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Though the IoT industry is growing with numerous applications, the industry spends billions on recalling defective devices. In fact until the end of 2023, the IoT industry was estimated to spend $10 billion to recall defective devices caused by software bugs.
IoT testing ensures that each device performs all its functionalities, thus allowing the entire IoT network to work collaboratively and deliver value to the business as intended.
In this article, we explain was IoT testing is, what are the testing approaches, and look at some case studies.What is IoT testing?
IoT systems have 4 components:
IoT testing is the process of checking each component of an IoT system by applying common testing methods.What are IoT testing approaches?
The chart above highlights the possible testing approach scenarios for different components of IoT systems. Some common testing types are:Performance testing
This includes Network and Gateway (protocols like MQTT, CoAP, HTTP, etc.), back-end (database, processing, analytics), and the application components. The speed of the network communication model and the embedded software system’s internal computation capabilities are tested in this approach.Security testing
This involves both securing the devices themselves and the networks or cloud services they are connected to.Compatibility testing
IoT devices have a range of software and hardware configurations. As a result, compatibility testing is crucial for testing teams.Functional testing
This includes the testing of all functional use cases of an IoT application.Usability testing
This ensures the end-user can easily use the system. Usability testing can be subjective; therefore, completing multiple usability tests is recommended.
Usability testing applies to sensors in terms of ease of installation and setup as well as durability and reliability. This is especially important for wearable sensors. For example, a non-reliable heart rate monitor may cause more harm than good by making the user nervous with false positives.Other testing approaches include
Reliability and scalability
Device InteroperabilityWhat are the challenges of IoT testing?
Challenges businesses may face during IoT testing include:Complex use cases and real-time responsiveness
Defects in applications may impact organizations’ productivity. However, this may require testing for a large number of scenarios. For example, in a smart factory where each machines are inter-communicating, data loss at any point could cause delays in the production line and, therefore, negatively affect the business’s ROI.Diversity of IoT devices and platforms
The inclusion of diverse firmware and operating systems makes it difficult to test every possible hardware and software combinations.
Explore IoT devices in more detail.Diverse IoT communication protocols
For communication of IoT devices, there are a diverse set of protocols to test, such as Extensible Messaging, Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT), Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP), and Presence Protocol (XMPP).
Explore IoT communication protocols in more detail.Resource limitations
Your existing resources may lack memory, processing power, bandwidth, battery life, etc.A large number of sensor interactions
IoT ecosystem involves thousands of sensors. This forces testers to perform tests at scale.Security concerns
Since all tasks are operated through connection to a network, there is always security concerns.How does the IoT testing landscape look like?
Testing service of IoT devices can be delivered by different types of companies, including
IoT testing service providers: There are testing vendors that are only specialized in testing IoT devices and software.
Software testing companies: These companies have expertise in testing, yet, IoT is not their only specialty. These companies also mostly offer Q&A and testing automation to clients.
IoT consulting companies: Though some IoT consultants focus only on IoT strategy formulation, product design, or hardware/software consultation, there are consultants that deliver end-to-end consulting services (including ideation, strategy, application development & testing)What are example IoT testing case studies?
Vendor NameApplicationHardware/ Software TestingCase StudyResults -Right-shoring (including a mix of in/out sourcing) significantly reduced cost ScienceSoftSmart logisticsSoftwareFunctional, regression and localization testing-Reduced implementation costsFor more on IoT
To learn more on IoT, feel free to read our comprehensive research on the topic:
Finally, if you believe your business would benefit from an IoT platform, head over to our IoT hub, where we have data-driven lists of vendors for multiple IoT dimensions.
And if you still have questions on IoT testing, don’t hesitate to contact us:
Cem regularly speaks at international technology conferences. He graduated from Bogazici University as a computer engineer and holds an MBA from Columbia Business School.
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Smart home turns informant: Police want Echo and IoT data in murder case
The case centers around James Andrew Bates, who is accused of the strangulation and drowning death of Victor Collins on November 22. Police found Collins in a hot tub, after Bates called emergency services to report finding the body. He later pleaded not guilty to murder charges, and will face trial in 2023.
As part of the evidence gathering process, investigators looked to Bates’ smart home technology. One example is the Amazon Echo, which uses always-on microphones that listen out to trigger words – either “Alexa” or “Amazon” – before doing cloud-processing on whatever the spoken request is. Amazon was served with a warrant to hand over any recordings those microphones might have made.
