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Introduction to Vyond Alternative

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List of Vyond Alternatives

Below is the list of Vyond alternatives:

1. 3ds Max

3ds Max is the best alternative for Vyond. Autodesk developed and designed a computer graphics program called it to create 3D animation, models, and games. Its modeling capabilities, and Flexible plugins make it more popular. Mostly video game developers and TV studios use this to create visual effects. Filmmakers also make use of this software. People use Maxscript, a built-in scripting language, to automate repetitive tasks. It provides various plugins such as character studio, DWG Import, Scene Explorer, Texture Editing, Keyframe, Skinning, animation, Skeletons, Integrated Cloth Solver, etc.

2. Unity

Another alternative for Vyond is unity. It is a Game engine platform developed by unity technologies. It is used to create two-dimensional, three-dimensional, virtual reality, and augmented reality games. It is used by film industries, architecture, construction, and automation. For example, Automotive uses unity technology to create full-scale models of vehicles in virtual reality, train workers, and build virtual assembly lines. It allows users to create both 2D and 3D games. The engine offers primary Scripting API in C# for unity editors in plugins and games and drags and drop functionality.

3. Maya 4. Cinema 4d 5. Pencil2D

Another Vyond alternative is Pencil2D. It creates 2D animations and cartoons using traditional techniques such as tracing drawings, onion skinning, etc. It is also used to manage vector and bitmap drawings. It allows users to save their files in their native file formats. It also the export sequence of images in various formats such as PNG, BMP, JPEG, and TFTT format and export video in MP4, GIF, AVI, WebM, and APNG formats. Supports operating systems like Windows, Unix, and macOS.

6. Lightwave 3D 7. iClone

iClone is a real-time 3D animation and rendering software program. It provides functionality such as full facial and skeletal animation of human and animal figures, Python API and scripting language for character interaction, and lip-syncing. It can import models from Google 3D warehouse. It provides various features such as production, actor, animation, stage, props, camera, video effects, and rendering.

8. Blender

It is another best alternative for Vyond. Users utilize Adobe Animate, a 3D graphics computer software, to create 3D printed models, 3D applications, visual effects, art, animation films, computer games, and virtual reality. It provides various features such as 3D modeling, UV unwrapping, raster graphics editor, texturing, rigging, skinning, sculpting,  rendering, motion graphics, match moving, fluid and smoke simulation, video editing, and composition. Supports operating systems like Windows, Linux, macOS, Android, BSD, FreeBSD, and NetBSD.

9. Adobe Animate

Adobe developed the computer animation program called Adobe Animate. It creates animation and vector graphics, raster graphics, rich text, and audio-video embedding. Supports operating systems like Windows and macOS. Supports various formats like  HTML5, scalable vector graphics, legacy Flash player, and Adobe AIR format.

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Learn The Different Versions Of Kotlin In Detail

Introduction to Kotlin version

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Version of Kotlin

In July 2011, JetBrains performed some research and explored a new language that blends well with the JVM nicely.

Jetbrains being the initiator, decided and checked some of the features that it had was with an exception in Scala. The exception was that the scale was slow due to the slow compilation; it was not recommended because kotlin needs to compile faster.

In 2012 kotlin came with the next version where it made the entire project open source under Apache 2 license.

Kotlin released its first stable version, 1.0, on February 15 2023, which Jet Brains have committed to having long-term backward compatibility within it.

With the same released, supported by Google I/O 2023 for kotlin on android.

Kotlin released its next version, which is 1.2, which was released on November 28 2023, which has the ability to share code between JVM and JavaScript platform feature that was newly aggregated as part of a release. In fact, an entire Java full-stack demo was made with Kotlin/JS Gradle plugin.

Kotlin 1.3 was released on October 29, 2023, making asynchronous programming more evolved.

Kotlin, with its all major changes, was released in August 2023 with some slight changes for apple’s platform in c or Swift programming language.

These were overview on the broad level now; let’s see some of the versions with their characteristics with each release :

# Kotlin 1.1 Beta 2: This was the first beta release based on the previous discussion on features and extractions. Then kotlin 1.1 released with the candidate stage; in a sense, almost all the development work was done, and on March 1, 2023, it got released with JavaScript support and coroutines, etc., which was a big step to move further.

# Kotlin 1.1.1: This version release was made on March 14 2023, with a focus on address regression and was basically a bug fixing update for 1.1.

