Trending March 2024 # Newbie’s Deep Learning Project To Recognize Handwritten Digit # Suggested April 2024 # Top 10 Popular

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This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.

Developers are putting all their strength to make machines more intelligent, and smarter than humans. Deep learning is one such technique that contributes to developers enhancing machines. To memorize how a task is performed, what do humans do? Humans keep practicing and repeating that task again and again so that they get proficient in that task. After some time our brain neurons can automatically trigger and perform the task quickly and accurately. Likewise, deep learning follows the approach to solving a problem. Various types of neural network architectures are used by deep learning algorithms to solve different types of problems.

Table of Contents


Handwritten Digit Recognition



Steps to build Recognition System

5.1. Import libraries

5.2. Data Preprocessing

5.3. Model creation

5.4. Model training

5.5. Model Evaluation

5.6. GUI creation




    In this article, we are going to use the MNIST dataset for the implementation of a handwritten digit recognition app. To implement this we will use a special type of deep neural network called Convolutional Neural Networks. In the end, we will also build a Graphical user interface(GUI) where you can directly draw the digit and recognize it straight away.

    What is Handwritten Digit Recognition?

    Handwritten digit recognition is the process to provide the ability to machines to recognize human handwritten digits. It is not an easy task for the machine because handwritten digits are not perfect, vary from person-to-person, and can be made with many different flavors.


    Basic knowledge of deep learning with Keras library, the Tkinter library for GUI building, and Python programming are required to run this amazing project.

    Commands to Install the necessary libraries for this project:

    pip install numpy pip install tensorflow pip install keras pip install pillow The MNIST dataset

    Among thousands of datasets available in the market, MNIST is the most popular dataset for enthusiasts of machine learning and deep learning. Above 60,000 plus training images of handwritten digits from zero to nine and more than 10,000 images for testing are present in the MNIST dataset. So, 10 different classes are in the MNIST dataset. The images of handwritten digits are shown as a matrix of 28×28 where every cell consists of a grayscale pixel value.

    Steps to build Handwritten Digit Recognition System 1. Import libraries and dataset

    At the project beginning, we import all the needed modules for training our model. We can easily import the dataset and start working on that because the Keras library already contains many datasets and MNIST is one of them. We call mnist.load_data() function to get training data with its labels and also the testing data with its labels.

    import keras from keras.datasets import mnist from keras.models import Sequential from keras.layers import Dense Flatten from keras.layers import Dropout from keras.layers import Flatten from keras.layers import Conv2D from keras.layers import MaxPooling2D from keras import backend as K # to split the data of training and testing sets (x_train, y_train), (x_test, y_test) = mnist.load_data() The Data Preprocessing

    Model cannot take the image data directly so we need to perform some basic operations and process the data to make it ready for our neural network. The dimension of the training data is (60000*28*28). One more dimension is needed for the CNN model so we reshape the matrix to shape (60000*28*28*1).

    x_train = x_train.reshape(x_train.shape[0], 28, 28, 1) x_test = x_test.reshape(x_test.shape[0], 28, 28, 1) input_shape = (28, 28, 1) # conversion of class vectors to matrices of binary class y_train = keras.utils.to_categorical(y_train, num_classes) y_test = keras.utils.to_categorical(y_test, num_classes) x_train = x_train.astype('float32') x_test = x_test.astype('float32') x_train /= 255 x_test /= 255 Create the model

    Its time for the creation of the CNN model for this Python-based data science project. A convolutional layer and pooling layers are the two wheels of a CNN model. The reason behind the success of CNN for image classification problems is its feasibility with grid structured data. We will use the Adadelta optimizer for the model compilation.

    batch_size = 128 num_classes = 10 epochs = 10 model = Sequential() model.add(Conv2D(32, kernel_size=(3, 3),activation='relu',input_shape=input_shape)) model.add(Conv2D(64, (3, 3), activation='relu')) model.add(MaxPooling2D(pool_size=(2, 2))) model.add(Dropout(0.25)) model.add(Flatten()) model.add(Dense(256, activation='relu')) model.add(Dropout(0.5)) model.add(Dense(num_classes, activation='softmax')) Train the model

    To start the training of the model we can simply call the function of Keras. It takes the training data, validation data, epochs, and batch size as the parameter.