According to The Information, Amazon declined to give full details of what was stored on its servers. It did, though, grant access to Bates’ Amazon account details, in addition to a list of purchases he had made. The police say they were able to extract some data from the Echo speaker itself, though it’s uncertain at this point what that might comprise.
MORE INFO: How private is Amazon’s Echo?
The privacy issues around Echo – and other smart home speakers, such as Google Home – have been a topic of controversy for some time. While the processing of the trigger words is done locally, on the speaker itself, any subsequent audio is streamed to the cloud where Amazon’s analysis takes place. However, that audio also includes a small amount of cached content kept from before you actually said the wake word.
“When you use the wake word, the audio stream includes a fraction of a second of audio before the wake word, and closes once your question or request has been processed,” Amazon explains. The company also stored those audio streams: users can review them in the companion Alexa app on their smartphone, rating how accurately Amazon recognized what was actually said. There, they can be deleted too, though they’re not removed by default.
Exactly what might have been stored on the Echo in question, therefore, and what Amazon might still have on its servers is a matter of speculation. On the one hand, if the wake word hadn’t been heard – or mis-heard, as can sometimes be the case with Echo – then the smart speaker would have had no cause to transfer any recordings to the cloud. At the same time, it’s uncertain how much cached speech data was kept in the 4GB of local storage found inside.
Alexa isn’t the only unexpected witness in the case, mind. Investigators are also looking at data from a connected water meter, they confirmed, which logged 140 gallons-worth of usage between 1am and 3am on the night of the incident. According to the police’s version of that night, the Bates used that water to wash away evidence of the crime.
VIA Engadget; The Information
Introduction to Struts Framework
The web application framework to develop Java EE web applications is called Struts. Struts were developed by Craig Mcclanahan in May 2000 and were given to Apache foundation. It was also called Jakarta Struts. It is written in Java and it uses cross-platform such as Java Virtual Machine. Struts are open source and use Java API. The license is Apache license 2 versions. Java Servlet API is extended to use Model View Controller Architecture (MVC) and it works basically among these three forms. Apache Struts framework is replaced by Struts 2 in February 2007.
Start Your Free Software Development CourseFramework of Struts
Controllerservlet and ActionServlet are provided in the framework. These are defined in the libraries and also in the Integrated Development Environment. Hence they get registered in the XML files used in the framework. Java servlet application interface is used that has a Model View Controller Architecture (MVC).
The model is separated from the view and controller. Model is the application logic to interact with the database and View is the HTML page viewed by the client.
A controller servlet called Action Servlet is used when the framework is started. The templates to be viewed by the user are created by Action servlet. The controller passes the information between the Model and View of the client.
The templates are written using JSP for the HTML content.
The programmer creates the configuration file called chúng tôi This config file keeps the model, view, and controller together.
This servlet maps requests to Struts Action objects using struts-config.xml.
If any information has to be changed, updating in the XML file should be more than enough.
Action form objects are created to temporarily store data and the requests are executed.
The model returns a string (Action forward) to instruct the controller to send an output page to the client.
Once the requests are processed, Action object processes new data and results are forwarded to the appropriate view.
The model and client pass information using a form called JavaBeans.
A custom tag library is used to read and write the content of the beans and hence Java code is not needed.
Web forms are internationalized using Struts and templates are created for the presentation layer. The template mechanism is called Tiles.
The struts-config file is used to process application Action classes and result pages. These files save all the results and if any change is needed, those can be made in these files.
Java annotations are used to provide metadata information and that helps the developers to create the application based on the information provided.
The applications can be integrated with any other framework or application.
Whenever the requests are made, actions are created and the servlet response to the model calls.
UI tags, control tags, and action tags are provided so that struts are easy to use.
XHTML, css_html and simple are the themes of struts where XHTML is the default theme.
The presentation layer is mixed up with business logic and the servlet needs to be recompiled if there is any code change.
It is pretty easy and fast to develop web applications.
Maintenance was a concern as the pages were decentralized and logic has to be determined to write the subsequent pages.Advantages of Struts
Since Struts follow MVC framework, Java, JSP and Action classes are highly maintained and easy to understand for developers.
It is easy to maintain the applications due to the MVC framework.
