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iOS 11.4 packs in a new feature called USB Restricted Mode that was designed to help defeat physical data access by forensic firms like Cellebrite and hacking tools such as GrayKey.
As such, GrayKey opens door to brute-force attacks on the passcode. With Apple’s protections bypassed, the box is reportedly able to guess a 6-digit passcode in less than a day.
Guide to iOS estimated passcode cracking times (assumes random decimal passcode + an exploit that breaks SEP throttling):
— Matthew Green (@matthew_d_green) April 16, 2023
It has two Lightning cables sticking out of the front and works with all recent iPhones.
To tighten up user security and make it harder for such specialized hardware to break into our iPhones, iOS 11.4’s new USB Restricted Mode imposes a seven-day window during which accessories can use the USB data connection over the Lightning port.
According to the iOS 11.4 release notes:
To improve security, for a locked iOS device to communicate with USB accessories you must connect an accessory via Lightning connector to the device while unlocked—or enter your device passcode while connected—at least once a week.
In other words, iOS 11.4 prevents any accessories from communicating with an iOS device through the Lightning port unless your passcode is entered at least once per week.
This feature was actually introduced in the iOS 11.3 beta before being removed from the finished code and reintroduced in the current iOS 11.4 beta.
When the Lightning port has been locked down to charge-only mode, your iPhone or iPad will still charge but it will no longer attempt to establish a data connection with the accessory.
In Lightning lockdown mode, even the Trust This Computer prompt won’t be displayed once the device is connected to the computer. As an added layer of security, any existing iTunes lockdown records will not be honored until the user unlocks their device with a passcode.
TUTORIAL: How to set up a stronger iPhone passcode
iTunes lockdown records, or pairing records, are special files that are stored on the computer to which your iOS device syncs to. A lockdown record is automatically created the first time the user connects their iOS device to a PC that has iTunes installed.
Russian forensic firm ElcomSoft speculates that a rogue party might attempt to extend the Restricted Mode window by connecting an iOS device to a paired accessory or computer.
If the phone was seized while it was still powered on, and kept powered on in the meanwhile, than the chance of successfully connecting the phone to a computer for the purpose of making a local backup will depend on whether or not the expert has access to a non-expired lockdown file (the aforesaid iTunes pairing record).
If, however, the phone is delivered in a powered-off state, and the passcode is not known, the chance of successful extraction is slim at best.
Elcomsoft notes that it’s currently unclear when the USB data is blocked:
At this point, it is still unclear whether the USB port is blocked if the device has not been unlocked with a passcode for 7 consecutive days; if the device has not been unlocked at all (password or biometrics); or if the device has not been unlocked or connected to a trusted USB device or computer.
In our test, we were able to confirm the USB lock after the device has been left idle for 7 days. During this period, we have not tried to unlock the device with Touch ID or connect it to a paired USB device. What we do know, however, is that after the 7 days the Lightning port is only good for charging.
Apple’s made it a lot harder for forensic firms to bypass the passcode and create a local backup of an iOS device’s data by using iTunes lockdown records from a victim’s computer.
In iOS 11.3, for instance, iTunes pairing records expire after seven days. iOS 11 also increases pairing security by requiring a passcode for the “Trust This Computer” prompt.
As Apple itself states, the changes in iOS 11.4 described in this article should make hacking attempts by forensic firms like Cellebrite and hacking tools such as GrayKey harder.
“If you use iAP USB accessories over the Lightning connector or connect to a Mac or Windows PC, you may therefore need to periodically enter your passcode if you have a passcode set on your iPhone, iPad or iPod touch,” the company notes.
All you need to know is that the iOS 11.4 update boosts your security by automatically disabling the Lightning port after 7 days since your device has been last unlocked.
What do you think about this new privacy measure in iOS 11.4?