    The training of model takes some time. After succesful model training, we can save the weights and model definition in the ‘mnist.h5’ file.

    hist =, y_train,batch_size=batch_size,epochs=epochs,verbose=1,validation_data=(x_test, y_test)) print("The model has successfully trained")'mnist.h5') print("Saving the bot as mnist.h5")


    The model has successfully trained

    Saving the bot as mnist.h5

    Evaluate the model

    To evaluate how accurate our model works, we have around 10,000 images in our dataset. In the training of the data model, we do not include the testing data that’s why it is new data for our model. Around 99% accuracy is achieved with this well-balanced MNIST dataset.

    score = model.evaluate(x_test, y_test, verbose=0) print('Test loss:', score[0]) print('Test accuracy:', score[1])


    Create GUI to predict digits

    Below is the full code for our file:

    from keras.models import load_model from Tkinter import * import Tkinter successful as tk import win32gui from PIL import ImageGrab, Image import numpy as np model = load_model('mnist.h5') def predict_digit(img): #resize image to 28x28 pixels img = img.resize((28,28)) #convert rgb to grayscale img = img.convert('L') img = np.array(img) #reshaping for model normalization img = img.reshape(1,28,28,1) img = img/255.0 #predicting the class res = model.predict([img])[0] return np.argmax(res), max(res) class App(tk.Tk): def __init__(self): tk.Tk.__init__(self) self.x = self.y = 0 # Creating elements self.canvas = tk.Canvas(self, width=200, height=200, bg = "black", cursor="cross") self.label = tk.Label(self, text="Analyzing..", font=("Helvetica", 48)) self.classify_btn = tk.Button(self, text = "Searched", command = self.classify_handwriting) self.button_clear = tk.Button(self, text = "Dlt", command = self.clear_all) # Grid structure self.canvas.grid(row=0, column=0, pady=2, sticky=W, ) self.label.grid(row=0, column=1,pady=2, padx=2) self.classify_btn.grid(row=1, column=1, pady=2, padx=2) self.button_clear.grid(row=1, column=0, pady=2) #self.canvas.bind("", self.start_pos) self.canvas.bind("", self.draw_lines) def clear_all(self): self.canvas.delete("all") def classify_handwriting(self): Hd = self.canvas.winfo_id() # to fetch the handle of the canvas rect = win32gui.GetWindowRect(Hd) # to fetch the edges of the canvas im = ImageGrab.grab(rect) digit, acc = predict_digit(im) self.label.configure(text= str(digit)+', '+ str(int(acc*100))+'%') def draw_lines(slf, event): slf.x = event.x slf.y = event.y r=8 slf.canvas.create_oval(slf.x-r, slf.y-r, slf.x + r, slf.y + r, fill='black') app = App() mainloop()



    This project is beginner-friendly and can be used by data science newbies. We have created and deployed a successful deep learning project of digit recognition. We build the GUI for easy learning where we draw a digit on the canvas then we classify the digit and show the results.

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    Crowd Counting Using Deep Learning

    This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon


    Before we start with Crowd Counting, let’s get familiar with counting objects in images. It is one of the fundamental tasks in computer vision. The goal of Object Counting is to count the number of object instances in a single image or video sequence. It has many real-world applications such as surveillance, microbiology, crowdedness estimation, product counting, and traffic flow monitoring.

    Types of object counting techniques

    Detection based object counting 

    1. Detection-based Object Counting – Here, we use a moving window-like detector to identify the target objects in an image and count how many there are. The methods used for detection require well-trained classifiers that can extract low-level features. Although these methods work well for detecting faces, they do not perform well on crowded images of people/objects as most of the target objects are not clearly visible.

    An implementation of detection-based object counting can be done using any state-of-the-art object detection methods like Faster RCNN or Yolo where the model detects the target objects in the images. We can return the count of the detected objects (the bounding boxes) to obtain the count.

    2. Regression-based Object Counting – We build an end-to-end regression method using CNNs. This takes the entire image as input and directly generates the crowd/object count. CNNs work really well with regression or classification tasks. The regression-based method directly maps the number of objects predicted based on features extracted from cropped image patches to the ground truth count.

    An implementation of regression-based object counting has been seen in Kaggle’s NOAA fisheries steller sea lion population count competition where the winner had used VGG-16 as the feature extractor and created a fully connected architecture with the last layer being a regression layer (linear output).

    Now since we have discussed some of the basics of object counting, let us start Crowd Counting!

