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Introduction to Kotlin version

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Version of Kotlin

In July 2011, JetBrains performed some research and explored a new language that blends well with the JVM nicely.

Jetbrains being the initiator, decided and checked some of the features that it had was with an exception in Scala. The exception was that the scale was slow due to the slow compilation; it was not recommended because kotlin needs to compile faster.

In 2012 kotlin came with the next version where it made the entire project open source under Apache 2 license.

Kotlin released its first stable version, 1.0, on February 15 2024, which Jet Brains have committed to having long-term backward compatibility within it.

With the same released, supported by Google I/O 2023 for kotlin on android.

Kotlin released its next version, which is 1.2, which was released on November 28 2023, which has the ability to share code between JVM and JavaScript platform feature that was newly aggregated as part of a release. In fact, an entire Java full-stack demo was made with Kotlin/JS Gradle plugin.

Kotlin 1.3 was released on October 29, 2023, making asynchronous programming more evolved.

Kotlin, with its all major changes, was released in August 2023 with some slight changes for apple’s platform in c or Swift programming language.

These were overview on the broad level now; let’s see some of the versions with their characteristics with each release :

# Kotlin 1.1 Beta 2: This was the first beta release based on the previous discussion on features and extractions. Then kotlin 1.1 released with the candidate stage; in a sense, almost all the development work was done, and on March 1, 2023, it got released with JavaScript support and coroutines, etc., which was a big step to move further.

# Kotlin 1.1.1: This version release was made on March 14 2023, with a focus on address regression and was basically a bug fixing update for 1.1.

#Kotlin 1.0.7: This version of kotlin is the latest update used to update the back portion of the program.

# Kotlin 1.1.2: This version of the kotlin release was made on April 25 2023, which is used for bug fixing and tool update for kotlin to improve the performance.

# Kotlin/Native 0.2: Again, this version was released on May 12 2023, with feature and bug fixing to update the technology review.

# Kotlin/Native 0.3: This version was released on June 22 2023, with some of the new releases for modification and working with some windows related issues.

# Kotlin 1.1.3: This version was released on une 23, 2023, with some of the new tooling updates for kotlin 1.1.

# Kotlin 1.2 M2:  This version was released on August 9 2023, which primarily focuses on the stability of the language and internal compilation.

# Kotlin 1.1.4: This version release is related to new bug fixing and tool updates for some of the deprecations.

# Kotlin 1.1.50: Another version was released on September 22 2023, with a bug fix and update for 1.1.

# Kotlin 1.1.60: This is a version released on November 13 2023, a bug fix version for updating the kotlin 1.1 version released earlier.

# Kotlin 1.2: The actual release of version 1.2 was made on November 28 2023, which is used to share platforms for version release.

# Kotlin 1.2.20: This version was released for a new bugfix and tooling update for which had added support for Gradle build cache and improved compilation for android apps.

# kotlin/Native version 0.7: This version of release was made on April 27 2023, which emphasized making the entire language smoother interop, frozen objects, optimizations, and many more features for working.

# Kotlin 1.2.50: This version of the release was made on June 14 2023, for Kotlin update of the previous version of bug fixing.

# Kotlin/Native v0.8: This version of the Kotlin release is a news release that is used for safer concurrent programming extending the other features and enhancing it.

# Kotlin 1.3 M2: This was the release made on August 19 2023, which was a breakthrough release because of the second milestone, which has set up the release of some new features like improves smart-casting and other compile-time analyses, Standard library functions for unsigned types and collections.

# Kotlin 1.3 RC: Next great release with a lot of updated features was made on September 20, 2023, with a lot of critical bug fixing available on previous versions of the release made earlier.

# Kotlin 1.3.70: The last flagged release of Kotlin with this range of release was made on March 3 2023, with all the updates and bug fixing in this kotlin.

# Kotlin 1.4 M1: This release was made on March 23 2023, with key improvisation and new features like enabled the type inference algorithm, contracts are, and evolutionary changes in the standard library.

# Kotlin 1.4.30: This Kotlin is released on February 4 2023, which got released with a new JVM backend and multiplatform language changes.