The representation is in xml or property files and hence all the information about the application can be collected from the xml.config files. All information including Action class, Form Bean and JSP page information is in the config file which is very helpful for the developers.
getParameter () information is stored in Form Bean. All the input data is processed here. The time to process the data is very less due to Form Bean.
JSP tags are provided that easily provide the properties of JavaBeans components. The tags are customized, concise and powerful when compared to other tags.
HTML tags are also created from JSP tags to set the page for the user interface. The form field objects are from Java files. The forms can be redisplayed with all the values remaining the same or a few changes made.
In order to check whether the form values are in the required format, Struts has built-in capabilities. This helps to get the values sooner for developers.
Due to xml and property files, any changes can be made to these files without changing the original Java code. Hence the developers need not know the entire layout. They have to edit only the single file. This helps to save the time of editing the file.
The validator in Struts is really good to validate the forms or fields whatever the developer entered in the network. This validation is either performed in the server or in both server and client.
The infrastructure is taken care of well in Struts. HTTP requests are mapped into the process and developers need not worry the same. They can focus on the code and developing the domain.
Documentation is well maintained and is of very useful to anyone who develops the framework.
Struts are a large framework and hence used to create enterprise-wide applications. The design, action form, and annotations are simple and easy to understand. Struts are mainly considered as a legacy and if it is needed very much by the client, we should follow the same. This framework is popular due to ease of use and knowledge of Java by developers.Recommended Articles
East Asia Studies Career Development Professors Named COM, CAS junior faculty first recipients
Made possible through the support of a BU alumnus based in Taiwan who wishes to remain anonymous, Career Development Professorships in the area of East Asia studies have been established, Jean Morrison, BU provost and chief academic officer, has announced. The East Asia Studies Career Development Professorships recognize junior faculty in the College of Arts & Sciences, the College of Fine Arts, the College of Communication, and the School of Management whose research is focused on East Asia. The first professorships have been awarded to Lei Guo, a College of Communication assistant professor, and Edward Cunningham, a College of Arts & Sciences assistant professor.
As with other career development professorships awarded at BU, each East Asia Studies Career Development Professorship provides three years of partial salary support for the recipient’s school or college, plus an annual research fund for the faculty member. An additional two professorships, nominated by academic deans and selected by the Office of the Provost, are expected to be named three years from now, according to the official announcement January 29.
The inaugural East Asia Studies Career Development Professors have been cited for notable accomplishments in their areas of study, innovative approaches to research and teaching, and research that bridges disciplines and cultures. They are demonstrating firsthand “BU’s continued and growing commitment as a global research university,” Morrison notes.
“As East Asian culture, business, politics, and economic development enjoy ever-expanding global influence, we are delighted to recognize the exceptional scholarship of talented young faculty in this area,” she says. “From the impact of development on energy policy to the power of social media to transform cultures, Professors Cunningham and Guo are producing exciting original research and, in doing so, helping to bring us a greater understanding of this critical region. We are excited to see where their research takes them and for their futures as BU faculty members.”
Known as “agenda studies,” Guo’s research examines whether, and how much, media set the agenda for what issues the public views as most important. She has studied the media’s impact on elections in both the United States and Taiwan. “I would argue that the mainstream media—established news organizations—still set public agenda and still hold symbolic power, but I’ve also done a lot of research on how new media technologies like social media influence the lives of marginalized communities, such as ethnic minority groups,” she says. For example, she did a study on Weibo and citizen journalism in China and their influence on environmental protests. When social media reflect millions of people’s protests against a proposed chemical plant and that opposition goes unreported by the mainstream media, “this becomes a good tool for reporting,” says Guo, who earned a PhD from the University of Texas at Austin.
China specialist Cunningham, a CAS assistant professor of earth and environment, uses research in comparative political economy to explore how institutions and policy shape the technology and fuel the choices of Chinese and Asian companies. He says his interest in East Asia was sparked in high school by a program at his school, Milton Academy. He plans to use the grant to deepen his work with students as well as colleagues. In research that has sent him to mainland China for nearly a third of every year over the past decade, he and his team have surveyed a broad range of citizens’ views on public policy, satisfaction with government policies, and most recently, how Chinese view the political importance of the environment. “We’ve done the survey every other year since 2002, and it’s the only survey of its kind except for one done by the Chinese themselves,” says Cunningham, who is fluent in Mandarin. He holds a PhD in political science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
He has a strong interest in green innovation in the developing world, and in collaboration with other faculty, is working to create what economists call equilibrium models, which help researchers and governments calculate the political effects of economic changes. Through surveys in mainland China, he hopes to explore the economy of the carbon tax and determine through statistical analysis whether a tax is more effective than trade caps or other environmental policy choices. In related work, Cunningham and his collaborators are looking at ways to show how emissions by individual nations in the developing world have contributed to climate change, a dynamic model that could lead to “a climate equity tool that can both visualize and quantify historical responsibility, and also be used for mitigation.”