    Crowd Counting

    Crowd Counting is a technique to count or estimate the number of people in an image. Accurately estimating the number of people/objects in a single image is a challenging yet meaningful task and has been applied in many applications such as urban planning and public safety. Crowd counting is particularly prominent in the various object counting tasks due to its specific significance to social security and development.

    Before we proceed further, look at various crowd counting datasets to know how the crowd images actually look like!

    Types of approaches for crowd counting technique –


    Early works on crowd counting use detection-based

    approaches(we have already discussed the basics of the detection-based approach). These approaches usually apply a person head detector via a moving window on an image. Recently many extraordinary object detectors such as R-CNN, YOLO, and SSD have been presented, which may perform dramatic detection accuracy in sparse scenes. However, they will present unsatisfactory results when encountered the situation of occlusion and background clutter in extremely dense crowds.

    ignore spatial information.

    Density Estimation based method

    is a method to solve this problem by learning a linear mapping between features in the local region and its object density maps. It integrates the information of saliency during the learning process. Since the ideal linear mapping is hard to obtain, we can use random forest regression to learn a non-linear mapping instead of the linear one.

    The latest works have used CNN-based approaches to predict the density map because of its success in classification and recognition. In the rest of the blog, we will some of the modern density map-based approach methods mainly CNN-based for crowd counting. By the end of the blog, you’ll have an intuition of how crowd counting techniques work and how to implement them!

    Ground truth generation – 

    Assuming that there is an object instance (head of a person in our case) at pixel xi, it can be represented by a delta function δ(x − xi). Therefore, for an image with N annotations, it can be represented by the above equation

    where σi represents the standard deviation

    To generate the density map F, we convolute H(x) with a Gaussian kernel, which can be defined by the above equation.

     Visualization of ground truth density maps via Gaussian convolution operation. In this example, the images have instances of vehicles.


    1. MCNN – Multi-column CNN for density map estimation.

    Architecture of MCNN

    It contains three parallel CNNs whose filters are with local receptive fields of different sizes. For simplification, we use the same network structures for all columns (i.e., conv–pooling–conv–pooling) except for the sizes and numbers of filters. Max pooling is applied for each 2×2 region, and Rectified linear unit (ReLU) is adopted as the activation function because of its good performance for CNNs . To reduce the computational complexity (the number of parameters to be optimized), we use fewer filters for CNNs with larger filters. We stack the output feature maps of all CNNs and map them to a density map. To map the features maps to the density map, we adopt filters whose sizes are 1 × 1. 

    Then Euclidean distance is used to measure the difference between the estimated density map and ground truth. The loss is defined as –

    where Θ is a set of learnable parameters in the MCNN. N is the number of the training image. Xi is the input image and Fi is the ground truth density map of image Xi. F(Xi; Θ) stands for the estimated density map generated by MCNN which is parameterized with Θ for sample Xi. L is the loss between the estimated density map and the ground truth density map. 

    Refer to the papers and code to learn more about MCNN. The method was proposed on the Shanghaitech crowd dataset.

    2. CSRNet – Dilated Convolutional Neural Networks for Understanding the Highly Congested Scenes

    The proposed CSRNet is composed of two major components: a convolutional neural network (CNN) as the front-end for 2D feature extraction and a dilated CNN for the back-end, which uses dilated kernels to deliver larger reception fields and to replace pooling operations. CSRNet is an easy-trained model because of its pure convolutional structure.

    They chose VGG16 as the front-end of CSRNet because of its strong transfer-learning ability and its flexible architecture for easily concatenating the back-end for density map generation. In these cases, the VGG-16 performs as an ancillary without significantly boosting the final accuracy. In the research paper, they first remove the classification part of VGG16 (fully connected layers) and build the proposed CSRNet with convolutional layers in VGG-16.

    The output size of this front-end network is 1/8 of the original input size. If we continue to stack more convolutional layers and pooling layers (basic components in VGG-16), output size would be further shrunken, and it is hard to generate high-quality density maps. Therefore they deployed dilated convolutional layers as the back-end.

    . 3 × 3 convolution kernels with different dilation rates as 1, 2, and 3.

    In dilated convolution, a small-size kernel with a k × k filter is enlarged to k + (k − 1)(r − 1) with dilated stride r. Thus it allows flexible aggregation of the multi-scale contextual information while keeping the same resolution. Dilated convolution is applied to keep the output resolutions high and it avoids the need for upsampling. Most importantly, the output from dilated convolution contains more detailed information (referring to the portions we zoom in on). Read this to understand more about dilated convolution.