You're reading Ios 11.4’S Restricted Mode May Defeat Physical Data Access By Hacking Tools Like Graykey
There are some images that you can’t unsee. So you won’t have to come across those images, YouTube has a helpful feature that will keep those images away from you. It’s not 100 perfectly accurate, but at least you’ll come across fewer of those images. The feature can easily be turned off or on at any time. You can do this from your computer or from your Android device. It’s also possible to enable the feature from your iPad.How to Enable or Disable Restricted Mode on YouTube on Windows
What the feature does is that it filters data such as the description, titles, and tags. It also detects if the video has been labeled with an age restriction. It is also not the same as the age restrictions since this last one requires that the user logging in verify they are over 18, after that, have access to all videos. With Restricted Mode, even if you’re over 18 and have logged into your account, there will still be videos you won’t have access to.
This should be enough to turn it off. If you can’t, it could be because you’re using a work or organization account that doesn’t let you turn it off. In that case, you’ll need to talk to the administrator. As you can see, it’s very easy to turn it off. But, sometimes users run into problems when they try to turn it off, but not to worry since we’ve covered you on those issues.
It’s also possible to turn off Restricted Mode on your Android device. It’s also easy to do. Here are the steps to follow.How to Turn off Restricted Mode for YouTube on Android
Even if you’re in a hurry, turning off Restricted Mode on Android is easy and beginner-friendly. Once the Android app opens, tap on your profile picture and go to Settings. Once you’re in Settings, go to General, which should be at the top. The option to turn off Restricted Mode will be towards the bottom.
Remember that you’ll need to repeat these steps on every device you use YouTube on. The change does not sync on all devices. Also, you even see a warning on the option that the filter is not 100% accurate. So, that means that you might come across the content your trying to avoid, but you can bet that it’ll be a lot less than if you leave the option off. If you ever want to turn off Restricted Mode, YouTube will ask you to enter your password.How to Turn off or On Restricted Mode on iPad
You can also quickly turn off Restricted Mode if you’re an iPad user. Once the YouTube app is open, tap on your profile picture and go to Settings. Make sure you’ve selected the General option on the left, and Restricted Mode should be at the top. Toggle it on or off, and you’re good to go.
That’s all there is to it. When you want to do the opposite, turn it on or off, you can follow these same steps.Further Reading
Sometimes you may run into the issue that you can’t turn Restricted Mode off. But we’ve got you covered on that. As long as we’re on the subject of a feature that helps keep inappropriate content away, why not check out how you can use the parental controls on TikTok?
If you’re having trouble with YouTube on your Chromebook, here are some tips you can try. Since no app is perfect and you’ll come across some issues on YouTube, why not see how you can fix YouTube error 429, too many requests.Conclusion
Lake Michigan as viewed from Chicago. Pixabay
Imagine diving into the shallow waters off the coast of Lake Michigan. You can see bare rocks and sand as you descend. Pinky-size spottail shiners swim by, shimmering in silver. When you reach the bottom, an indigenous yellow spotted molted sculpin is lying flat on its belly, flapping its boney fins like wings. “That was at least 20 years ago,” said Harvey Bootsma, a freshwater scientist at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, who has been studying Lake Michigan for decades. “Even though [the lake] may look similar on the surface to what it did 20 or 30 years ago, underneath the surface, it has changed a lot,” he said. Mercury pollution has eroded the health of wildlife, while invasive mussels have gobbled up phytoplankton at the base of the food chain, clearing the water. However, there may be another potential danger brewing in the lakes: water acidification. Pollution from cars, planes, factories, farms, and power plants is driving up the level of heat-trapping carbon dioxide. Some of that carbon dioxide is then dissolving into oceans and lakes, turning waters more acidic. “Based on the chemistry of the Great Lakes, they should be responding to the increase in atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide,” Bootsma said. Scientists have focused on ocean acidification, called “climate change’s evil twin,” while overlooking the acidification of lakes and rivers, so not much is known about what carbon pollution means for the Great Lakes. Research is sorely needed to determine how it might be impacting the creatures who inhabit the lake. But the little amount that scientists do understand about acidification is cause for concern.
