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If you are one of those command line geeks who like listening to music while doing work, you’ll be thrilled to know that Pandora, the popular Internet radio service, can be accessed through command line as well. There exists an open source command line Pandora client by the name of Pianobar, which makes it possible.

The command line application provides the following features:

Play and manage (create, add more music, delete, rename, …) stations

Rate songs and explain why they have been selected

Upcoming songs/song history

Customize keybindings and text output

Remote control and eventcmd interface (send tracks to chúng tôi for example)

Proxy support for listeners outside the USA

In this article, we will discuss how to install, configure, and use the command line application on Linux.


If you’re running Debian, or a Debian-based system (like Ubuntu, Mint, and more), you can easily install Pianobar by running the following command:


apt-get install


But if you’re using some other distribution, or the application is not available in your distribution’s repositories, you can download its source code and build it from scratch. The source code is available on GitHub.


Once Pianobar is successfully downloaded and installed, the next step is to configure it. Although you can run the app right away by running the pianobar command, you’ll probably get frustrated as you’ll have to enter the login credentials every time the command is run.

To configure the application, first create the “config” directory using the following command:






Then navigate to the new directory and create a configuration file called “config”









Open the newly created “config” file, and enter the following information:

user =




password =




audio_quality = high

Replace the square brackets and the text within them with your Pandora username and password. As for “audio_quality”, other available values are “medium” and “low.”

Another point worth mentioning is that you cannot access Pandora outside of the US. So, if you are trying to access Pandora from a location other than the US, add the following line to your config file as well:

This is the most basic configuration. For more configuration options, refer to Pianobar’s man page.

Using Pianobar

Once you’ve configured the application, it’s very easy to use; just run the following command:


The application will login into Pandora service, fetch the stations and ask you to select one. Once done, it will fetch the corresponding play list and start playing the songs.

The application also provides various commands through which you can do stuff like create a new station, delete a station, and more. Here is the complete list of commands (which you can get on console by pressing ?):

+ – love song

– – ban song

a – add music to station

c – create new station

d – delete station

e – explain why this song is played

g – add genre station

h – song history

i – print information about song/station

j – add shared station

n – next song

p – pause/resume playback

q – quit

r – rename station

s – change station

t – tired (ban song for 1 month)

u – upcoming songs

x – select quickmix stations

( – decrease volume

) – increase volume

= – delete seeds/feedback

v – create new station from song or artist

P – resume playback

S – pause playback

^ – reset volume


Himanshu Arora

Himanshu Arora is a freelance technical writer by profession but a software programmer and Linux researcher at heart. He covers software tutorials, reviews, tips/tricks, and more. Some of his articles have been featured on IBM developerworks, ComputerWorld, and in Linux Journal.

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Guide To Chgrp Command In Linux


In Linux, chgrp command is a useful tool for changing group ownership of files and directories. It is an important command for system administrators who need to manage user permissions and access control on a Linux system. chgrp command is also useful for collaborative work where users need to share files and directories with specific groups. In this article, we will explore chgrp command and its usage in detail.

What is chgrp Command in Linux?

The chgrp command is used to change group ownership of files and directories in Linux. chgrp command changes group ownership of a file or directory to a specified group. command is usually used in combination with chown command to change both user and group ownership of a file or directory. chgrp command can be used by root user or any user who has permission to change group ownership of a file or directory.

Syntax of chgrp Command

The syntax of chgrp command is as follows −

chgrp [options] new_group file/directory

The options that can be used with chgrp command are as follows −

-R, --recursive change files and directories recursively --dereference affect referent of each symbolic link --no-dereference affect symbolic links themselves --preserve-root do not operate recursively on '/' --reference=RFILE use RFILE's group rather than specifying a group Examples of chgrp Command

Let’s explore some examples of chgrp command.

Change Group Ownership of a File

To change group ownership of a file, use following command −

chgrp new_group file.txt

This command changes group ownership of file “file.txt” to “new_group”. Note that you need to have necessary permissions to change group ownership of file.