    Configuration – They kept the first ten layers of VGG-16 with only three pooling layers instead of five to suppress the detrimental effects on output accuracy caused by the pooling operation. Since the output (density maps) of CSRNet is smaller (1/8 of input size), we choose bilinear interpolation with the factor of 8 for scaling and make sure the output shares the same resolution as the input image.

    Refer to the papers and code to learn more about CSRNet. The method gave state-of-the-art results on various crowd counting datasets.

    Comparison of different approaches for crowd counting techniques.

    About the author

    I am Yash Khandelwal, pursuing MSc in Mathematics and Computing from Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi. I am a Data Science and Machine Learning enthusiast. 

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    Tinyml Gets A Deep Learning Twist! Self

    TinyML has become quite popular in the tech community owing to its growth opportunities

    The world is getting a whole lot smarter with the constant evolution of the technology landscape. Emerging technology trends possess the potential to transform avant-garde business processes. With the integration of artificial intelligence and machine learning, the tech industry is about to unlock multi-billion dollar market prospects. One of these prospects is

    How is self-attention in TinyML affecting modern AI models?

    Typically, deep neural network models are designed to process one single piece of data at a time. But, in several other applications, the network is processed altogether, automatically, and then the relations between the sequence of input data is being checked. Hence, self-attention aims to address such issues. It is one of the most efficient and successful mechanisms for addressing relations between sequential data. Self-attention is generally used in transformers, which is a deep learning architecture that operates behind popular LLMs like GPT-3 and OPT-175B, but it is estimated to be very useful for TinyML applications as well. Experts say that there is a big potential that encompasses the field of machine learning and TinyML. The recent innovations in TinyML are enabling machines to run increasingly complex deep learning models directly through microcontrollers. This new technology has made it possible to run these models on the existing microcontroller hardware. This branch of machine learning represents a collaborative effort between the embedded ultra-low power systems and ML communities that have traditionally operated independently.

    The world is getting a whole lot smarter with the constant evolution of the technology landscape. Emerging technology trends possess the potential to transform avant-garde business processes. With the integration of artificial intelligence and machine learning, the tech industry is about to unlock multi-billion dollar market prospects. One of these prospects is TinyML , which is basically the art and science of producing machine learning models robust enough to function in the end, which is why it is witnessing growing popularity in the business domains. TinyML has made it possible for machine learning models to be deployed at the edge. So, what actually is TinyML ? Experts believe that it can be broadly defined as a fast-growing field of ML technologies and applications including hardware, algorithms, and software that are capable of performing on-device sensor data. Recently, researchers, after witnessing the growing interest in TinyML have decided to exceed their capabilities. The innovation is titled to be self-attention for TinyML, which has eventually become one of the key components in several deep learning architectures. In a new research paper, scientists from the University of Waterloo and DarwinAI have introduced a new deep learning architecture that will bring highly efficient self-attention to TinyML . This process is basically known as the double-condensing attention condenser. The architecture is designed to build based on the old research theories that the team has done and is currently promising for edge AI applications.Typically, deep neural network models are designed to process one single piece of data at a time. But, in several other applications, the network is processed altogether, automatically, and then the relations between the sequence of input data is being checked. Hence, self-attention aims to address such issues. It is one of the most efficient and successful mechanisms for addressing relations between sequential data. Self-attention is generally used in transformers, which is a deep learning architecture that operates behind popular LLMs like GPT-3 and OPT-175B, but it is estimated to be very useful for TinyML applications as well. Experts say that there is a big potential that encompasses the field of machine learning and TinyML. The recent innovations in TinyML are enabling machines to run increasingly complex deep learning models directly through microcontrollers. This new technology has made it possible to run these models on the existing microcontroller hardware. This branch of machine learning represents a collaborative effort between the embedded ultra-low power systems and ML communities that have traditionally operated independently. In the paper, the scientists also included TinySpeech, which is a neural network that uses attention condensers for speech recognition. Attention condensers demonstrated great success across manufacturing, automotive, and healthcare applications, whereas traditional machines had various limits.

    Creating Continuous Action Bot Using Deep Reinforcement Learning

    Now, we move on to the crux Actor critic method. The original paper explains quite well how it works but here is a rough idea. The actor takes a decision based on a policy, critic evaluates state-action pair and give it a Q value. If the state-action pair is good according to critics it will have a higher Q value and vice versa.

