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Oh, the inevitability of it all.

With the two sides (publicly) deadlocked, talk whipping around of how high Microsoft will go, how low an offer Yahoo will accept and a looming proxy battle to oust the board, this stage of the deal has become a very public chess match. Every move is a calculated step, and this e-mail was no exception.

Johnson’s missive bore the tone of a press release. In fact, given the media alert that accompanied it, it was a press release.

“We have been very thoughtful about this combination, and are excited about what our two companies can do together,” Johnson wrote. “While Yahoo has issued a press release rejecting our proposal, we continue to believe we have a full and fair proposal on the table.”

He told his staff that “if and when Yahoo agrees to proceed,” the two companies would then work to clear the regulatory hurdles, and the transaction would close before the end of the year, sticking by the original timetable.

Johnson, one of the Microsoft executives on the conference call announcing the offer exactly three weeks ago, put out the e-mail ostensibly to answer common questions employees had raised about the combination of the companies. They happen to include several of the same questions that members of the press have been asking.

The fate of the two brands has been a big one. “The Yahoo brand is one of the reasons the combination of the two companies would create so much value,” he wrote, adding, however, that it would be “premature” to speculate on which products would bear which brand in the combined company. A joint committee will see to that when the time comes, he said.

Pairing technology platforms

On pairing the technology platforms, Johnson reassured his team that Microsoft has made numerous acquisitions of companies whose technologies are not Windows-based. In some cases the open source technology has eventually morphed into Windows; in others, Microsoft has made the relevant facet of Windows interoperate with the acquired technology to preserve its original form. In the case of Yahoo’s technology, Johnson said that engineers from both companies would work together to make the appropriate decisions.

Johnson wrote that the two companies’ cultures would come together — some sooner, some later — in a synergistic hybrid buoyed by Microsoft’s R&D and Yahoo’s Web and “21st century media expertise.”

With regard to staffing, and the possibility of cuts, Johnson said that there would inevitably be some overlap of the two companies (read: layoffs), but that Microsoft is growing, and faces “no shortage of business and technical opportunities.” Any layoffs that come on the Yahoo side are going to be costly, after the golden parachutes announced earlier this week.

Finally, Johnson said that the combined company would maintain offices in Redmond and Silicon Valley.

With the number of options available to Yahoo CEO Jerry Yang dwindling, this acquisition has taken on an air of inevitability. The more pressure put on Yahoo’s board to come to the table, the better Microsoft’s bargaining position will be. On a merger of this scale, whittling even a fraction of a dollar off the final per-share price would save Microsoft hundreds of millions of dollars.

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Yahoo Tops Google On Search Relevance With Relona

It is not everyday that you come across search technology that challenges the established leaders in the search space – that too on the grounds of relevancy.

It is a fact that there is an explosion of content on the web. Relona’s technology is based on the theory that the keyword space (or query space) has to grow in order to cover the whole swath of content on the web. This means that on an average, users will have to enter more keywords to get more relevant results from the search engine.

On the major search engines, the results returned for long queries is not as relevant as those returned for short queries. This is where Relona’s Intent Based Search algorithm uses statistical models to better map content to search queries by adjusting the emphasis on the words that form the query.

Intent Based Algorithm

The Intent based algorithm does computationally what the user does by habit when the results returned do not meet the relevance criteria – use different words to convey the same meaning. This is where Relona’s technology takes the middle path between natural language processing and using pure link analysis. By using statistical models, Relona’s search technology “guesses” users intent by adjusting the weight on different terms used in the search query.

Sprucing up relevance as compared to Google

What is really interesting is the enhanced relevance that MSN, Yahoo and chúng tôi have (as compared to Google) when combined together with Relona’s Intent based algorithm.

MSN-Live – Relevance improves by 20% for two or more keywords.

Yahoo – Relevance improves by 35% for two or more keywords, making it 5% more relevant than Google.

The results are provided at chúng tôi as impressive presentations and were obtained from analysis of AOL’s query logs. Also to be noted is that the above analysis was done without any direct integration with the search engines (Is this a hint they are open for acquisition?)