#Kotlin 1.0.7: This version of kotlin is the latest update used to update the back portion of the program.

# Kotlin 1.1.2: This version of the kotlin release was made on April 25 2023, which is used for bug fixing and tool update for kotlin to improve the performance.

# Kotlin/Native 0.2: Again, this version was released on May 12 2023, with feature and bug fixing to update the technology review.

# Kotlin/Native 0.3: This version was released on June 22 2023, with some of the new releases for modification and working with some windows related issues.

# Kotlin 1.1.3: This version was released on une 23, 2023, with some of the new tooling updates for kotlin 1.1.

# Kotlin 1.2 M2:  This version was released on August 9 2023, which primarily focuses on the stability of the language and internal compilation.

# Kotlin 1.1.4: This version release is related to new bug fixing and tool updates for some of the deprecations.

# Kotlin 1.1.50: Another version was released on September 22 2023, with a bug fix and update for 1.1.

# Kotlin 1.1.60: This is a version released on November 13 2023, a bug fix version for updating the kotlin 1.1 version released earlier.

# Kotlin 1.2: The actual release of version 1.2 was made on November 28 2023, which is used to share platforms for version release.

# Kotlin 1.2.20: This version was released for a new bugfix and tooling update for which had added support for Gradle build cache and improved compilation for android apps.

# kotlin/Native version 0.7: This version of release was made on April 27 2023, which emphasized making the entire language smoother interop, frozen objects, optimizations, and many more features for working.

# Kotlin 1.2.50: This version of the release was made on June 14 2023, for Kotlin update of the previous version of bug fixing.

# Kotlin/Native v0.8: This version of the Kotlin release is a news release that is used for safer concurrent programming extending the other features and enhancing it.

# Kotlin 1.3 M2: This was the release made on August 19 2023, which was a breakthrough release because of the second milestone, which has set up the release of some new features like improves smart-casting and other compile-time analyses, Standard library functions for unsigned types and collections.

# Kotlin 1.3 RC: Next great release with a lot of updated features was made on September 20, 2023, with a lot of critical bug fixing available on previous versions of the release made earlier.

# Kotlin 1.3.70: The last flagged release of Kotlin with this range of release was made on March 3 2023, with all the updates and bug fixing in this kotlin.

# Kotlin 1.4 M1: This release was made on March 23 2023, with key improvisation and new features like enabled the type inference algorithm, contracts are, and evolutionary changes in the standard library.

# Kotlin 1.4.30: This Kotlin is released on February 4 2023, which got released with a new JVM backend and multiplatform language changes.

# Kotlin 1.5.0 M2 released: The last release for Kotlin 1.5.0-M2 was made on March 29, 2023, which ensured smooth migration from all the previous releases made so far with a lot of feature enhancement and improvisation.


Kotlin is a programming language that is nowadays quite a preferable language over android language for front-end development and programming. It is quite an adaptable language because of easy syntax and flexibility for quick compilation with Java in the environment. It has a lot of features that make it quite versatile.

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Learn 4 Best Different Types Of C# Functions

Introduction to C# Functions

C# functions are the essential parts of the C# program that can consist of several elements, such as the function name that is used as the function’s reference, return types of the data operated in the functions, the logical body of the function, parameters that can be passed as arguments for the function, and the Access Specifier for defining the accessibility of the function inside the program. The different functions that can be integrated into a C# program are a combination of functions with or without parameters, which can or cannot have the return values, depending on the requirement provided.

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There are several components in functions –

We have a unique name called the Function name to make a function call.

We will use the Return Type to specify the return value data type.

The block of statements that contains the executable statements is called Body.

We can pass the functions during the function call as a list of Parameter arguments.

To specify the accessibility of function in the application, we can use the Access specifier.

Different C# Function

Without parameters(arguments) and return type.

With parameters(arguments) but without return type.

Using parameters(arguments) and with the return type.

Without parameters(arguments) and with the return value.

{ }

Return statements, parameters, and Access-specifier are optional in the above syntax.

 Functional Aspects  Syntax(Function)

return values Declaration: int display ( int );

Function call: display ( value );


return values Declaration: void display ( int );

Call: display (value);


return values Declaration: void display ();

Call: display ();


return values Declaration: int display ( );

Call: display ( );


If a function’s return value is “void,” it cannot return any values to the calling function.