    Now we move to actor-network, we created a similar network but here are some key points which you must remember while making the actor.

    Actor-Network class ActorNetwork(nn.Module): def __init__(self, alpha): super(ActorNetwork, self).__init__() self.input_dims = 2 self.fc1_dims = fc1_dims self.fc2_dims = fc2_dims self.n_actions = 2 chúng tôi = nn.Linear(self.input_dims, self.fc1_dims) chúng tôi = nn.Linear(self.fc1_dims, self.fc2_dims) chúng tôi = nn.Linear(self.fc2_dims, self.n_actions) self.optimizer = optim.Adam(self.parameters(), lr=alpha) self.device = T.device('cuda' if T.cuda.is_available() else 'cpu') def forward(self, state): prob = self.fc1(state) prob = F.relu(prob) prob = self.fc2(prob) prob = F.relu(prob) #fixing each agent between 0 and 1 and transforming each action in env mu = T.sigmoid( return mu

    Note: We used 2 hidden layers since our action space was small and environment not very complex. Authors used 400 and 300 neurons for 2 hidden layers.

    Just like gym env, the agent has some conditions too. We initialized our target networks with the same weights as our original (A-C) networks. Since we are chasing a moving target, target networks create stability and help original networks to train.

    We initialize with all the requirements, as you might have noticed we have one loss function parameter too. We can use different loss functions and choose whichever works best for us (usually L1 smooth loss), paper had used mse loss, so we will go ahead and use it as default.

    Here we include choosing action function, you can create an evaluation function as well, which outputs action space without noise. A remembering function (just as cover) to store it in our memory.

    Update parameter function, now this is where we do soft(target networks) and hard updates(original networks). Now here it takes only one parameter Tau, this is similar to how we think a learning rate is.

    It is used to soft update our target networks and in the paper, they found the best tau to be 0.001 and it usually is best across different papers (you can try and play with it).

    class Agent(object): def __init__(self, alpha, beta, input_dims=2, tau, env, gamma=0.99, n_actions=2, max_size=1000000, batch_size=64): self.gamma = gamma chúng tôi = tau self.memory = ReplayBuffer(max_size) self.batch_size = batch_size = ActorNetwork(alpha) self.critic = CriticNetwork(beta) self.target_actor = ActorNetwork(alpha) self.target_critic = CriticNetwork(beta) self.scale = 1.0 self.noise = np.random.normal(scale=self.scale,size=(n_actions)) self.update_network_parameters(tau=1) def choose_action(self, observation): observation = T.tensor(observation, dtype=T.float).to( mu = mu_prime = mu + T.tensor(self.noise(), dtype=T.float).to( return mu_prime.cpu().detach().numpy() def remember(self, state, action, reward, new_state, done): self.memory.store_transition(state, action, reward, new_state, done) def learn(self): if self.memory.mem_cntr < self.batch_size: return state, action, reward, new_state, done = self.memory.sample_buffer(self.batch_size) reward = T.tensor(reward, dtype=T.float).to(self.critic.device) done = T.tensor(done).to(self.critic.device) new_state = T.tensor(new_state, dtype=T.float).to(self.critic.device) action = T.tensor(action, dtype=T.float).to(self.critic.device) state = T.tensor(state, dtype=T.float).to(self.critic.device) self.target_actor.eval() self.target_critic.eval() self.critic.eval() target_actions = self.target_actor.forward(new_state) critic_value_ = self.target_critic.forward(new_state, target_actions) critic_value = self.critic.forward(state, action) target = [] for j in range(self.batch_size): target.append(reward[j] + self.gamma*critic_value_[j]*done[j]) target = T.tensor(target).to(self.critic.device) target = target.view(self.batch_size, 1) self.critic.train() self.critic.optimizer.zero_grad() critic_loss = F.mse_loss(target, critic_value) critic_loss.backward() self.critic.optimizer.step() self.critic.eval() mu = actor_loss = -self.critic.forward(state, mu) actor_loss = T.mean(actor_loss) actor_loss.backward() self.update_network_parameters() def update_network_parameters(self, tau=None): if tau is None: tau = self.tau actor_params = critic_params = self.critic.named_parameters() target_actor_params = self.target_actor.named_parameters() target_critic_params = self.target_critic.named_parameters() critic_state_dict = dict(critic_params) actor_state_dict = dict(actor_params) target_critic_dict = dict(target_critic_params) target_actor_dict = dict(target_actor_params) for name in critic_state_dict: critic_state_dict[name] = tau*critic_state_dict[name].clone() + (1-tau)*target_critic_dict[name].clone() self.target_critic.load_state_dict(critic_state_dict) for name in actor_state_dict: actor_state_dict[name] = tau*actor_state_dict[name].clone() + (1-tau)*target_actor_dict[name].clone() self.target_actor.load_state_dict(actor_state_dict)