# Kotlin 1.5.0 M2 released: The last release for Kotlin 1.5.0-M2 was made on March 29, 2023, which ensured smooth migration from all the previous releases made so far with a lot of feature enhancement and improvisation.


Kotlin is a programming language that is nowadays quite a preferable language over android language for front-end development and programming. It is quite an adaptable language because of easy syntax and flexibility for quick compilation with Java in the environment. It has a lot of features that make it quite versatile.

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Different Alternatives Of Lucidchart In Detail

Introduction to Lucidchart

Lucidchart is a web-based platform to design diagrams, which helps us understand the requirement better and easily. This tool allows us to easily share our ideas and information within the team and effectively process this information. This Lucidchart or Lucidchart alternative helps us visualize our ideas and information that others can understand. With the help of these, we can increase productivity because they help us implement things very fast and with all clarity we need.

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We have so many alternatives for Lucidchart at present. Some are paid, and some are free, which can be used according to the need. Here we will see each alternative we have in detail with some guidance to use it effectively; also, we can design UML diagrams, flowcharts, database representation and much more quickly.

List of Lucidchart Alternative

Here we will see different alternatives we have for Lucidchart at present; we will see each in detail to know how to use it when needed.

1. SmartDraw

As we can see, it provides us with support and compatibility with various tools available.

So it can be the best choice to be the alternative for Lucidchart.

Usage of SmartDraw:

Process Management

Technical Drawing

Visual Communication

Data Flow Diagram

Mind Mapping

List of UML Tools

List of Concept- And Mind-Mapping Software


List of Concept Mapping Software

Operating System:


Windows 10

Windows 7



1. Go to their official website by typing the below link.

2. They will ask for a sign up which you can create or use the existing one if you have one.

3. After this, we can create the diagram according to our needs.



1. First type chúng tôi in the browser, then you will navigate to the below URL:

3. Creately

This is also one of the alternatives for Lucidchart we have. This tool comes up with two editions; one is offline, and another one is cloud-based. Creately is a Saas-based tool that helps us easily visualize ideas, information, and business requirements as part of the process.

Below is the list of areas where we can use this tool to increase productivity and stabilize things.



Technical Drawing

Data Flow Diagram

Mind Mapping

Data Visualization

Flow Charts

Business Charts

Projects Charts

Organizational Charts

Mind Maps


Operation System





1. To use it, go to their official website by typing the following link in the browser.

2. After signing up, you can start using this tool; it has all the options available to create the desired diagram.

You will see the below page once you start with it.

4. Gliffy

This is also one of the alternatives we have for Lucidchart, which is easily accessible also. This tool is based on HTML5 and is a cloud-based app. It is also used to serve the same purpose that we are discussing to create the diagrams. It helps us to create flowcharts, UML, and many more things. It also helps us to share ideas and information easily and clearly with the organization.


Floor Plans

Flow Charts


Venn Diagrams

Also, we can design some other kinds of diagrams online only.

Browsers List:

Internet Explorer 9+

Google Chrome




1. To use this tool, we can easily type in the URL in the browser to start with it.

2. After this, we need to sign up to use it. Then only, we can start using the tool.

You will see the below page on the browser for Gliffy.

Conclusion – Lucidchart Alternative

We have many options for Lucidchart alternatives; some are free, and some are paid. We can go ahead with any tools that suit our requirements better. But these tools are very helpful for the organization to understand the need and increase the team’s productivity.

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Learn The Different Alternative Of Vyond

Introduction to Vyond Alternative

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List of Vyond Alternatives

Below is the list of Vyond alternatives:

1. 3ds Max

3ds Max is the best alternative for Vyond. Autodesk developed and designed a computer graphics program called it to create 3D animation, models, and games. Its modeling capabilities, and Flexible plugins make it more popular. Mostly video game developers and TV studios use this to create visual effects. Filmmakers also make use of this software. People use Maxscript, a built-in scripting language, to automate repetitive tasks. It provides various plugins such as character studio, DWG Import, Scene Explorer, Texture Editing, Keyframe, Skinning, animation, Skeletons, Integrated Cloth Solver, etc.

