created during the deployment of the stack are being removed.

Advantages

It makes it easier to manage all components of an application.

We can deploy a highly available application using the Docker stack as it works in Swarm mode.

We can use different orchestrators like Kubernetes as well.

Conclusion

We use ‘docker stack’ most of the time while deploying applications in production to make them highly available. It only works in Swarm mode, so we must have to activate or initialize Swarm mode.

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How Strlen() Function Work In Php With Examples

Introduction to PHP strlen()

A large set of built-in functions make it easier for the coder or the developer to deal with string-related operations in PHP. The strlen() is one of the popular functions we can say of the PHP string to get the length of the string. As its name has been formed by combining two words, str, and len, str refers to the word string, and the length is the length itself. This function will return the length of the given string. This can be used to get the length of the string of any substring whenever required in the program.

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Syntax:

strlen(String)

strlen: It is the function itself.

String: This is the only parameter that takes as a string.

Return Type:

This returns the length of the string, and it will always be an Integer. There is nothing much with the syntax of this function.

How strlen() Function work in PHP?

Before moving ahead with the strlen, we must have a strong first upon which this function will be applied. It takes the string as a parameter and returns the length of that given string. We can use the characters, special characters, URL, numeric values, and special sequence characters as part of the given string.

The user of strlen ()

Code:

$string = "WELCOME TO INDIA"; echo "Lenght of the given String is: "; echo strlen($string);

The above line of code given the length output as 16 as ‘WELCOME TO INDIA’ contains 16 characters, including the spaces.

Use of strlen() with the special sequence character as a string

We should be careful while passing a string containing special sequence characters like n,t,r, etc. As we can see, we n the 2 characters, but it will be counted as one while we will pass this as a parameter with the strlen() function.

Code:

$string = "rHello"; // a string $length = strlen($string); // lenghtof the string

The above line of code gives the output as 6 rather than 7. If we replace with any other character, then we will see the length 7 as an output. This could be a bit tricky while coding in php using the string strlen() function.

Examples of PHP strlen()

Given below are the examples mentioned :

Example #1

Get the length of the given string.

Code:

<?php $string = "WELCOME TO INDIA"; $Length = strlen($string); echo "Length of the given String is: ".$Length;

Output:

As we can see, there is not much in using this function due to the simplicity of this string function. We can consider this function as one of the easiest functions of the PHP string in nature, passing the string as a parameter to get the length.

Example #2

Get the length of the given string after removing all the spaces from that string.

Code:

<?php $string = "WELCOME TO INDIA"; $lenght = strlen($string); echo "Actual string: ".$string; echo "nLength of the given String including space: ".$lenght; $stringAfterRemovedSpace = str_replace(" ","",$string); echo "nActual String with no spaces: ".$stringAfterRemovedSpace; echo "nLength of the given String excluding space: ".strlen($stringAfterRemovedSpace);

Output:

Example #3

An example program demonstrates the use of strlen() function with the string containing the special character and the escape character.

Code:

<?php $string = "n WELCOME TO INDIA"; $Length = strlen($string); echo "Length of the given String is: ".$Length;

Output:

In the above program, when we count the character, it will come up to 19 in the manual, but it the program output, we can see that the length is showing 18. The length is showing one character lesser just because n is being counted as one.

Example #4

Code:

<?php $string = "WELCOME TO INDIA"; $length = strlen($string); echo "Actual String: ".$string; echo "nLength: ".$length; echo "nReverse String: "; { echo $string[$i]; }

Output:

In the above example code, we can see that the reversing string in php comes up with various stages, which include the getting length of the string, too, because the length of the given string helps the developer of the coder to loop through the end to the first position of the string.

Example #5

Length of the string and length of the reverse string of the same.

Code:

<?php $string = "n WELCOME Home!!!"; $length = strlen($string); echo "Actual String: ".$string; echo "nLength: ".$length; echo "nReverse String: "; $reverseString = ""; { $reverseString .= $string[$i]; } echo $reverseString; echo "nLength of the Reverse String: ".strlen($reverseString);

Output:

Conclusion

Built-in function strlen() can be used to get the length of the string. A developer should be aware enough of the functioning of this function. For example, if n, t, etc. contains in a string, then this 2-character special sequence can be considered as one. This function can be used to get the length of a string to make the further required operations. If we are writing our own custom string reverse code, then we can use this function to calculate the actual length of the string.

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