    The most crucial part is the learning function. First, we feed the network with samples until it reaches batch size and then start sampling from batches to update our networks. Calculate critic and actor losses. Then just soft update all the parameters.

    env = OurCustomEnv(sales_function, obs_range, act_range) agent = Agent(alpha=0.000025, beta=0.00025, tau=0.001, env=env, batch_size=64, n_actions=2) score_history = [] for i in range(10000): obs = env.reset() done = False score = 0 while not done: act = agent.choose_action(obs) new_state, reward, done, info = env.step(act) agent.remember(obs, act, reward, new_state, int(done)) agent.learn() score += reward obs = new_state score_history.append(score) Results

    Just in few minutes, we have training results ready. Agent exhausts almost full budget and we have a graph during training –

    These results can be achieved even faster if we make changes in hyperparameters and reward functions.

    Also thanks to Phil and Andrej Karpathy for their marvellous work.

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    Top 5 Skills Needed To Be A Deep Learning Engineer!

    This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon

    “What’s behind driverless cars? Artificial Intelligence or more specifically Deep Learning”  – Dave Waters When


    In India, around 700 thousand students graduate per year, and students who want to pursue their dreams in the Development side of Computer Science need to choose one domain, Deep Learning is one of them. As technologies are growing larger and larger students’ interest in Machine Learning/Deep Learning is also growing. One big issue that everybody faces is that they all know there is some good scope in the field of AI, but what they lack is where to start and in which direction they need to focus their energy, they try one technology and after a few days, they jump on the other one leaving the last one unpracticed.

    Most Deep Learning Practitioners are afraid that big tech giants are working on some algorithms that will automate the whole Deep Learning Process and there would be no such post as Deep Learning Engineer. So let me confirm you one thing that is not going to happen, not now for sure. Automation is taking over the place but there is still a long path to go.

    If you know that you are good with numbers and want to work on some exciting technologies, Deep Learning is surely for you, in this tutorial I will tell you the pathway which you can follow to be a successful Applied Deep Learning Engineer.

    What is Deep Learning?

    Deep Learning is the subset of Machine Learning that primarily deals with Neural Networks (NN). It provides solutions for almost all kinds of data like images, text, audio, etc. Neural Networks try to mimic the brain in order to produce results in the same fashion as the human mind does. This theory part you guys already know so let me jump straight to the things that you are sceptical about. I know you might have doubts about if you need a master’s degree or you need to be from Harvard or MIT to be a good fit for Deep Learning, let me answer that for you. There are two roles in Deep Learning as well one called a Deep Learning Researcher and another one as Applied Deep Learning Engineer. The first one deals with having more statistics and mathematics-based knowledge that can help you understand the Deep Learning concepts and would eventually lead you to discover new algorithms/technologies, while the other one deals with whatever is already implemented by Deep Learning Researchers just use that and apply it somewhere, where it can reduce the human effort.


    Now you know that if you are not from some Tier-1 college you can still be a Deep Learning Engineer, so let’s discuss what all technologies you will need to be a successful Deep Learning Engineer.

    Summary of Skills Needed:

    While you work on Machine Learning/Deep Learning it’s not like you will just have to know some algorithms and apply them to the data that you are gonna get. You will start from the requirement phase i.e. first identify the problem for which you will find the solution. One most important thing is not all problems require Deep Learning solutions first try to analyze the problem and see if it can be solved using traditional algorithms if yes you will be saving a lot of energy and resources otherwise you are free to choose Deep Learning solution.

    1. A programming language suitable for AI/ML/DL

    I know you might be wondering why I am telling you this while you might already know it, but choosing the programming language is the first task that sets you up on the path of Deep Learning. Common languages preferred for DL are Python and R (personally I use python).