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Android operating system’s initial release was in the year 2008. Even at its start, the team behind the operating system built it on top of the shoulders of giants. Beyond the user interface that the Android OS presents at the surface level, it is made up of multiple layers. These layers include custom code and open-source technologies that have been under continuous development for decades.
Android has been developed through massive collaborative efforts and investments by many companies. The main company behind android development is Google. Other companies include device manufacturers such as Samsung, LG; processor manufacturers such as Intel and ARM, but to name a few.
When we talk about Android architecture, we mean how the Android system has been designed, segmented into layers, and built up to work as a system. Building such a complex system requires careful structuring to ensure all the components work together cohesively. Its architecture ensures that the many components function as a whole without crashing.
In this tutorial, you will learn:Layers
The following are the layers that compose the Android architecture as labeled on the diagram:
Android Runtime and Core Libraries
Developing an operating system for mobile devices comes with a set of challenges. Using this layered architecture ensures that different problems are broken down and solved at different levels.
A layered architecture helps separate concerns and ensure android software developers don’t have to deal with low-level problems at every turn. They can instead focus on delivering business value concerned with the layer they’re working on.
Developers are working on making apps don’t have to worry about the application framework implementation. That work is left for the system developers working on the Application framework.
The Application Framework developers work on developer experience and don’t have to worry about the low-level drivers. Low-level system engineers can focus completely on low-level components such as Bluetooth or Audio drivers and the like.
Android’s layered structure makes it possible to apply updates with bug fixes or improvements to each layer on its own. This ensures that changes across layers don’t interfere with each other. This makes it possible for people working at a different level of the OS to work with obstructing each other as new updates and releases are done.Android Application
This is the layer that end-users interact with. It is on this layer where application developers publish their applications to run.
Android, by default, comes with a set of applications that make android devices usable from the offset.
Contacts: Android, by default, provides a means to store and retrieve contacts. Contact information is shared across other apps to enhance functionality.
Messages: Android provides the capability to send and receive SMS messages.
Email: Android comes with native support for email services. Setting up an Android device requires a Gmail account. Setting up Gmail activates other email-dependent components on Android devices. Some email dependent features include security and recovery mechanisms. Another email dependent feature is access to the Play Store, a marketplace for Android applications.
Browser: Android comes with a default browser.
Notification Drawer: Swiping down on the screen exposes the notification drawer. It provides application events that the user should be aware of. Above the notification are a set of shortcuts to some commonly used device settings that the users can toggle. These settings include on and off toggles for various hardware components such as Bluetooth and Wifi. Long pressing these events enables us to navigate to their configurations page.
This layer is also referred to as user-level in contrast to the layers below that are mostly tuned for application development. Application developers create and customize the experiences for their apps on this layer. The layers below the application layer are not customized by application developers. They are considered part of the system layer. These layers are customized by device manufacturers, Google android teams, or third parties who want to use the Android source code for their product or research.Application Framework
The Android OS exposes the underlying libraries and features of the Android device that are using a Java API. This is what is known as the Android framework. The framework exposes a safe and uniform means to utilize Android device resources.
Application framework1) Activity Manager
The Android ActivityManager is responsible for predictable and consistent behavior during application transitions. The ActivityManager provides a slot for app creators to have their apps react when the Android OS performs global actions. Applications can listen to events such as device rotation, app destruction due to memory shortage, an app being shifted out of focus, and so on.
Some examples of the way applications can react to these transitions include pausing activity in a game, stopping music playing during a phone call.2) Window Manager
Android can determine screen information to determine the requirements needed to create windows for applications. Windows are the slots where we can view our app user interface. Android uses the Window manager to provide this information to the apps and the system as they run so that they can adapt to the mode the device is running on.