Change Group Ownership of a Directory

To change group ownership of a directory, use following command −

chgrp new_group directory

This command changes group ownership of directory “directory” to “new_group”. Note that you need to have necessary permissions to change group ownership of directory.

Change Group Ownership Recursively

To change group ownership of a directory and all its contents recursively, use following command −

chgrp -R new_group directory

This command changes group ownership of directory “directory” and all its contents recursively to “new_group”. Note that you need to have necessary permissions to change group ownership of directory and its contents.

Change Group Ownership of Symbolic Links

By default, chgrp command affects referent of each symbolic link. However, if you want to change group ownership of symbolic links themselves, use following command −

chgrp --no-dereference new_group symlink

This command changes group ownership of symbolic link “symlink” to “new_group” itself, rather than affecting referent of symbolic link.

Preserve Root Directory

When using chgrp command recursively, you can use –preserve-root option to prevent command from operating recursively on root directory ‘/’. Use following command −

chgrp --recursive --preserve-root new_group /

This command changes group ownership of all files and directories under root directory ‘/’ recursively to “new_group”, but it does not change group ownership of root directory itself.

In addition to examples provided, there are a few other things to keep in mind when working with chgrp command.

Firstly, it is important to note that chgrp command only changes group ownership of files and directories. To change user ownership as well, you can use chown command instead, or combine two commands using syntax −

chown new_owner:new_group file/directory

This command changes both user and group ownership of file or directory to specified values.

Another important consideration when working with chgrp command is use of file permissions. group ownership of a file or directory can affect access permissions of other users in that group. For example, if a file is owned by group “sales” and has read and write permissions for that group, any user in “sales” group can read and modify that file.

To check permissions and ownership of a file or directory, you can use ls command with -l option −

ls -l file.txt

This command will display file’s permissions, ownership, and group ownership in a long format.

Finally, it is important to remember that chgrp command requires administrative or root permissions to be executed. This is because changing file ownership and permissions can have significant consequences for security and functionality of a system. Make sure to use chgrp command only when necessary, and with appropriate level of access.


The chgrp command is an important tool for managing group ownership of files and directories in Linux. It is a useful command for system administrators and collaborative work. In this article, we explored chgrp command and its usage in detail. We also looked at some examples of chgrp command, including changing group ownership of files, directories, and symbolic links, as well as using recursive and preserve-root options.

While chgrp command can be a powerful tool for managing file and directory permissions, it is important to use it carefully and with caution. Make sure you understand permissions and ownership of files and directories you are working with, and double-check command before executing it to avoid unintended consequences.

In summary, chgrp command is an essential tool for managing group ownership of files and directories in Linux. Understanding how to use it effectively can help system administrators and users to manage permissions and access control on a Linux system. With examples and syntax provided in this guide, you should be well on your way to using chgrp command with confidence.

How To Use The Ss Command To Monitor Network Connections In Linux

If you use Linux, there will probably come a time when you need to know more about your network. Several tools can help you do this, and some are more complicated than others. The ss command is something you can rely on being installed on many machines, so it’s handy to know.

What Is the ss Command?

While the two-letter command’s name may seem arcane, it’s actually quite simple. Like many Linux/Unix commands, the name is an abbreviation of what the command does. Here, ss stands for Socket Statistics.

Socket Statistics is a replacement for the old netstat tool, aimed at being easier to use and understand. It simply displays information about sockets. This includes not only TCP and UDP sockets, the most commonly used types, but also DCCP, RAW, and Unix domain sockets.

Basic Usage

The simplest way to use the ss command is to simply run it without arguments. This will display quite a lot of data, so you probably want to pipe it through less for easier reading.

For example, you can list only TCP sockets.

Or, you can list UDP sockets instead.



By default, these options only list sockets that have established connections. To list all the TCP sockets that are either listening or connected, you can run the following:




So far, this all seems pretty simple. Let’s learn more.

Useful Things You Can Do With the ss Command

Now that you’re familiar with the basics, it’s time to start using the ss command to monitor your network. There are many things you can do, but here are a few ideas to get you started.