2. Unity

Another alternative for Vyond is unity. It is a Game engine platform developed by unity technologies. It is used to create two-dimensional, three-dimensional, virtual reality, and augmented reality games. It is used by film industries, architecture, construction, and automation. For example, Automotive uses unity technology to create full-scale models of vehicles in virtual reality, train workers, and build virtual assembly lines. It allows users to create both 2D and 3D games. The engine offers primary Scripting API in C# for unity editors in plugins and games and drags and drop functionality.

3. Maya 4. Cinema 4d 5. Pencil2D

Another Vyond alternative is Pencil2D. It creates 2D animations and cartoons using traditional techniques such as tracing drawings, onion skinning, etc. It is also used to manage vector and bitmap drawings. It allows users to save their files in their native file formats. It also the export sequence of images in various formats such as PNG, BMP, JPEG, and TFTT format and export video in MP4, GIF, AVI, WebM, and APNG formats. Supports operating systems like Windows, Unix, and macOS.

6. Lightwave 3D 7. iClone

iClone is a real-time 3D animation and rendering software program. It provides functionality such as full facial and skeletal animation of human and animal figures, Python API and scripting language for character interaction, and lip-syncing. It can import models from Google 3D warehouse. It provides various features such as production, actor, animation, stage, props, camera, video effects, and rendering.

8. Blender

It is another best alternative for Vyond. Users utilize Adobe Animate, a 3D graphics computer software, to create 3D printed models, 3D applications, visual effects, art, animation films, computer games, and virtual reality. It provides various features such as 3D modeling, UV unwrapping, raster graphics editor, texturing, rigging, skinning, sculpting,  rendering, motion graphics, match moving, fluid and smoke simulation, video editing, and composition. Supports operating systems like Windows, Linux, macOS, Android, BSD, FreeBSD, and NetBSD.

9. Adobe Animate

Adobe developed the computer animation program called Adobe Animate. It creates animation and vector graphics, raster graphics, rich text, and audio-video embedding. Supports operating systems like Windows and macOS. Supports various formats like  HTML5, scalable vector graphics, legacy Flash player, and Adobe AIR format.

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Learn 4 Best Different Types Of C# Functions

Introduction to C# Functions

C# functions are the essential parts of the C# program that can consist of several elements, such as the function name that is used as the function’s reference, return types of the data operated in the functions, the logical body of the function, parameters that can be passed as arguments for the function, and the Access Specifier for defining the accessibility of the function inside the program. The different functions that can be integrated into a C# program are a combination of functions with or without parameters, which can or cannot have the return values, depending on the requirement provided.

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There are several components in functions –

We have a unique name called the Function name to make a function call.

We will use the Return Type to specify the return value data type.

The block of statements that contains the executable statements is called Body.

We can pass the functions during the function call as a list of Parameter arguments.

To specify the accessibility of function in the application, we can use the Access specifier.

Different C# Function

Without parameters(arguments) and return type.

With parameters(arguments) but without return type.

Using parameters(arguments) and with the return type.

Without parameters(arguments) and with the return value.

{ }

Return statements, parameters, and Access-specifier are optional in the above syntax.

 Functional Aspects  Syntax(Function)

return values Declaration: int display ( int );

Function call: display ( value );


return values Declaration: void display ( int );

Call: display (value);


return values Declaration: void display ();

Call: display ();


return values Declaration: int display ( );

Call: display ( );


If a function’s return value is “void,” it cannot return any values to the calling function.

Note: If the return value of the function, such as “int, double, float, string, etc.” is other than void, then it can return values to the calling function.

1. Using Without Parameters and Without Return Type

We specified the function with no parameter and no return type, a function that does not return any values here, as void type as a return type value. In this program, any values should not be passed to the function call Display(), and also, there are no values that are returned from this function call to the main function.