Tiny invasive zebra mussels scattered along the shore of Lake Michigan. Royalbroil
“We don’t have any evidence that acidification is doing anything harmful to the Great Lakes, but we do know that coral reefs are being harmed in the ocean,” Bootsma said. “Sometimes that ends up with the Great Lakes being a little bit neglected.” Because there is a surfeit of data on oceans and a paucity of data on lakes, the government tends to prioritize funding for research into ocean acidification over lake acidification.
Jennifer Day, regional coordinator for a 2010 NOAA plan to study the acidification of the Great Lakes, said that her team had trouble collecting research on the topic. “So far, it’s not really a problem, so no one’s really looking at [lake acidification]” she said. The 2010 plan was never implemented. NOAA recently began work on a new plan to study the acidification of the Great Lakes, but Bootsma doubts it addresses core research needs.
“The first need is just for the use of better instruments and for more continuous records,” he said. “That’s the only way we’re really going to understand the factors that affect the pH in the Great Lakes, and whether the pH is changing over the long term.” Several factors make it challenging to study lake acidification.
The Great Lakes as viewed from space. EPA
“It is difficult to determine exactly how the lake is responding to atmospheric CO2,” Bootsma said, “because any effect of the atmospheric CO2 is being complicated or masked by all these other things that are going on,” such as acid rain, acid runoff from mines, and the small amount of carbon dioxide that enters the water when fish exhale.
There is good reason to suspect carbon pollution may be turning the Great Lakes more acidic. In 2023, researchers studying four artificial lakes in Germany found the first evidence that carbon was acidifying freshwater. More research is needed to investigate whether other lakes are also susceptible to carbon pollution, though the initial study is troubling.
“We know [lakes] are very highly involved in the global carbon cycle,” said Linda Weiss, a biologist at Ruhr University and lead author of the study. “It is reasonable to estimate that they are prone to CO2 accumulation.”
In addition to showing that the carbon pollution was turning the artificial lakes more acidic, the German study also found that acidification was harming the creatures living in the lakes. Elevated levels of carbon dioxide were making it harder for Daphnia, known as water fleas, to sense and defend against predators.
An adult male Daphnia. Dita Vizoso
“These kinds of studies are important,” Bootsma said. “It’s getting at some of the questions that we have. Is CO2 changing the lake? Does it have any effect at all? Or do none of the animals really care?”
Several studies have shown that too much carbon dioxide can be harmful to freshwater fish. A 2023 study placed baby pink salmon in water with artificially high levels of carbon dioxide and found that the resulting acidification stunted their growth. A 2013 study looked at how invasive carp species in Lake Michigan responded to elevated levels of CO2, which turned the water slightly more acidic. They found that fish avoided areas rich in carbon dioxide and suggested CO2 could be used to create underwater barriers that would prevent carp from colonizing more of the lake.
“It’s not a bubble curtain. It’s not like a tactile barrier,” said Cory Suski, an ecologist at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and co-author of the carp study. Carbon dioxide makes fish feel “woozy” like anesthetic gas given to patients in surgery. Suski’s research suggests that fish migration patterns may change as more carbon dioxide accumulates in freshwaters.
In addition to the growth and constricting the movement of fish, acidification can also disrupt the food chain. A 2004 study showed that phytoplankton — which is currently threatened by invasive mussels in Lake Michigan —may grow smaller in water with more carbon dioxide, meaning there is less food for the species that depend on them.
Bighead carp, shown above, avoid waters rich in carbon dioxide. USGS
This is a growing threat for the Great Lakes. While scientists have not found firm evidence that carbon pollution is turning the lakes more acidic, they think this is likely the case. “One thing we know —which is common knowledge for people who do these kinds of studies — is that atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are still continuing to go up at a fairly rapid rate,” Bootsma said.
A 2023 study projected the Great Lakes will acidify at roughly the same rate as the oceans in the years to come, though scientists are still not sure how the concentration of CO2 will affect the Great Lakes. “One of the challenges with the Great Lakes is making people aware of what’s going on,” Bootsma said. “We do it a lot through underwater videos. We can’t bring people into the lake, but we can bring the lake to the people.”