Monitoring TCP States

If you’re familiar with networking, you already know this, but TCP connections have different stages. These detail the entire lifespan of a connection. We can drill down to certain types of stages using the ss command.

In addition to the standard TCP states like “established” and “closed,” the ss command supports a few custom filters. For example, the “connected” state is simply every TCP state with the exception of “listening” and “closed.” To use this, run the following:

ss state connected IPv4 and IPv6

If your network uses a combination of IPv6 and IPv4 addresses, you can filter them using the ss command. Just use the -4 or -6 flags. If you want to see all IPv4 connections, you can tie in TCP state.

If you wanted to see all IPv6 sockets, you would simply run the following:



What Process Is Using this Socket?

If you know a socket is listening but don’t know why, you can easily track this down. Running the following will show you the name and process ID of all connected IPv4 TCP sockets.

Displaying a Summary

Sometimes you just want a brief rundown of the sockets on a given machine. This is also one of the easier commands to run, as it consists entirely of the letter “s” and one dash:

This gives a summary of all the sockets on your machine and displays whether they’re IPv4 or IPv6.

Want to Know More About Your Network?

This is just the beginning of what you can do with the ss command. It’s a powerful tool and one well worth learning. To dig deeper, open a terminal and look over the documentation in the tool’s man page. Just run man ss to get started.

If you’re looking to secure your machine, ss is handy, but it’s not the only tool available. Take a look at our guide to checking open ports on Linux to learn more.

Kris Wouk

Kris Wouk is a writer, musician, and whatever it’s called when someone makes videos for the web.

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How To Run A Java Program From The Command Prompt

Java is one of the most commonly used programming languages. It is also an IDE-intensive programming language, with tight integration with Eclipse. You can run Java programs from the Command Prompt for quick compiling and execution.

If you are just starting to learn Java, this basic guide will help you start running the Java application from the Command Prompt in Windows 10/11.

Installing the Java Development Kit (JDK) in Windows

Before you can run a Java program on your computer, you’ll need to have a dedicated compiler installed. This comes within the Java Standard Edition Development Kit (JDK). It’s an essential tool for developing in Java on any platform.

The JDK is not the same as the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), which you’ll already have installed if you’ve ever used a Java application on your machine.

Download the JDK from Oracle’s website – the Windows version. Download any of the following: an x64 installer (shown in the screen), an x64 compressed archive, or an x64 MSI installer.

Note: if you have just simple use for Java software, make sure you do not download the “Java SE Development Kit for Java SE subscribers,” which is on the same download page. If you wish to use Java’s JRE installation for Microsoft Windows, it has been moved to another page.

Run the installer as you would for any other program and follow the instructions.

Note the Windows location where Java is being installed. It will come in handy later when you’re trying to run Java from the Command Prompt.

The installation should be over in just a few seconds. If it is taking a long time, close all of your other apps from Task Manager and reinstall the software.

You will see a “Successfully Installed” status in the end.

Running a Java Program From the Command Prompt

Create a simple Java program like the one below using Notepad or another text editor.






















"Hello, World!"





Make sure to save the file with the extension “.java” rather than “.txt.”

Open the Command Prompt from the Windows Start Menu, and don’t forget to run it as “Administrator.”

Use the cd command to change your working directory to the directory containing your Java program. To know which directory to go to, check the saved location of Java on your PC as discussed above.






From here, locate the path to the version of the Java Development Kit (JDK) on your computer. For example, if you’re running 64-bit Windows, that will often be in “C:Program FilesJava.”

Next, set the path to the JDK with the set command:






;C:Program FilesJavajdk


"Java Version Number"


You may need to change the directory path to reflect the current version of Java. Make sure you’re using the Java Development Kit (JDK) directory and pointing to the “bin” folder.

Note: the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) folder also contains a “bin” folder but doesn’t hold the Java compiler. If you get errors around the compilation, make sure you’re using the correct directory path.

Compile the Java program with the javac command as shown below. Be warned that you won’t see anything happen. However, if you use the dir command, you’ll notice a new file in your directory ending in the “.class” extension, indicating the program has been compiled.