Let’s see the example with a function build without a return type and parameter,



using System; namespace FunctionSamples { class Program_A { public void Display() { Console.WriteLine("Non Parameterized Function"); // No return statement } static void Main(string[] args) // Main Program { Program_A program = new Program_A (); // to create a new Object program.Display(); // Call the Function } } }

2. Using With Parameters (Arguments) and Without Return Type

In this program, a string is passed as a parameter to the function. This function’s return type is “void,” and no values can be returned. The value of the string is manipulated and displayed inside the function itself.



using System; namespace FunctionSample { class Program_B { public void Display(string value) { Console.WriteLine("Hello " + value); } static void Main(string[] args) { Program_B program = new Program_B(); // Creating Objec program.Display("Welcome to C# Functions"); // Calling Function } } }


3. Using With Parameters (Arguments) and with Return Type

In this program, a string is passed as a parameter to the function. The return type of this function is “string,” and the return value of the string can be returned from the function. The value of the string is manipulated and displayed inside the function itself.



using System; namespace FunctionsSample { class Program_C { public string Show(string message) { Console.WriteLine("Inside the Show Function Call"); return message; } static void Main(string[] args) { Program_C program = new Program_C(); string message = program.Show("C# Functions"); Console.WriteLine("Hello "+message); } } }

4. Using Without Parameters (Arguments) and with Return Value

In this program, arguments or parameters will not be passed to the function “calculate” but to the main function; the values are returned from this calculate () function call. The variables a and b values are calculated in the function called “calculate,” and in the main function, the sum of these values is returned as a result.



using System; namespace FunctionsSample { class Program_D { public void calculate() { int a = 50, b = 80, sum; sum = a + b; Console.WriteLine("Calculating the given to values: " +sum); } static void Main(string[] args) { Program_D addition =new Program_D(); addition.calculate(); } } }


C# Passing Parameters to Methods

When creating a method with arguments/parameters in c#, we must pass arguments/parameters to that specified method when calling our application’s function. We have several ways to pass parameters to the method; let’s see the parameters/arguments.

Parameters Description

Value Parameters Value parameters are called the “input parameters.” Instead of the original parameters, the input parameters will pass a copy of the actual value; due to that, there will not be any cause or changes made to the parameter during the called method, and it will not affect on original values while the control passes to the caller function.

Reference Parameters Reference parameters are called the “input/output parameters.” The reference parameter will pass the reference memory of the original parameters. Thus, the changes/alteration made to the parameters in called method, while the control returns to the caller function, affects the actual values.

Output Parameters

It is an “output parameter” like the reference type parameters. The only difference is there is no need to initialize it before passing the data.

Conclusion – C# Functions

In this article, we well-read the usage of the functions/ methods available in C# and learned the different C# functions. I hope this article has helped you understand the several functional aspects of C#.

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What Are The Different Types Of Classes In Java?

Types of classes in Java Concrete class

Any normal class which does not have any abstract method or a class that has an implementation of all the methods of its parent class or interface and its own methods is a concrete class.


Live Demo

public class Concrete {    static int product(int a, int b) {       return a * b;    }    public static void main(String args[]) {       int p = product(2, 3);       System.out.println("Product: " + p);    } } Output Product: 6 Abstract class

A class declared with abstract keyword and have zero or more abstract methods are known as abstract class. The abstract classes are incomplete classes, therefore, to use we strictly need to extend the abstract classes to a concrete class.


Live Demo

abstract class Animal {    public abstract void sound(); } public class Dog extends Animal {    public void sound() {       System.out.println("Woof");    }    public static void main(String args[]) {       Animal a = new Dog();       a.sound();    } } Output Woof Final class

A class declared with the final keyword is a final class and it cannot be extended by another class, for example, java.lang.System class.


Live Demo

final class BaseClass {    void Display() {       System.out.print("This is Display() method of BaseClass.");    } } class DerivedClass extends BaseClass {    void Display() {       System.out.print("This is Display() method of DerivedClass.");    } } public class FinalClassDemo {    public static void main(String[] arg) {       DerivedClass d = new DerivedClass();       d.Display();    } }

In the above example, DerivedClass extends BaseClass(final), we can’t extend a final class, so compiler will throw an error. The above program doesn’t execute.

Output cannot inherit from final BaseClass Compile-time error - can't inherit final class POJO class

A class that contains only private variables and setter and getter methods to use those variables is called POJO (Plain Old Java Object) class. It is a fully encapsulated class.