    Both of these languages have their specialties it’s not like when you are using one you can completely ignore the other one, having knowledge of both of them is a cherry on the cake. When you start learning any of these programming languages try to focus fully on one language and once you have mastered it, another one would be very easy for you. Try to master as many libraries as you can, once done, it would be very easy for you to work on real-world projects.

    Problems Faced:

    While anyone starts learning a programming language main issue he/she faces is the knowledge of resources that will abate the learning process. I have also faced the same issue while doing the same. How I have mastered the Python language is by completing primary lectures from chúng tôi and them completing several video lectures from Udemy and Coursera. One important suggestion that I would surely make is don’t watch video lectures just to earn certificates and fancy your linked profile, watch them, gain knowledge that would eventually help you to be a better developer.

    2. Computer Science Fundamentals and Data Structures

    Knowing Machine Learning/Deep Learning algorithms is not enough, you will also require knowledge of  Software Engineering skills like Data Structures, Software Development Life Cycle, Github, Algorithms (Sorting, Searching, and Optimisation).

    When you work on any real-world project, the client would not need any Machine Learning model, what he would require is a solution in form of any Service or Application for that you need to have a deeper understanding of these concepts.

    Problems Faced:

    Most of the Data Science enthusiasts think that if they are going to work in the field of AI/ML/DL they will just have to learn a bunch of algorithms that they are anyways going to get in some package, and other concepts are not that much important spacially Data Structure. So let me clear one thing for you when you work on any live project where you will have to optimize your code in order to make it memory and time-efficient, and whenever we talk about efficiency there comes the Data Structure. Also when you work on live projects you need to work on deadlines so to deliver projects to clients on time you need to have a proper understanding of SDLC. I also studied these concepts in college only and when I was working on POCs (Proof of Concepts) I also did not have a proper understanding of these concepts in real-world but as I have been part of few projects these concepts became clear to me, so if you know these concepts and are afraid that you don’t know how to apply these concepts in real-world, don’t worry that you will learn only when you will be part of any project.

    3. Mathematics for Machine Learning

    If you are a software Engineer you can easily code any solution but when it comes to Machine Learning you need to have an understanding of Mathematical and Statistical concepts that will help you analyze any algorithm and tune it according to your need.

    For training and inference also you will need to have knowledge of concepts like Gradient Descent, Distance Matrics, Mean, Median and Mode, etc.

    Problems Faced:

    According to me, this is the important thing that someone must learn before entering the field of Deep Learning. Most of us think that when most of the algorithms are already implemented and we are just going to apply them to different fields why learn mathematical concepts. So as I have experienced every time when you are going to work on any Deep Learning algorithm you will have to tune it according to your use case and for that, you need these concepts. I have worked on several projects and honestly 95% of the time these concepts came in handy for tuning the algorithm other 5% I have used algorithms as it is.

    4. Front End/UI Technology & Deployment Services

    When you have your Machine Learning solution ready you need to represent it to others in form of Some Charts or Visualisations because the person to whom you are explaining might not have the knowledge of these algorithms and what he would want is the working solution for his problem. So what can enhance this development process is the knowledge of any UI technology like Django, Flask and if when required, JavaScript, your Machine Learning code would be the backend while you will create a frontend for the same.


    Once the whole solution is ready you need to deploy that solution somewhere for that you should learn technologies like Apache, Wamp, etc.

    This technology is a must for working on Deep Learning projects, if you are part of a very big organization there are dedicated frontend and backend developers so there is no worry if you work only on the backend part but if you are part of a small organization or a small team most probably you will have to handle both frontend and backend development.

    5. knowledge of Cloud Computing platforms

    As we are moving ahead in technology the amount of data is increasing immensely, you can not manage that data on your local server so one should move to cloud technologies. These platforms provide some very good services from data preparation to model development.

    Some of these computing platforms have some Deep Learning based solutions that are State of The Art. The most preferred platforms are AWS and Azure and you can also try Google Cloud.

    These are the technologies that one should learn while working as a Deep Learning Engineer, of course, you can learn other technologies also but these are the must ones.

    Problems Faced:

    Working on Cloud Computing might be hard as you will have to work on this tech while working on other 4 techs, but if you are interested in learning some extra stuff this is surely for Deep Learning Engineer.


    You can use the following resources to start learning these technologies:

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    Impact Of Ai And Machine Learning On Project Management

    This blog presents a full overview of the subject to bridge the gap between AI and project management. Project managers, stakeholders, and anyone interested in the topic will be better able to understand how AI and ML affect project management. So let’s dive in and see how project management will change due to these cutting-edge technologies.