The Window Manager helps in delivering a customized app experience. Apps can fill the complete screen for an immersive experience or share the screen with other apps. Android enables this by allowing multi-windows for each app.3) Location Manager
Most Android devices are equipped with GPS devices that can get user location using satellite information to which can go all the way to meters precision. Programmers can prompt for location permission from the users, deliver location, and aware experiences.
Android is also able to utilize wireless technologies to further enrich location details and increase coverage when devices are enclosed spaces. Android provides these features under the umbrella of the Location-Manager.4) Telephony Manager
Most Android devices serve a primary role in telephony. Android uses TelephoneManager to combine hardware and software components to deliver telephony features. The hardware components include external parts such as the sim card, and device parts such as the microphone, camera, and speakers. The software components include native components such as dial pad, phone book, ringtone profiles. Using the TelephoneManager, a developer can extend or fine-tune the default calling functionality.5) Resource Manager
Android app usually come with more than just code. They also have other resources such as icons, audio and video files, animations, text files, and the like. Android helps in making sure that there is efficient, responsive access to these resources. It also ensures that the right resources are delivered to the end-users. For example, the proper language text files are used when populating fields in the apps.6) View System
Android also provides a means to easily create common visual components needed for app interaction. These components include widgets like buttons, image holders such as ImageView, components to display a list of items such as ListView, and many more. The components are premade but are also customizable to fit app developer needs and branding.7) Notification Manager
The Notification Manager is responsible for informing Android users of application events. It does this by giving users visual, audio or vibration signals or a combination of them when an event occurs. These events have external and internal triggers. Some examples of internal triggers are low-battery status events that trigger a notification to show low battery. Another example is user-specified events like an alarm. Some examples of external triggers include new messages or new wifi networks detected.
Android provides a means for programmers and end-users to fine-tune the notifications system. This can help to guarantee they can send and receive notification events in a means that best suits them and their current environments.8) Package Manager
Android also provides access to information about installed applications. Android keeps track of application information such as installation and uninstallation events, permissions the app requests, and resource utilization such as memory consumption.
This information can enable developers to make their applications to activate or deactivate functionality depending on new features presented by companion apps.9) Content Provider
Android has a standardized way to share data between applications on the device using the content provider. Developers can use the content provider to expose data to other applications. For example, they can make the app data searchable from external search applications. Android itself exposes data such as calendar data, contact data, and the like using the same system.Android Runtime and Core/Native Libraries
Libraries1) Android Runtime
Android currently uses Android Runtime (ART) to execute application code. ART is preceded by the Dalvik Runtime that compiled developer code to Dalvik Executable files (Dex files). These execution environments are optimized for the android platform taking into consideration the processor and memory constraints on mobile devices.
The runtime translates code written by programmers into machine code that does computations and utilizes android framework components to deliver functionality. Android hosts multiple applications and system components that each run in their processes.Core Libraries
In this segment, we will discuss some of the core libraries that are present in the Android operating system.2) MediaFramework
Android also natively supports popular media codecs, making it easy for apps created on the Android platform to use/play multimedia components out of the box.3) SQLite
Android also has an SQLite database that enables applications to have very fast native database functionality without the need for third party libraries.4) Freetype
Android comes with a preinstalled fast and flexible font engine. This makes it possible for application developers to style components of their application and deliver a rich experience that communicates the developer’s intent.5) OpenGL
Android also comes with the OpenGL graphics system. It’s a C library that helps Android use hardware components in the real-time rendering of 2D and 3D graphics.6) SSL
Android also comes with an inbuilt security layer to enable secure communication between applications on Android and other devices such as servers, other mobile devices, routers 6.7) SGL
Android comes with a graphics library implemented in low-level code that efficiently renders graphics for the android platform. It works with the higher-level components of the Android framework Android graphics pipeline.8) Libc 9) Webkit
This is an open-source Browser engine used as a basis to build browsers. The default Android browser before version 4.4 KitKat uses it for rendering web pages. It enables application developers to render web components in the view-system by using WebView. This enables apps to integrate web components into their functionality.10) Surface Manager
The surface manager is responsible for ensuring the smooth rendering of application screens. It does this by composing 2D and 3D graphics for rendering. It further enables this by doing off-screen buffering.Linux Kernel
The root component of the Android System is the Linux Kernel. It is the foundational piece that enables all of Android’s functionality.
The Linux Kernel is a battle-tested piece of software that has been used in developing operating systems for devices of wide range, from supercomputers to small gadgets. It has limited processing abilities like small networked gadgets for the Internet of Things (IoT).