Tiffany Chen is a journalist based in Chicago, Illinois. You can follow her @tiffanyching673. Nexus Media is a syndicated newswire covering climate, energy, policy, art and culture.
Quick Ways To Access iOS Notes on Windows 10 iOS Notes on windows? Does this even exist? Get sorted with the best ways to access iOS Notes on Windows 10.
In this article, we will help you understand these easy ways to start using Apple Notes on Windows PC.
How To Access iOS Notes on Windows?
Sync Your iPhone Notes With Gmail
The best and the easiest way to access iOS Notes on Windows is to sync them up with your Gmail. Since there is no specific app for Windows, Apple users can allow the user’s Gmail account to access the content of the iOS notes app and this can later be viewed on a Windows PC. Here’s how:
Head to iPhone’s
Then, head to
You’ll see Gmail as an option under the Accounts tab.
Later on, you’ll see the Gmail option and ensure that the toggle next to
Notes is enabled
Disclaimer: Following these steps, the old notes will not be copied to your Gmail account, but all the new notes you create after enabling Gmail Sync will appear in Gmail.
This will create a dedicated Gmail folder in the notes app. Easy, isn’t it? This will allow you to view and edit your iOS notes on Windows.
Another simple way to use iOS notes on Windows is through its dedicated web app i.e. chúng tôi When you simply wish to access apple notes on a Windows computer, rather than copying them into a new note, it is easy to quickly access chúng tôi on Windows. You can use this option to view your Apple notes on a Windows PC. Here’s how:
Toggle On Notes App.
from iPhone to proceed.
Next, you’ll be asked if you Trust the browser on Windows PC or not. Select
On the iCloud, choose
to launch its web app version.
Following these instructions, you can view and edit all the iPhone Notes in the browser anytime and anywhere. Any changes you make will be synced to the iPhone as well.
Turn iCloud Notes Webpage To A Progressive Web App
and head to
from the available options.
and then select
Install this site as an app
That’s all! The notes web app will open as a new app window and you can quickly access all your Apple notes from here. For more ease, you can Pin the app to the taskbar.
Sync Your Notes Rather Copying Them In New
Usually, we use to copy our old notes and add them into a new note or send them across through e-mail to keep a backup of them. But, the process is simpler now. You can sync your mails to Gmail or iCloud and ensure accessing them anytime and anywhere. Not only this, through these processes, you can also edit the notes, if required.
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Apple’s iPhones are by far the most secure devices available to the masses because of the security and privacy measures taken by iOS. The company has announced an additional layer of protection for the iPhones that comes in the form of Lockdown Mode. When Lockdown Mode is enabled on iOS, your iPhone will be protected against cyber attacks that are targeted specifically at you.
In this post, we’ll explain what Lockdown Mode really is all about, how you can enable it on iOS, and what happens when you turn it on.
What is Lockdown Mode on iOS 16?
Lockdown Mode is a feature on iOS 16 that enables an enhanced layer of security on your iPhone, preventing it from getting targeted by the most intense digital threats that can be used to exploit your iPhone or its data. When Lockdown Mode is enabled on an iPhone, the device won’t be able to offer certain functions to minimize the effect of an attack in case it happens so that your data isn’t exploited by any spyware.
Apple claims that this extreme level of security should be good enough to stop even the most sophisticated attacks from companies that develop state-sponsored mercenary spyware. Although the chances of regular users getting cyberattacks targeted on them is unlikely, Lockdown Mode will be helpful for the minority of users whose digital security may be personally targeted for who they are and what do.
In addition to iOS 16, Lockdown Mode will also be made available on iPadOS 16 and macOS Ventura when they release in the fall of 2023.
Related: iOS 16: How to Enable Live Captions on iPhone
How to enable Lockdown Mode on iOS 16
If you have an iPhone running iOS 16, turning on the Lockdown Mode on your iPhone is easy. To do that, open the Settings app on your iPhone.