Note: If the return value of the function, such as “int, double, float, string, etc.” is other than void, then it can return values to the calling function.

1. Using Without Parameters and Without Return Type

We specified the function with no parameter and no return type, a function that does not return any values here, as void type as a return type value. In this program, any values should not be passed to the function call Display(), and also, there are no values that are returned from this function call to the main function.

Let’s see the example with a function build without a return type and parameter,



using System; namespace FunctionSamples { class Program_A { public void Display() { Console.WriteLine("Non Parameterized Function"); // No return statement } static void Main(string[] args) // Main Program { Program_A program = new Program_A (); // to create a new Object program.Display(); // Call the Function } } }

2. Using With Parameters (Arguments) and Without Return Type

In this program, a string is passed as a parameter to the function. This function’s return type is “void,” and no values can be returned. The value of the string is manipulated and displayed inside the function itself.



using System; namespace FunctionSample { class Program_B { public void Display(string value) { Console.WriteLine("Hello " + value); } static void Main(string[] args) { Program_B program = new Program_B(); // Creating Objec program.Display("Welcome to C# Functions"); // Calling Function } } }


3. Using With Parameters (Arguments) and with Return Type

In this program, a string is passed as a parameter to the function. The return type of this function is “string,” and the return value of the string can be returned from the function. The value of the string is manipulated and displayed inside the function itself.



using System; namespace FunctionsSample { class Program_C { public string Show(string message) { Console.WriteLine("Inside the Show Function Call"); return message; } static void Main(string[] args) { Program_C program = new Program_C(); string message = program.Show("C# Functions"); Console.WriteLine("Hello "+message); } } }

4. Using Without Parameters (Arguments) and with Return Value

In this program, arguments or parameters will not be passed to the function “calculate” but to the main function; the values are returned from this calculate () function call. The variables a and b values are calculated in the function called “calculate,” and in the main function, the sum of these values is returned as a result.



using System; namespace FunctionsSample { class Program_D { public void calculate() { int a = 50, b = 80, sum; sum = a + b; Console.WriteLine("Calculating the given to values: " +sum); } static void Main(string[] args) { Program_D addition =new Program_D(); addition.calculate(); } } }


C# Passing Parameters to Methods

When creating a method with arguments/parameters in c#, we must pass arguments/parameters to that specified method when calling our application’s function. We have several ways to pass parameters to the method; let’s see the parameters/arguments.

Parameters Description

Value Parameters Value parameters are called the “input parameters.” Instead of the original parameters, the input parameters will pass a copy of the actual value; due to that, there will not be any cause or changes made to the parameter during the called method, and it will not affect on original values while the control passes to the caller function.

Reference Parameters Reference parameters are called the “input/output parameters.” The reference parameter will pass the reference memory of the original parameters. Thus, the changes/alteration made to the parameters in called method, while the control returns to the caller function, affects the actual values.

Output Parameters

It is an “output parameter” like the reference type parameters. The only difference is there is no need to initialize it before passing the data.

Conclusion – C# Functions

In this article, we well-read the usage of the functions/ methods available in C# and learned the different C# functions. I hope this article has helped you understand the several functional aspects of C#.

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Learn The Working And Examples Of Php Queue

Introduction to PHP queue

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The syntax to declare queue in PHP is as follows:

enqueue(item_to_added_to_the_queue); dequeue();

where item_to_be_added_to_the_queue is the item that is going to be added to the queue at the end of the queue or the tail of the queue.

Working of the queue in PHP

Queue in PHP is a data structure that operates based on First In First Out, which is also called FIFO.

Four basic operations define a queue, namely init, enqueue, dequeue, and isEmpty.

init operation is used for the creation of the queue.

enqueue operation is used to add an item at the end of the queue or the tail of the queue.

The dequeue operation is used to remove an item from the front of the queue or the head of the queue.

isEmpty operation is used to check if the queue is empty or not; that is, it returns if the queue contains no more items or not.