The Linux Kernel can be tweaked to meet the device specifications to make it possible for manufacturers to make Android devices with different capabilities to match user experience.
With regards to Android, the Kernel is responsible for many foundational functionalities including but not limited to these:
Let’s expand on some of the functionality:Device Drivers
The Linux Kernel houses the drivers needed to make it possible for the operating system to work with different hardware components. These drivers provide a standard interface with which hardware components sourced from different manufacturers can work with.
This makes it possible for device manufacturers to source different components, such as Bluetooth components, Wifi components, camera components. As long as the manufacturers match the Android standard specifications, integration is seamless.1) USB Driver
Linux also provides Android with a means to interface with USB devices. Modern devices come with different USB ports, including USB 2.0 and new versions of USB, including USB-C. These drivers make it possible to use the USB port to charge, transfer live data such as logs from the Android devices, and interact with the android file system.2) Bluetooth Driver
Linux Kernel provides support for interfacing with Bluetooth hardware components. It provides a way to read and write data received from supported bluetooth radio frequencies. It also provides a set of facilities for Android to configure Bluetooth.3) Wifi Driver
The Linux kernel provides drivers to integrate the WiFi networking hardware components. WiFi components embedded in mobile devices enable Android devices to connect to wifi networks. The driver enables the wifi components to broadcast wifi networks and create hotspots.4) Display Driver
Android makes it possible to interface with display components. For most devices, the interface component is an LCD touch-screen. It allows support for configuring and drawing pixels.5) Audio Driver
Android devices commonly come with hardware components for audio input and output. Audio drivers in the kernel enable the Android system to use audio received from these components and also produce audio output.6) Power Manager
Most Android devices are used while disconnected from power outlets. They thus depend on batteries to power them for a large chunk of their usage. Linux Kernel comes with a power management system that’s configurable to meet the needs of the devices using it.
Android OS uses the power manager to make other components on the device power-aware. It does this by broadcasting various power-related states. These states are Standby, Sleep, and Low-Battery. On Android, the power manager is tweaked to default to sleep mode to ensure maximum battery life.
The Power Manager exposes means for applications to react to different power modes. Applications can also change their behavior to match the current power state of the device.
An application can also request to change the default power policies. Applications can achieve the desired functionality, such as keeping the hardware components active. An example is keeping the screen active when reading a book to ensure a user isn’t interrupted. Another example is keeping the audio components turned on when listening to music in the background.7) Flash Memory
Most Android devices use flash memory as a means of storage. Flash memory is fast and takes less space making it perfect for small devices. Linux kernel provides a means for Android devices to read and write into flash memory. It provides a means to partition the memory in such a way that the OS and other applications can easily and efficiently share the memory resource.8) Binder
Android hosts many applications and system components that each run in their processes. In most cases, these processes should be isolated from each other to prevent interference and data corruption. Yet, there are instances that we wish to pass data from one process to another.
The Linux kernel enables data sharing functionality by providing binder drivers. Binder drivers enable inter-process communication, IPC. Using IPC processes can discover other processes and share information.Memory Management
Another responsibility of the Linux Kernel is memory management. As different applications run, the Kernel ensures the memory space they use doesn’t conflict and overwrite each other.
It also helps ensure that all running apps get adequate memory to function, making sure no single app takes too much space.Process Management
Every app in Android runs in a process. The Kernel is also responsible for managing processes. This means it’s responsible for creating, pausing, stopping, shutting, or killing down processes.
The Kernel enables various functionalities such as running multiple processes at the same time, communicating between processes, running processes in the background, and so on.
As each process requires its own memory space to function correctly, the Kernel ensures that memory spaces allotted for each process are protected from other processes. It also ensures that resources like RAM allotted to processes are freed up when the processes are shut down.
The Linux Kernel is also responsible for distributing work to the processors present in the device. This makes it possible to maximize the performance of devices with multiple cores as different apps will have processes being run on a different core.
The Linux Kernel does more task under the hood including enforcing security.Summary:
Android architecture is organized in layers.
Each layer solves a unique set of problems.
End-users interact with apps on the Application layer
Application developers develop apps to be used on the Application layer. They do so using tools and abstractions provided by the Application Framework.
Android Framework layer simplifies access to low-level components by creating an API over native libraries.