Relona’s technology is all the more alluring because it seeks to build upon the base of the first era of search engines and uses a statistical model that improves with usage. A demonstration of the search engine’s technology can be accessed from here.

Em Dash (—) Vs. En Dash (–)

There are two types of dash. The en dash is approximately the length of the letter N, and the em dash the length of the letter M.

The shorter en dash (–) is used to mark ranges and with the meaning “to” in phrases like “Dover–Calais crossing.”

The longer em dash (—) is used to separate extra information or mark a break in a sentence.

The en dash is sometimes also used in the same way as an em dash, especially in UK English; in this case, it takes a space on either side.

The em dash: Marking a break in a sentence

Em dashes can be used in pairs to mark off additional information that is not essential to understand the sentence. Here they function similarly to parentheses or a pair of commas.

An em dash is usually written without spaces on either side, although some style guides do recommend using spaces. When in doubt, opt for no spaces, and make sure you’re consistent throughout your text, whatever you choose.

Dark, leafy greens—such as spinach, kale, and chard—are an important part of a healthy diet.

Some years ago — never mind how long precisely — I thought I would sail about a little and see the watery part of the world.

An em dash can also be used to mark a break in a sentence in place of a semicolon or colon. In this context, dashes are often used for emphasis or to signal a change in tone:

There was no arguing with her—she was set in her opinion.

Note, however, that dashes used in this way are considered more informal than other punctuation marks, so should be used sparingly and selectively in academic writing.

The en dash: Marking a range

The main use of the en dash is to indicate a range of numbers or a span of time. You can read it as representing “to” or “through”:

The First World War (1914–1918) was one of the deadliest conflicts in history.

This job demands frequent evening and weekend work in addition to regular 9:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m. hours.

The document was heavily redacted, with pages 46–52 removed altogether.

Make sure to use en dashes, not hyphens, for numerical ranges like this.

Note that in the phrases “from … to …” and “between … and …,” it’s standard to retain the word “to” or “and” instead of using an en dash, to maintain parallel construction in the sentence.

The rooms were between 15–20 meters wide.

The rooms were between 15 and 20 meters wide.

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Other uses of the en dash

The en dash also appears occasionally in other contexts.

En dashes meaning “to” or “and”

An en dash may express the meaning of “to” or “and” in situations other than numerical ranges—for example describing directions, relationships, or scores (in a vote or game).

The legislature voted 95–24 to adopt the resolution.

Clear communication is key to an effective editor–author relationship.

The Amsterdam–Berlin train departs at nine o’clock.

En dashes in place of hyphens

More rarely, an en dash is used in place of a hyphen in a compound adjective. Specifically, an en dash is preferred when one element of the compound is itself an open compound.

For example, the prefix post- is usually connected to the following word with a hyphen, but to connect it to the compound noun World War II, it’s better to use an en dash.

The post–World War II years saw a surprising resurgence in the economies of many European countries.

The band plays Led Zeppelin–style hard rock.

This usage of the en dash can be difficult to understand and get right. If in doubt, use a hyphen or the punctuation checker.

British style: En dashes in place of em dashes

You might also see an en dash used in the same way as an em dash, especially in British English and in less formal writing. In this context, the en dash always takes a space on either side:

Dark, leafy greens – such as spinach, kale, and chard – are an important part of a healthy diet.

This usage of the en dash is considered standard in British English (though Oxford style prefers the em dash).

If you choose to use en dashes in this way, make sure to do so consistently, and to use spaces. A common mistake is using both forms in the same text or spacing the punctuation incorrectly:

Jeff Bezos–who is the founder, chairman, CEO, and president of Amazon—is one of the richest people in the world.

Jeff Bezos—who is the founder, chairman, CEO, and president of Amazon—is one of the richest people in the world.

Jeff Bezos – who is the founder, chairman, CEO, and president of Amazon – is one of the richest people in the world.

Sources in this article

We strongly encourage students to use sources in their work. You can cite our article (APA Style) or take a deep dive into the articles below.

This Scribbr article

Luo, A. Retrieved July 20, 2023,

Cite this article


Butterfield, J. (Ed.). (2024). Fowler’s dictionary of modern English usage (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Garner, B. A. (2024). Garner’s modern English usage (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Yahoo Groups To Fully Shut Down On December 15, 2023

Yahoo Groups is completing the final stage of shutting down on December 15, 2023, at which time it will be fully removed from the web.