"Program Name"


Use the java command to run your program:


"Program Name"

You’ll see the program run within the Command Prompt window, but there’s one more task you can do to make sure your Java program runs smoothly: set your path.

Setting a Permanent PATH

The above command doesn’t set your Java compiler PATH permanently. It sets the environment variable for that session, but that change will be wiped away when you close the Command Prompt session.

Setting your Java compiler PATH permanently can come in handy if you want your compiled Java programs to run smoothly after a PC reboot. This helps launch the requested programs quickly from the Command Prompt window (or a third-party software like Eclipse).

Follow the steps below to change your PATH variable for all future sessions.

Paste the directory path you used above into the text box. Again, make sure you’re using the Java Development Kit (JDK) directory and not the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) directory next to it.

This article featured a simple Java program, but you can initiate almost any Java program from the Command Prompt. The procedure is straightforward regardless of the nature of your program.

Frequently Asked Questions How can I fix “Java is not recognized as an internal or external command” in Windows?

The best way to fix “Java is not recognized as an internal or external command” is to add Java’s bin directory to your computer’s path, as covered above.

Windows Command Prompt doesn’t show the results of Java command. How can I fix it?

If your Windows Command Prompt doesn’t show the results of a Java command you’ve entered, there are two solutions: run the Command Prompt in Administrator Mode or find your “Java.exe” file in the folder location and open its “Properties.” Then, navigate to the “Compatibility” tab where you will have to uncheck the “Run this program as an administrator” option.

What is the difference between Java and Javascript?

Don’t confuse Java with Javascript, as they are two different entities:

Java came before Javascript. It was founded by Sun Microsystems in 1991-1995. Javascript was founded later by Netscape, an old browser company. Basically, Javascript is a very lightweight version of Java and still commonly used in browsers.

Java is a compiled program, whereas Javascript is interpreted.

Java is a static typed program, whereas Javascript is dynamically typed.

Java uses classes, and Javascript uses prototypes.

Image credit: WrightStudio via AdobeStock. All screenshots by Sayak Boral.

Sayak Boral

Sayak Boral is a technology writer with over eleven years of experience working in different industries including semiconductors, IoT, enterprise IT, telecommunications OSS/BSS, and network security. He has been writing for MakeTechEasier on a wide range of technical topics including Windows, Android, Internet, Hardware Guides, Browsers, Software Tools, and Product Reviews.

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Use Drivedroid To Install Any Linux Distro From Android

DriveDroid is an Android application that allows you to boot into a number of Linux distributions on your computer from their ISO/IMG files stored on your device.

This enables you to create an emergency rescue disk on your smartphone or try out different Linux distributions instead of using many different USB pendrives or CDs.


DriveDroid has both free and paid versions which can be installed from the Google Play Store.

The paid version is ad-free and allows resizing of image files, but is otherwise exactly the same as the free version.

You can search for DriveDroid on Google Play or just follow this link.

Initial Configuration

Before you proceed, make sure your device is rooted or it will not work. Also make sure you have lots of space for the Linux distribution you plan to download.

Keep in mind that not all .iso files support being booted through this method, but most of the popular distributions are covered.

Once you have installed the application, it will attempt to guide you through the configuration process.

It will then check if your device is on its blacklist of known devices that are not working properly with the app. Then you will need to give the application root access.

At this point you’ll need to plug in your device to your computer using a USB cable. You will be prompted to select the USB system used by your device for handling USB. Most devices will work with the first one available.

Next, you should open your file explorer to confirm if your device is recognized as a USB drive or CD drive. In my case it was shown as a USB drive.

If your PC does not recognize your device, try going to the previous page and trying a different USB system or try connecting to a different PC.

How to set up a live bootable USB

With your device connected to a PC, open DriveDroid and select the Linux distribution you’d like to run. Most of the popular distros such as Ubuntu, Arch Linux, Linux Mint, Elementary OS, Fedora are well supported.

If you already have a downloaded .iso/image file, you can move it to your Android device, and select “Add image from file” instead.