Android Runtime and Core-Libraries use low-level languages together with optimizations for mobile devices. This ensures code written by application developers runs smoothly despite Android device constraints.
At the bottom of the Android software stack is the Linux kernel. It interfaces with the hardware components common in Android devices.
When you’re preparing your strategy for next year, it’s vital to plan for potential upsets and challenges ahead.
This year, SEO practitioners overcame challenges posed by a lack of resources, issues with strategy, and the ability to scale processes.
Looking ahead to 2023 and beyond, our State of SEO report finds practitioners anticipate machine learning and AI, Google updates, and the deprecation of third-party cookies to lead the way as the greatest shifts in SEO.
In this article, we’ll summarize key data points from our report, highlight three major challenges in particular, and look at relevant SEO trends that can aid in your strategy development.
All of the insights here are driven by our first-party survey data in the annual State Of SEO Report.Summary Of Report Findings
When asked what were the biggest SEO challenges over the last 12 months, respondents stated:
Lack of resources (14.9%).
Strategy issues (12.3%).
Scaling processes (11.9%).
Pandemic-related issues (11.2%).
Alignment with other departments (10.7%).
Budget cuts fell from the number one challenge SEO professionals faced in 2023 to number six this year.
However, the fact that lack of resources and scaling processes were top challenges in 2023 suggests that 2023’s budget cuts had a lasting impact.
Looking ahead to potential threats in 2023, we asked respondents to select up to three “biggest shifts” and industry changes in SEO. Here are their top responses:
Machine learning and AI (18.7%).
Google updates (18.0%).
Third-party cookie deprecation (13.9%).
Competition for talent (11.5%).
Factors SEO professionals are watching as emergent factors are:
Machine learning and AI (11.3%).
Core Web Vitals (10.8%).
EAT & trusted sources (10.2%).
Mobile SEO (9.8%).
SERP features (8.3%).SEO Pros Often Work With Limited Resources
Lack of resources came in as the top challenge faced by SEOs in 2023.
There’s little doubt that the industry is feeling the effects of budget cuts incurred in 2023, though another reason for the limited resources is that many SEOs aren’t working with large teams.
Over 40% of respondents report working with a team of 10 or fewer members, while roughly 5% said they work by themselves.
Adding new team members may prove difficult in the next year or two.
The State Of SEO Report goes into deeper detail about the challenges facing SEO professionals and what they’re worried about next year.Recent And Continuing Growth May Prove Challenging
Several of the SEO shifts predicted for 2023 and beyond are potential impediments to growth.
Recent and continuing growth may prove challenging without the ability to scale as a team, and competition for talent is expected to be a major cause for concern over the next two years.
Deprecation of third-party cookies makes it difficult for SEO pros and marketers to sustain recent growth, as they’ll be expected to deliver the same or better results with fewer data.Strategy Is A Concern For Many SEO Pros
SEOs listed strategy issues as one of their greatest challenges over the last 12 months.
Strategy issues may indicate that SEO professionals are struggling to prove their ROI (return on investment).
While over half of SEO practitioners (58.0%) we surveyed reported an increase in the ROI for their work, many struggled to prove ROI, and 29% of SEO professionals reported feeling ambivalent about their ROI.
In our chapter on Winning Strategies And Measuring SEO Success, we discuss how ROI problems are often the result of a disconnect between a brand’s target goals and the data being tracked.SEO Pros Expect Machine Learning And AI To Have A Big Impact
Topping the list of biggest shifts over the next two years, as anticipated by SEO pros, is machine learning and AI.
Additionally, machine learning and AI were the top responses when SEO pros were asked to rank what they think will be the most important emergent factors in 2023.
To understand better why machine learning and AI are at the top of everyone’s minds, we turned to our in-house experts to get more context.
“As a disruptor, I can’t yet see AI being able to replace critical decisions and choices where there are several routes to take, and you have to make a choice based on expertise. The tool is only as good as the person driving it. At the moment, there is a flood of tools powered by GPT-3.
These are great for low-end volume content, such as product descriptions, but they widen the divide and elevate well-researched thought leadership quality content. As niches online become saturated by AI-spun content, the quality will be the only way to stand out. Ultimately, overuse will only have a detrimental effect.”
To see all of the first-party survey data and read more insights, download the State Of SEO Report.
Featured Image: Paulo Bobita/Search Engine Journal
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