The process of shutting down Yahoo Groups, a once thriving website full of vibrant communities, began last year.

First, Yahoo disabled the ability to use Groups in October 2023. New content could no longer be contributed to Groups, but existing content could still be viewed and downloaded.

Content in Yahoo Groups became no longer viewable in December 2023, and users had until January 2023 to download their data.

— Yahoo Customer Care (@YahooCare) December 10, 2023

Until now, a stripped down version of Yahoo Groups has existed on the web. Its only capability is allowing group members to send private messages between each other.

Soon, the last remaining function of Yahoo Groups will be removed and the website itself will not be accessible.

An announcement pertaining to the closure of Yahoo Groups now appears on the chúng tôi homepage.

“We’re shutting down the Yahoo Groups website on December 15, 2023 and members will no longer be able to send or receive emails from Yahoo Groups.

Yahoo Mail features will continue to function as expected and there will be no changes to your Yahoo Mail account, emails, photos or other inbox content.

There will also be no changes to other Yahoo properties or services. You can find more information about the Yahoo Groups shutdown and alternative service options on this help page.”

The help page which Yahoo refers to compiles a number of frequently asked questions about the shut down of Groups.

Yahoo cites a decline in usage of Yahoo Groups as the reason for shutting it down:

“Yahoo Groups has seen a steady decline in usage over the last several years. Over that same period, we’ve witnessed unprecedented levels of engagement across our properties as customers seek out premium, trustworthy content.

While these decisions are never easy, we must sometimes make difficult decisions regarding products that no longer fit our long-term strategy as we hone our focus on other areas of the business.”

Though Yahoo Mail will continue to work, messages can no longer be sent or received from Yahoo Groups members after December 15.

If you’re a former user of Yahoo Groups, and there are specific group members you wish to stay in contact with, it sounds like the only option is to exchange contact information.

For those seeking alternatives to Yahoo Groups, the company’s top recommendations is Nextdoor. There’s even a help page about transferring a Yahoo Group to a Nextdoor Group.

Yahoo also points to Facebook Groups, Google Groups, and chúng tôi as potential alternatives.

Internal Vs External Financial Reporting

Internal vs External Financial Reporting

Key differences between different types of financial reporting

Written by

CFI Team

Published February 24, 2023

Updated June 28, 2023

What is Internal vs External Financial Reporting?

Internal vs external financial reporting have several key differences that you should be aware of. Internal financial reporting is a business practice that involves compiling financial information on a frequent basis for use within the organization. The documents may contain confidential information, such as business indicators, financial performance, performance indicators, etc.. They are designed to help those individuals working within the company to make informed decisions.

On the other hand, external reporting involves preparing financial information to be distributed to parties outside the organization. Unlike internal reports, external reports do not contain confidential information about the company.

The recipients of the external reports include potential investors, lenders, and creditors who require the reports to evaluate the financial position of the company. The main external financial reports include the income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows.


Internal financial reporting involves compiling and analyzing financial information for use by management in decision-making.

External financial reporting involves compiling and reporting financial information for distribution among shareholders and potential investors.

Internal financial reports are designed to be viewed only by individuals within the organization, whereas external financial reports can be accessed by any person outside the organization.

Understanding Internal Financial Reporting

Financial reports prepared for internal use are different from the financial reports that are available to the public. Generally, internal financial reports tend to be more detailed in order to provide management with enough information to help in the decision-making process.

Since the internal financial reports are not available publicly, the company is not required to follow the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) when preparing the reports. For example, when preparing the sales report for the past six months, the management may require the accountant to include all transactions such as discounts, returns, and other line items that affect the net sales value. Generally, internal financial reports cover different subjects, such as sales, marketing, human resource, etc.

Uses of Internal Financial Reports 1. Gather employee information.

Internal financial reports may be used to provide information about employees. The management may require internal employee reports that provide information on employee performance, operational efficiency at the department level, whistleblowing activities, etc. The management may use the reports to make decisions on promotions, deployment, and layoffs.