Examples of PHP queue

Here are the following examples mention below

Example #1

PHP program to add the items to a queue from the end of the queue using enqueue() function and remove the items from the front of the queue using the dequeue() function, and display the contents of the queue:


<?php $newqueue = new SplQueue(); } print_r ($newqueue); print_r ($newqueue);

In the above program, we are creating an instance of the SplQueue() class. Then we are adding items to the queue from the tail of the queue or the end of the queue. Then we are making use of the rewind() function to bring the file pointer to the beginning of the queue. Then we are using the valid() function to check if the queue is valid or not after using the rewind() function and then displaying the elements of the queue. Then we are printing the contents of the queue in a human-readable format by using the print_r function. Then we remove the first two items from the head of the queue using the dequeue() function and then display the queue contents after using the dequeuer() function in human-readable form using print_r function. The output is shown in the snapshot above.

Example #2

PHP program to add the items to a queue from the end of the queue using enqueue() function and remove the items from the front of the queue using the dequeue() function, and display the contents of the queue:

<?php $newqueue = new SplQueue(); } print_r ($newqueue); print_r ($newqueue);


In the above program, we are creating an instance of the SplQueue() class. Then we are adding items to the queue from the tail of the queue or the end of the queue. Then we are making use of the rewind() function to bring the file pointer to the beginning of the queue.

Then we are using the valid() function to check if the queue is valid or not after using the rewind() function and then displaying the elements of the queue. Then we are printing the contents of the queue in a human-readable format by using the print_r function. Then we remove all the three items from the head of the queue using the dequeue() function and then display the queue contents after using the dequeuer() function in human-readable form using print_r function, which is an empty queue. The output is shown in the snapshot above.

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A Comprehensive List Of The Different Python Data Types


Python is one of the most preferred programming languages these days. It allows developers to focus all their efforts on implementation instead of complex programs and data types in python are used for that purpose only to make our work easy.

Overview of the Different Data Types

The classification or categorization of data items is known as Data types. A kind of value is signified by data type which determines what operations need to be performed on that particular data.

It is used for integral values. In python 2 versions, there was different Int and long for small and big integral values, but from python 3 it is int only.

We can represent int in 4 forms.

Decimal form ( it is by default and digits are from 0-9)

Binary form (base-2, 0, and 1)a=1111, so if do print (a)It will be a normal chúng tôi to convert it into binary, we make a change like a=0B1111So basically zero(0) small “ b” or zero(0) capital” B” is used in prefix.

Octal form (0-7 )So in this zero(0) and capital “0” or small “o” is used in prefix.

Hexadecimal (0-9, A-F)In this zero(0) and small or capital “x” is used.

Now the thing to remember is by default the answer we will get will be in decimal forms, so we can change that as well.


Float is a data type in which decimal values are there. In float, we can only have decimal no binary, oct, or hex. Eg: a=15.5 So when we see the type of “a” It will be float type.

Complex :

Print (type(x)) #so it will be complex

The real part can be binary, octal, or hex anything, but the image should be decimal only.

We can type real part in any form like binary octal or hexadecimal but not for imaginary

OB111 + 20j  it is correct. But 14+ 0B101   it is incorrect

So we can do x+y, we can do x*y  or we can do x/y  or x-y

So addition or subtraction of the complex numbers is simple. We simply do addition or subtraction of the real part of both numbers and imaginary parts of both numbers.

(a+bi)  * (c+di)   = (ac-bd) + (ad+bc)i

So whenever we multiply two complex numbers the answer we will get is by this formulae Or we have actually simplified the formula.

Simply let’s say we take two complex numbers.

a= (2 + 4j)       ,      b=  (10 + 10 j)

So now when we multiply them It will be multiplied like this-– 2 (10 + 10j) + 4j(10+10j)

– 20 + 20j  + 40j + 40j^2

And we know ^2 of imaginary part is -1. So it will become-

-20 + 60j

a= p+qj

b= r+sj

So division would be

a/b  =   pr + qs     +    qr – ps      ,  x= under root of (r^2 + s^2)

———          ——–

X                    x

This complex is used much in machine learning or mathematics specific queries.


But one thing is to remember that the first letters should be in the capital True, False

a=True Type (a)

It will show bool

So let’s take an example.

it will show false

The type would be

Print (type(c))


Now one more thing to remember is True =1 and False =0

So if we print (True + True)

The answer would be 2 (1+1)

And if we print (True-False) The answer would be 1  (1-0)


So in string data type, we can use single, double, or triple quotes. So for eg: S= ”Aashish”


We can print type(s) it will give us string

Also s = ”a”

It will also give string unlike java etc because in java etc it must have given it as a character. but there is no data type as a character in python

Now comes the triple quotes. If we have to write the string in multiple lines, then we cannot use single or double quotes, what we can use is single triple quotes or double triple quotes

Like eg :




One more thing we need to know now is the let say we have one statement. Like-

s= Aashish is a very ‘good’ boy

Now in the above statement if we want that Good should be in quotes, so while writing the string we should know that the statement should not be in single quotes. Like-

“Aashish is a very ‘good’ boy”.