Next, you’ll need to host the .iso./image file as a bootable USB. Just tap on the distro name, and select the highlighted option in the pop-up box.

Once this is done, you’ll see a notification on your device confirming that the image file is successfully hosted. Your Android device will now be treated as a regular USB drive and should follow normal protocols.

You can now reboot your computer into your BIOS settings and then boot into your hosted image file from the USB drive.


That’s it! Quick and easy, right? You can now carry all your favorite Linux distributions around with you everywhere on one device and boot into them at anytime. If you create a customized USB image file, you can also keep that on your Android device and boot into it using DriveDroid. Some people have had success installing Windows from DriveDroid, but the process is slightly different.

Ayo Isaiah

Ayo Isaiah is a freelance writer from Lagos who loves everything technology with a particular interest in open-source software. Follow him on Twitter.

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How To Install Software From A Tarball In Linux

Most of the time, installing software in Linux is a breeze. Package management utilities like Apt, Portage, and Yum have made software installation in Linux even easier than it is in Windows (in my opinion at least). If you know what you want, you simply tell your package manager that you want it, and it’ll find, download, install, and configure your new package for you.

Sometimes, however, the package doesn’t exist in your distribution’s repositories. Often, in cases like that, your only option is to download a tarball (usually chúng tôi chúng tôi or .tgz) which contains the source code for the program that you have to compile yourself. While it may be a little intimidating at first, compiling from source is normally a quick and easy process. Today, we’ll learn how.

First off, I should note that not all tarballs are the same. This guide will be assuming that the program you’re trying to install is a normal GNU-style source code collection. Most require all the steps noted below, but many skip one step or another. For the purposes of the tutorial I’ll be compiling the source code package of Python 3.0.1 from the Python homepage.

Step 1: Extract the tarball

For those new to Linux, tarball is a term commonly used to refer to a file which contains other files. It’s a lot like a ZIP or RAR file in Windows, except that the tar program, on its own, does not compress the files. Tar works with a compression program like gzip to actually compress the files, which is why you commonly see two extensions (.tar and .gz). This is sometimes abbreviated to just .tgz.



chúng tôi options we gave tar are as follows:

-z to tell tar to run this file through gzip to decompress (use -j for bzip files)

-x to extract the files

-v for “verbose”, so we can see a list of the files it’s extracting

-f to tell tar that we’re working with a file

For easier unzipping, see the Tips section at the bottom of this page


Once the files are extracted, open a command terminal and go to the directory where the files have been unzipped. Before we can compile, we need to run the configure script. The job of the configure script is to check your system for all the software necessary to compile the program from source code into a usable binary program. It looks for things like gcc version and other tools needed to build the software. So once you’re in the directory with all the files that were unpacked from the tarball, type in




If all goes well it’ll go through a check of various parts of your system, then drop you back to the command line like below:

The most common cause of errors in this step is a missing dependency. Look closely at any errors you may get to determine what package is missing.


This is the real meat of the process – where we compile the source code into a runnable program. This is normally the easiest step, only requiring a single command. If the configure step completed without errors, simply type in


On a large program, this step might take a few minutes. Once done, you’ll be dropped back to the shell prompt as shown here.

Technically, your program is now ready to use. Under most circumstances, however, you’ll want to run one more step so that she program can be fully installed into the correct locations for it to be run from anywhere.

Make install

All this really does is copy the now-compiled program into the system directories like /usr/bin so that it can be run from any directory without having to specify a path to the files. Since it’s copying to a directory outside your home, you’ll probably need root privileges. If the make step completed without errors, simply run




to copy the files. At this point, you’re all done! Your new program can be used like any other.


Chances are, you’ll be compiling from source more than once in your life. In fact, for those who like to use the latest and greatest software, this can be very common. To make it a little easier, open your .bashrc file from your home directory, and add the following aliases to the end:




"tar -zxvf"




"tar -jxvf"




"./configure && make && sudo make install"

Joshua Price

Josh Price is a senior MakeTechEasier writer and owner of Rain Dog Software

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