When the financial reports show a decline in a specific department’s productivity despite receiving increased funding, the management may use the internal report to reorganize the department. Also, management can use the employee reports to encourage whistleblowing activities, where employees report activities that violate company policies.

2. Track customer behavior and credit information.

A company can also use an internal financial report to track current customers and monitor how credit customers are paying back credit. It works in businesses that offer credit terms for sale transactions. The management uses the report to see how well credit customers are honoring their credit terms.

For example, a retail company that sells goods on credit may require the credit department to prepare a report of all the credit customers, credit terms, the amount of credit already paid, the amount of unpaid credit, recent defaults, etc. The information will help the management to distinguish between the credit customers who are paying credit on time and the credit customers who have delayed or defaulted on credit payments.

The management may then follow up with customers who have defaulted on payments or decide whether to continue extending credit to the specific customers or discontinue further credit terms.

Understanding External Financial Reporting

External financial reporting is a business practice that involves providing financial information on a periodic basis to potential investors and shareholders. The reports are primarily financial statements and other related information about the company that investors require to make an investment decision. Usually, the reports do not contain confidential information about the company, unless it is disclosed to achieve a specific purpose.

Existing laws require public companies to publish a complete set of audited financial statements at the end of each financial year. It is done to meet the informational requirements of the different interested parties such as investors, analysts, regulators, etc. as well as discharge the accountability duty of the organization.

In the United States, publicly traded companies are required to submit Form 10-K annually and Form 10-Q every quarter to the Securities and Exchange Commission. The information is made publicly available to investors who require the latest financial information for a specific company listed in a public stock exchange.

Uses of External Financial Reports 1. Provide information about a company’s financial health.

There are two main reasons why external financial reports are prepared. The first reason is to provide the public with information about the financial health of the company. The law makes it mandatory for public companies to publish their financial performance information every year.

2. Compare competing entities.

Publicly traded companies obtain capital from the public, and, therefore, have a duty to keep the public aware of the financial health and operations of the company. The public is interested in knowing the profit made or loss incurred during the year, the value of assets and liabilities, dividends paid, etc. Financial analysts also use the information to calculate ratios and assess the company’s financial strength in comparison to other competing entities.

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Yahoo My Web Personalized Search Experience

Yahoo My Web Personalized Search Experience

Yahoo announced that they are taking My Yahoo Search (or personal search) to the 360th degree today with the launch of Yahoo ‘My Web’ – a beefed up personalized web offering which offers RSS syndication, saved search, and integration into the normal Yahoo Search and Toolbar offerings (this is BIG). The announcement was made on the YSearchBlog this evening by Kevin Akira Lee, Senior Product Manager of Yahoo! Search.

Today, we launched a ‘My Web’, a new personal search engine fully integrated with Yahoo! Search. My Web is based on a very simple principle – a search engine should enable you to define and use the information that’s important to you. Specifically, My Web enables you to find the information relevant to you, save it, share it, add your own notes to it, and easily find it again, whether it’s three days or three months later.

The idea is a simple one – we provide a “Save” button on our search results, on the Yahoo! Toolbar (for both IE and Firefox), and, in the future, anywhere you might find useful info on the Web. When you hit the “Save” button, My Web grabs that page and makes a cached copy which is fully searchable. Anytime you need that page, all you need to do is search My Web. You can publish your My Web links via RSS and, of course, there’s an API for My Web published on YSDN.

By the way, there is no direct link to Yahoo ‘My Web’. Why? Like I said (and this is BIG) it is directly integrated into Yahoo Search! What was that Google personalized search thing that everyone was talking about a couple of days ago? I forgot… Maybe I’ll check Yahoo My Web and try to remember.

The main difference between Yahoo and Google’s personalized searches is that more Yahoo users are “logged in” as they search and Google still has some space ahead of them when it comes to securing more registered users. Basically, Yahoo Search is able to deliver a valuable personal search experience to users by leveraging direct relationships with nearly 176 million active registered users per month. Yahoo users are more apt to be logged in due to the popularity of Yahoo’s Fantasy Sports, Yahoo Messenger, Yahoo Mail and other long term Yahoo offerings.

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