    How Can Artificial Intelligence Be Defined?

    Artificial intelligence is a key component of the technology sector, a subfield of computer science that tries to build intelligent machines. To perform knowledge engineering, artificial intelligence primarily needs access to objects, attributes, categories, and relations between them. However, starting a machine’s common sense, reasoning, and problem-solving abilities is challenging and time-consuming. The computer must learn how to react to certain activities and build a propensity model using past data and algorithms. Consequently, a key component of artificial intelligence is machine learning. By using machine learning, artificial intelligence imitates human intelligence.

    Top 7 Impacts of AI and ML on Project Management 1. Predictive Analytics

    Using artificial intelligence, predictive analytics combines the details of previous initiatives to determine what worked and what did not. In essence, artificial intelligence (AI) can “predict” the course of a particular project and increase project teams’ and managers’ awareness of it.

    2. Enhancing Risk Management

    In the near future, AI may be able to extract tasks and their connections from project managers’ mental maps by turning them into a semantic network. For instance, AI-based project scheduling might take into account lessons gained from earlier projects and provide many potential schedules depending on the context and dependencies.

    Furthermore, project plans might be modified and re-baselined in close to real-time depending on past team performance and project progress. Using real-time project data analysis, an AI system may notify the project manager of prospective hazards and opportunities.

    3. Allocating Resources and Planning

    AI may increase the precision of project planning and assist the project manager in tracking the project’s development. This is particularly helpful for managing substantial and intricate tasks. AI-enhanced project management solutions may assist you in choosing the appropriate resource allocation for your project.

    Machine learning algorithms may be utilized based on historical data from previous projects. Project planning may be strengthened by allowing auto-scheduling using pre-programmed logic Progress, and task status may also be monitored automatically, with the project manager receiving notifications.

    4. Cost Reduction 5. Improved Human Resources

    The repetitious, data-driven jobs that AI excels at. The “iron triangle” of time, money, and scope has long been given top priority by project managers, usually at the expense of other factors like people management. In other words, AI frees up project management teams to focus on key areas like people management, project vision, team building, and network development by automating typical data-driven activities. AI cannot fix scheduling conflicts, but it can foresee them. It cannot get the required agreement to put a project back on track or settle the problems brought on by a detour.

    6. Improved Collaboration and Communication

    AI and ML may improve collaboration and communication by offering real-time data analysis and easing communication between team members. This may assist project managers in seeing possible problems and swiftly resolving them, improving project results.

    7. Eliminate Repetitious Administrative Activities

    In particular, project managers will have more time and energy to concentrate on actual work when most administrative tasks are handed off to artificial intelligence. By doing this, employees may contribute to the project using their distinct interpersonal and judging abilities, which will become more crucial as Artificial Intelligence becomes more commonplace in business.

    In reality, there is no amount of software, code, or coding that could ever replace the wisdom and empathy of a person. Therefore, the project manager’s function in strategy, motivation, creativity, and general judgment will be prioritized as Artificial Intelligence, and its applications in project management become more prevalent.

    Challenges and Limitations of AI and Machine Learning in Project Management

    Integration Challenges − Adding AI and machine learning to project management procedures may be difficult and expensive in terms of time, money, and expertise. This may be a substantial hurdle for many businesses, especially smaller ones.

    Problems with Data Quality and Quantity − To be effective, AI and ML algorithms need high-quality and enough data. The accuracy and dependability of AI and ML algorithms may be impacted by problems with data quality and quantity, which can also lessen their usefulness.

    Cost Factors − Applying AI and ML to project management takes a major time, resource, and skill commitment. This may be a substantial hurdle for many businesses, especially smaller ones.

    Bias and Unintended Consequences − AI and ML algorithms have the potential to both reinforce and create new biases, which may influence project results and decision-making. Project managers must be aware of these biases and take action to reduce them.

    Ethical and Privacy Concerns − Because AI and ML algorithms use many sensitive and private data, there may be ethical and privacy issues. The responsible use of the data must adhere to privacy laws and regulations. Thus, project managers must take appropriate measures to achieve this.


    Despite the delayed acceptance of AI, many businesses are gradually discovering the value of monitoring software AI in project management. Artificial intelligence assists project managers in improved resource allocation, delegating tasks, and a holistic perspective of the project as it proceeds through execution.

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