And the same goes if we want something in double-quotes, then we have to make the whole statement in a single quote. Now if we want to use both single and double quotes in a statement.

“Aashish” is a very ‘good’ boy

Then we have to put the whole statement in triple quotes.

Positive and Negative Index in strings

So there is indexing in python string, so if let say we want to access the character of the word for eg: from a=  Aashish, we want to access “i”

So we can do it like-

Print (a[4])

The first alphabet is represented by 0. Also, we can do like in python a[-1], which represents the last character.

So it will print h

Slice Operator in String: basically it’s a part of the string which is known as a slice. So to fetch that slice we use it.

Eg:  “Aashish”

In slicing let say we want only “shis”

format is s[begin : end]

Which returns from beginning to end-1. So if let’s say put s[2:6]. It will return to the 5th. Now if we are not specifying begin. Then it will start at 0 s[:5].

If are not specifying it will continue to the end s[2:]. And one case is s[:]. It will return the total string.

One more case s[5:2]. We will get an empty string, as it cannot move from 5 to 2.

And we want the output as “Aashish”

So we can do it like.

output= s[0].upper() + s[1:] print(output)

So we can do it like

output = s[0:len(s)-1]  + s[-1].upper() Print (output)

Now let’s say we need to have the first character in the capital and the last character in the capital and remaining as it is. So what we need to do is simply :

Output = s[0].upper() + s[1:len(s)-1] + s[-1].upper() Print (output )

And * operator for string data type :

Is used for concatenation, and both the arguments should be string only.

So  it can be “String” + “String” + “string” + …..

It cannot be like “String” + “Int”

Now * operator

s=”SUN” *3

So it is a string repetition operator. And used to multiply the string. One thing to notice here is one argument should be a string and the other should be an integer


The process of converting from one type to another type. 5 inbuilt functions are there-






Int: To convert from other types to the int type

Float to the int function, so like if we have 10.989 is there, so after the decimal point all digits will be gone so it will be done like int(10.989), it will give 10.

Complex to int: 10+ 20j, so int (10+20j), it will give type error, as we cannot convert complex to int type.

Bool to int:  int (True)   will give 1

String to int :String internally contains an only integral value or in base 10 only, so no hexadecimal or binary, etc.Therefore int(“15”)  will give chúng tôi (0B1111) will give an error

int(“10.5”) , again error as it is not integral value it is a float value.

Float: Convert into the float type

Or Float(0XFace) will give 64206.0

Complex to float is not possible :

float(False), then the answer would be 0.0

String to float type is also possible, only in the case when the string contains an integral value or float value but they should be specified in base 10.

Float (10)  will give 10.0

Float (0XFACE)  error

Float (“Aashish”) error

Complex Type

Complex (x)

If only one argument then it will become a real value

Complex (10)

The answer would be 10 + 0j

Complex (0B1111)  would be 15+0j

Complex (10.5) would be 10.5 + 0j

Complex (True) would be 1+0j

Complex (False) would be 0j

Complex (“String”) it should have either int or float value in base 10

Complex (x,y)

When two arguments are there one will go to real and one to the imaginary complex(10, 20) would be 10+20j.

Complex (10.5, 20.6) would be 10.5 + 20.6j

Complex (“10”, “20”)

It will give an error if we are having the string argument, we can’t have the second value as a string as well

Complex (10, “20”)

It will also give an error, the second argument can’t be a string in complex



If it is non zero then it will be True

bool(10) will give True

bool(0) will give false


bool(0.1) true

bool(0+0j)    False

bool(1+0j)  True


bool(“True”)   True

bool(“False”)   True

bool(“Yes”)  True

bool (“No”)   True

bool( “ ”)   False

If the string is empty then only it is false, otherwise if it not empty then it will be True


str(10)  “10”

str(0B1111) “15”

str(10.5)    “10.5”

str(10+20j)  “10+20j”

str(True)   “True”

str(False)  “False”

Fundamental Data Types vs Immutability

Immutable → we cannot change

Once we create an object, we cannot perform any changes in that object. If we try to change, then the new object would be created. This non-changeable behavior is immutability.