Live Demo

class POJO {   private int value=100;   public int getValue() {       return value;    }    public void setValue(int value) {       this.value = value;    } } public class Test {    public static void main(String args[]){       POJO p = new POJO();       System.out.println(p.getValue());    } } Output 100 Static class

Static classes are nested classes means a class declared within another class as a static member is called a static class.


Live Demo

import java.util.Scanner; class staticclasses {    static int s;    static void met(int a, int b) {    System.out.println("static method to calculate sum");    s = a + b;    System.out.println(a + "+" + b); }    static class MyNestedClass {       static {          System.out.println("static block inside a static class");       }       public void disp() {          int c, d;          Scanner sc = new Scanner(;          System.out.println("Enter two values");          c = sc.nextInt();          d = sc.nextInt();          met(c, d);          System.out.println("Sum of two numbers-" + s);       }    } } public class Test {    public static void main(String args[]) {       staticclasses.MyNestedClass mnc = new staticclasses.MyNestedClass();       mnc.disp();    } } Output static block inside a static class Enter two values 10 20 static method to calculate sum 10+20 Sum of two numbers-30 Inner Class

A class declared within another class or method is called an inner class.


Live Demo

public class OuterClass {    public static void main(String[] args) {       System.out.println("Outer");    }    class InnerClass {       public void inner_print() {          System.out.println("Inner");       }    } } Output Outer

Explain The Different Ready States Of A Request In Ajax

AJAX stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. It is a set of web development techniques to create interactive web applications. AJAX allows a web page to communicate with a server without reloading the page.

Ready states are an important part of working with AJAX requests. The ready state of a request indicates the request’s status to the server and allows the client to track the progress of the request.

In the below, we detailed the different ready states of AJAX.


This is the first ready state of the AJAX. It is denoted by the integer 0. When requesting with AJAX, the request is said to be in an “unsent” state until the send() method is called. This means that the request has not been sent to the server yet, indicating that the request still needs to be sent. This state is also referred to as XMLHttpRequest.UNSENT.


if (this.readyState == 0) {

console.log(‘This is UNSET state’) } } OPENED STATE (1) Syntax

if (this.readyState == 1) {

console.log(‘This is OPENED state’) } } HEADERS_RECEIVED STATE (2)

This is the third ready state of the AJAX. It is denoted by the integer 2. Headers Received is a state of a request in AJAX that occurs when the request is sent, and the server responds with its headers. The server has received the request and is preparing a response, indicating that the response headers have been received.

For example, when a user sends a request to view a web page, the server will respond by sending back the page headers. These headers contain information such as the content type, the length of the page, and the date the page was last modified.

Another example is when a user sends a request to a server to download a file. The server will respond by sending back the file headers, such as the size and type of the file and the date it was last modified.


if (this.readyState == 2) {

console.log(‘This is HEADERS_RECEIVED state’) } } LOADING STATE (3)

A loading state of a request in AJAX is when a request is sent to a server and a response is received. During this time, the request’s status is “loading”, which indicates that the response body is being received.


if (this.readyState == 3) {

console.log(‘This is LOADING state’) } } DONE STATE (4)

The done state of a request in AJAX is when the request has been completed, and the response is received. This is the point at which the server has responded to the request, and the data is available for further processing. This indicates that the request is complete and the response has been received.


if (this.readyState == 4) {

console.log(‘This is DONE state’) } } Example

let root = document.getElementById(‘root’) function ajaxCall() {

if (this.readyState == 1) { } if (this.readyState == 2) { } if (this.readyState == 3) { } if (this.readyState == 4) { } } } } Conclusion

In JavaScript, there are four different ready states of an AJAX request: unsent, opened, headers received, and done. The unsent state is when the request has yet to be sent to the server. The opened state is when the request has been sent to the server but the response has not yet been received. The headers received state is when the server has responded with its headers and is preparing a response. The done state is when the request has been completed, and the response has been received. Each of these ready states can be accessed through the readyState property of the XMLHttpRequest object. They can be useful for tracking the progress of an AJAX request and handling the response appropriately.

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