Inside Settings, select Privacy & Security.
On the screen, scroll down to the bottom and tap on Lockdown Mode.
Here, tap on Turn On Lockdown Mode.
In the overflow screen that appears, scroll down and tap on Turn On Lockdown Mode.
You’ll see a prompt that warns you about features that may be disabled. To proceed, tap on Turn On & Restart.
Your iPhone will now restart and when it boots up, Lockdown Mode will be enabled.
What happens when you turn on Lockdown Mode?
If you turn on Lockdown Mode, iOS will disable a handful of features to prevent your data from getting out in case of a cyberattack.
Attachments other than images inside the Messages app will be blocked for as long as the Lockdown mode is enabled.
Previews of links shared on Messages will be disabled during Lockdown.
You won’t receive incoming FaceTime calls from someone whom you haven’t ever contacted on FaceTime.
When an iPhone is locked, no wired connections with a computer or an accessory will work.
You cannot install new configuration profiles when iPhone is in Lockdown Mode.
iPhones with Lockdown Mode won’t be able to enroll in mobile device management (MDM).
All Shared albums will be removed from the Photos app once Lockdown Mode is enabled.
Invitations to new Shared albums will be blocked automatically.
You will only be able to turn off these restrictions when you get out of Lockdown Mode on iOS.
How to turn off Lockdown Mode for websites on Safari
To disable Lockdown mode for this website, tap on the aA icon at the bottom left corner.
In the overflow menu that appears, select Website Settings.
You’ll see a popup screen that can be expanded by swiping it upwards. Inside this screen, turn off the Lockdown Mode toggle.
In a prompt that appears on the screen, you’ll be warned about security risks. To confirm, tap on Turn Off.
Lockdown Mode will be disabled for the selected website. When you reload this site again inside Safari, you should see the “Lockdown Off” banner at the bottom.
You can repeat these steps to turn off Lockdown Mode for other websites you trust but we suggest you leave the option enabled for increased protection.
How to access your excluded websites on Lockdown Mode
If you have excluded some websites from getting affected by iOS’ Lockdown Mode, you can view them inside the Lockdown Mode settings on your iPhone. Websites in the excluded list can either be enabled with Lockdown Mode or you can delete them from showing up in the excluded list forever.
To access the websites you’ve excluded in Lockdown Mode, open the Settings app on iOS and go to Privacy & Security.
Inside Privacy & Security, scroll down to the bottom of the screen and select Lockdown Mode.
On the next screen, scroll down and tap on Configure Web Browsing.
Here, tap on Excluded Safari Websites.
You’ll see a list of websites in which you have disabled Lockdown Mode.
To enable Lockdown Mode for a specific website, turn on the toggle adjacent to that website.
If you wish to clear website settings or remove a site from this excluded list, tap on Edit at the top right corner.
Here, you can clear Lockdown Mode settings for all the websites by tapping on Clear All Settings. This will remove all the listed websites from the excluded list.
If you wish to remove only some of these websites, select the websites you want to remove and tap on Delete at the top left corner.
This will remove only the selected websites from the list and keep the rest in the excluded list.
How to disable Lockdown Mode on iOS 16
If you no longer want to use Lockdown Mode on your iPhone, you can disable it by opening the Settings app on iOS and going to Privacy & Security.
Inside Privacy & Security, scroll down to the bottom of the screen and select Lockdown Mode.
Here, tap on Turn Off Lockdown Mode.
In the prompt that appears, confirm the changes by tapping on Turn Off & Restart.
Your iPhone will reboot now and when it successfully boots up, Lockdown Mode will have been disabled.
That’s all you need to know about using Lockdown Mode on iOS 16.
Some popular apps store sensitive data such as user names and passwords and credit card information in plain text on your phone’s memory, making the data an easy target for hackers. A Chicago-based mobile forensics company called viaForensics recently found as much after completing an audit of dozens of the most popular apps on both iOS and Android platforms.