Python Data Type: Lists

These are the collection related data type.

l=[07, “Aashish”, 20,30, “Nimish”] Print type(l)

It will give a list. The list is always in square brackets. If we print (l), the order will be in the same in which we have given. So the order of perseverance is there. Duplicates objects are allowed.

Heterogenous objects are allowed, like int, string, etc. Indexing and slicing are applicable. Now,

print (l[0])

So will give the first element. And similarly -1 for the last. Now if let say we have an empty list.

l=[  ]

So we can add elements like-


We can remove elements like-


Now let say, we have-

l=[10, 20, 30, 40]

Now the list is mutable so at l[0] we can add value. Like-

l[0]= 100

So now 100 will be added to the starting. List will become l[100, 10, 20, 30, 40].

Python Data Type: Tuple

Now we will learn the data type Tuple. It is the same as the list except it is immutable, if we create one object so we cannot add or remove any object or value. It is like a read-only version of a list. We represent tuple by (10, 20,”aashish”).

Performance is better than the list. And it also uses less memory than a list.

Python Data Type: Set

Now we will learn about the new data type i.e Set. It is used for the group of objects or entities but duplicates are not allowed and I don’t care about the order. So if we have such a type of requirement then we go for the Set.


s1 = {1,2,3} s2 = {3,1,2}

So basically s1 and s2 are equal. So in the set, there is no first element no last element kind of concept. Curly brackets are used inset.

s= {10, 10, 20, “Aashish”, 30}

But output will come s= {10, 20, “Aashish”, 30}

But order can be anything. So indexing cannot be there or slice operator-

Print s[0]

Will give an error.

Heterogeneous objects are allowed.


In the list, it was appended. In set, it is added.

Append vs add

Append was used in the list to add items in the last. So add is used in the set, as we don’t know where it is going to get added.

s= {   }

So it is not known as an empty set it is known as an empty dictionary. As the dictionary gets privilege because of the frequent use of it more than the set.

If we want to create the empty set then we can create it like

s= set() Python Data Type: Frozen set

It is exactly like a set except it is immutable. Because inset we can make changes, but not in the frozen set. So we create the frozen set like-

s={ 10, 20, 30, 40} fr= frozenset(s) Print type(fr)

It will be frozen set s.

So now we cannot add or remove the values from the frozen set and will get the attribute error if we try to do that.

Python Data Type: Range

Now we will learn about the Range.

R = range(10)

So we will get 10 values starting from the 0. So basically it is an inbuilt function used in python. If we print r-

It will give 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

We can use it like

For x in r :    print(x)

So we will get all the values printed. How we can make the range objects.

Form:   range (n)

So will give values to 0 to n-1

Form :  range(begin : end)

So will give values from the beginning to the n-1

r= range(1, 10) For x in r :     Print (x)

So we will get 1,2,3 ….  9


Range (begin, end, increment/Decrement)

R = range(1,21,1) So 1 to 20

1,2,3,….. 20

R = Range(1, 21,2 )

1,3,5… 19

Also, we can do like for decrement

Range (20, 1, -2)

So 20, 18 ….

So now we have known things go in order in range, so wherever order is there, we can do the indexing or slicing. But the range is immutable, as the values are in sequence and if we try to add the values, an error will occur.

Python Data Type: Dict

Now we will learn about the dictionary. Dictionary is different from the above data types in the manner that it is used to represent the key values.  Represent by Dict

d={ k1: v1, k2 : V2}

So let say we have an empty dictionary

d= {   }

So we can add value like

d[100]=”Aashish” d[200]= “Ayush”

So it will look like-

{ 100 : Aashish , 200 : Ayush}

Now there would be one concern about the duplicity of the values. So duplicate keys are not allowed but values can be duplicated. S-

d[100]  = “Abhishek”

So the old value i.e Aashish will be replaced by the Abhishek, so the duplicate key is not allowed, anyhow there would be no error, but the value will get replaced by the new value.

No order there, similarly like a set. Heterogeneous values can be there. It is mutable, we can make changes. Slicing, indexing, etc are not there, due to no order.