If a criminal had physical access to your phone, it wouldn’t be very hard to find all that data and use it to commit identity theft; even remote access to your phone to harvest cached data is now becoming possible–the increase in mobile malware on Android phones and jailbroken iOS phones means that insecurities are more exploitable than ever.
You put a lot of information on your smartphone, mostly through apps that promise a standard of security and require usernames and passwords to access your personal data, at least on the initial setup of the application. But many of those apps unnecessarily store that information on the phone when they don’t have to, and they don’t encrypt all of their information when they do have to store the information offline.
Earlier this year, everyone was shocked that iPhones were storing their location data in an unencrypted file on the phone’s internal memory. But a history of location data seems like small fry compared with storing a password (considering that most people reuse their passwords for multiple accounts) or credit card numbers, or messages you’ve sent to your boss on the phone’s memory. Because phones are easily stolen, and Android phones especially have seen an increase in malicious apps (currently 2.5 times more common than they were six months ago, according to Lookout Mobile Security), storage of your private details shouldn’t be taken lightly.
You can check out the list of apps that viaForensics tested here, along with a summary of how much information each app revealed. ViaForensics contacted all of the app builders before publishing the results, so many of the apps tested are earlier versions that have since had the security holes fixed. But these are just a sampling of the hundreds of thousands of apps out there that keep more information stored on the phone than is absolutely necessary.What Kinds of Apps are Insecure?
According to viaForensics’s tests, all kinds of apps can have major security holes when storing app data and login information–apps ranging from financial planning to productivity to social networking. But it’s important to note that the apps themselves are not malicious (although apps built for the sole purpose of stealing people’s information exist, especially on the Android platform); nevertheless, these insecure apps might open you up to malicious attacks.
For some, having this information accessible is harmless–someone knowing your Foursquare username and password can’t do much with that name and password unless they happen to be the same as the username and password for your bank account or work email.
Even more-popular finance apps like Square, the mobile credit-card reading app, kept some transaction information cached on the iPhone (the Android-based version securely stored most information accessed on Square, and passed with a warning). Although both versions of the app hid the user’s password properly, on iOS the merchant’s phone contained the last four digits of the buyer’s credit card number, but “the ultimate fail was when you sign on the pad, the last signature [made in the app] was available on the memory of the phone,” Eull says.Malware Can Exploit Security Holes
Although the threat is still largely theoretical, malware might be the next big affront to your privacy on mobile devices. Eull noted that because user app data and login information is often stored on your phone’s readable memory, it’s possible for a hacker to create a piece of malware that extracts all the information you thought was secret while you’re using your phone.
Android users have faced a marked increase in instances of malware on their phones, usually acquired by downloading apps containing malicious code, and there’s no reason that this kind of malicious code couldn’t search for the unencrypted user names, passwords, and other app data that more popular apps are storing.
Alicia diVittorio, Communications Director at Lookout Mobile Security, warns against downloading questionable apps that could put the information on your other “safe” apps in jeopardy. “People are downloading these apps that could give access to information on phones,” diVittorio said, “and when you’re using unencrypted Wi-Fi, anyone who’s also on that Wi-Fi could see the data transferred. Data from the app should be encrypted, and the Wi-Fi should be encrypted,” to really stop any predatory activity on your mobile device. Using 3G exclusively will eat up your data usage, but if you can’t find trustworthy Wi-Fi in your location, it might be a good idea to turn your phone’s Wi-Fi connection off. Also, downloading a security app like Lookout that can scan for malware on your phone can help you protect your phone from infiltration.
Although clearly not every app developer is tuned in to the mandate to protect users’ security, Andrew Hoog, the CIO of viaForensics is hopeful: “In November of last year apps were storing banking information insecurely,” he says, and now, “we’re seeing a positive trend” in the way developers build their apps to guard against breaches. But app developers need to become better at building security a lot faster than their malware-developing counterparts, or face an ugly wake-up call of user dissatisfaction.
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