Python Data Type: Bytes and BytesArray

l= [10, 20,30,40]

Till now it is a list. Now to convert it into the bytes we need to




Now It is used for the binary creation of the data. Bytes can only have values from 0 to 256. So basically if we add the value 256, 257 …

We will get the value error. Now in this as well indexing, slicing is there. But it is immutable, we cannot change its content. We will get an error. But if we want mutable bytes then it is known as Bytearray

l= [ 10, 20, 30, 40 ] b=bytearray(l) b[0]= 77 print(b[0])

None data type is nothing i.e no value is associated with it. To make the value available for the garbage collection-


None is also stored as object internally-

Print (type(a)) Escape Characters,  Comments, and Constants :

These are –

n  :   for the next line

t   :  for the tab space

r   : carriage return, means starting from the starting

  b : backspace

f : form feed

‘ : for single quote

“ : for double quote

\ :   for backslash symbol

We need to put # in every line.

Constants :

The things of which we cannot change the values

So as such no constant concept is there in python, but if we want the value to be constantly put it in the upper case.


For the convention purpose only.

End Notes

So we learned that Datatypes are an important concept because statistical methods and certain other things can only be used with a certain python data type. You have to analyze data differently and then categorize data otherwise it would result in a wrong analysis.


What Are The Different Types Of Classes In Java?

Types of classes in Java Concrete class

Any normal class which does not have any abstract method or a class that has an implementation of all the methods of its parent class or interface and its own methods is a concrete class.


Live Demo

public class Concrete {    static int product(int a, int b) {       return a * b;    }    public static void main(String args[]) {       int p = product(2, 3);       System.out.println("Product: " + p);    } } Output Product: 6 Abstract class

A class declared with abstract keyword and have zero or more abstract methods are known as abstract class. The abstract classes are incomplete classes, therefore, to use we strictly need to extend the abstract classes to a concrete class.


Live Demo

abstract class Animal {    public abstract void sound(); } public class Dog extends Animal {    public void sound() {       System.out.println("Woof");    }    public static void main(String args[]) {       Animal a = new Dog();       a.sound();    } } Output Woof Final class

A class declared with the final keyword is a final class and it cannot be extended by another class, for example, java.lang.System class.


Live Demo

final class BaseClass {    void Display() {       System.out.print("This is Display() method of BaseClass.");    } } class DerivedClass extends BaseClass {    void Display() {       System.out.print("This is Display() method of DerivedClass.");    } } public class FinalClassDemo {    public static void main(String[] arg) {       DerivedClass d = new DerivedClass();       d.Display();    } }

In the above example, DerivedClass extends BaseClass(final), we can’t extend a final class, so compiler will throw an error. The above program doesn’t execute.

Output cannot inherit from final BaseClass Compile-time error - can't inherit final class POJO class

A class that contains only private variables and setter and getter methods to use those variables is called POJO (Plain Old Java Object) class. It is a fully encapsulated class.


Live Demo

class POJO {   private int value=100;   public int getValue() {       return value;    }    public void setValue(int value) {       this.value = value;    } } public class Test {    public static void main(String args[]){       POJO p = new POJO();       System.out.println(p.getValue());    } } Output 100 Static class

Static classes are nested classes means a class declared within another class as a static member is called a static class.


Live Demo

import java.util.Scanner; class staticclasses {    static int s;    static void met(int a, int b) {    System.out.println("static method to calculate sum");    s = a + b;    System.out.println(a + "+" + b); }    static class MyNestedClass {       static {          System.out.println("static block inside a static class");       }       public void disp() {          int c, d;          Scanner sc = new Scanner(;          System.out.println("Enter two values");          c = sc.nextInt();          d = sc.nextInt();          met(c, d);          System.out.println("Sum of two numbers-" + s);       }    } } public class Test {    public static void main(String args[]) {       staticclasses.MyNestedClass mnc = new staticclasses.MyNestedClass();       mnc.disp();    } } Output static block inside a static class Enter two values 10 20 static method to calculate sum 10+20 Sum of two numbers-30 Inner Class

A class declared within another class or method is called an inner class.


Live Demo

public class OuterClass {    public static void main(String[] args) {       System.out.println("Outer");    }    class InnerClass {       public void inner_print() {          System.out.println("Inner");       }    } } Output Outer

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