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Earlier this week, I was interviewed on the use of supercomputers to fight the COVID-19 outbreak, and I thought it might be interesting to talk about the progress so far.
One of the largest efforts in terms of resources, companies, and results currently being undertaken to fight the COVID-19 outbreak is IBM’s HPC Consortium. It is arguably one of the largest efforts ever undertaken by the industry since Y2K to address a single exposure. Starting over two months ago and now consisting of more than 56 teams, including those from other large technology firms like Microsoft, Google, Amazon, HPE, and including the national laps at NASA, NSF, and several Universities, this is an incredibly impressive effort.
This effort was also not done with any large contracts. It was a concerted effort across the industry that resulted in an analysis that would have taken lifetime had it been done by human hand and not with High-Performance Computers (and many of the top supercomputers).
This effort was recently enhanced by the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE). This group brought to the fight additional resources. Those resources included the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre’s Piz Daint, the 6th ranked supercomputer in the word, and the UK Research and Innovation’s supercomputers including Archer a 2.55 Petaflop monster based at the University of Edinburgh. As as well the Technology Facilities Council’s and Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council’s HPC resources.
Using these resources, these teams have made impressive progress, but we don’t yet see much of that progress because, often, human trials and testing (which happen at human speed) has to happen first. But let’s talk about the impressive work this Consortium has already done.
A Potential Atomic Covid-19 Force Field has been identified. Yes, like you, I initially thought someone was having me on. That is not the case. Researchers Thomas Cheatham and Rodrigo Galindo from the University of Utah had been already studying how the potential energy generated by atoms give off charged “force field” that can attract or repel molecules using AMBER (which is a molecular simulator).
Using the IBM Longhorn (Power Based) supercomputer, these researchers generated 2,000 models of compounds that could affect COVID-19 ranked by force field power. The result now will be used to help design better peptide inhibitors of the main protein-copping enzyme to stop a COVID-19 infection. (I don’t know about you, but they had me at “force-field.”)
Natural Plant-Based anti-virals have been identified. India had an extremely rich data resource of around 3,000 medicinal plants, and anti-viral plant extracts already in use for medicinal purposes. Novel Techsciences, an Indian company, is using the supercomputing resources to identify phytochemicals from these plants that could act as anti-viral drugs against the class of SARS-COV 2 protein targets. This research is being done to develop a prophylactic treatment (basically a COVID-19 preventative) against the virus that will overcome the anticipated future COVID-19 drug-resistant mutation. (Think of this as a response to the anticipated 4th or later wave of infections).
COVID-19 accurate indoor spread analysis is being done by the researchers at Utah State University in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using Consortium Provided Supercomputers. The result will help the Consortium better understand how virus-laden droplet clouds are transported and mixed within indoor environments like hospitals by air turbulence. This effort, in turn, should help resolve the current concerns around the air-born transmission of this virus.
New drug compounds that can mitigate or kill the virus are being researched by Innoplexus in Germany. They are using an HPC class AI to accelerate drug discovery. Part of this work is the design of brand-new molecules that could lead to new therapeutic treatments. And they have discovered five at the time of this writing, that looks promising. Innoplexus’ CTO Stratos Davlos and his team are doing impressive work.
The identification of genetic traits that could make a person more susceptible to COVID-19 to allow for them or their caregivers to protect them better is being undertaken by NASA. Bio-scientists Viktor Stolc and David Loftus are trying to define risk groups for COVID-19 through genome analysis and enhanced DNA sequencing to develop accurate risk modes to initially find patients best suited for clinical trials of vaccines and anti-virals.
Wrapping Up: Decades Of Progress In Weeks
While this all makes me wonder what this same level of effort would do to the more traditional annual flu epidemic, or cancer for that matter, this assault on COVID-19 is unprecedented in terms of computing power and technology resources. And while many of the results won’t impact us until human trials are completed, we are learning a lot that will make it increasingly unlikely the world will ever have to go through another global medical catastrophe like this.
And, I expect, before we are done, we’ll have a basis to understand better many of the other illnesses that shorten our lives and deprive us of our loved ones. I also expect we’ll eventually come up with a way to simulate the trials that are slowing this process down accurately, and that will be a huge game-changer.
So if you are wondering what IBM and some of the other most powerful technology companies in the world are doing during this crisis, wonder no longer, they are having a massive impact, you just won’t see much of it until the slower human trials are complete.
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Seattle police purchased two Draganflyer X-6 quadrotors, but were forced to ground them over privacy concerns. Draganfly Innovations
If you happen to hate drones, put the champagne on standby. California lawmakers are in the process of enacting landmark legislation to restrict the use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) by law enforcement, with promises of similar laws to come for private and commercial systems. AB1327, which cruised through the assembly (59-5) and is now headed to the state senate, would prevent nearly any use of UAS by public safety agencies without a warrant, with an exception made for “hot pursuits,” search and rescue operations, and other emergency situations. Restrictions would also be placed on the footage collected by unmanned aircraft, requiring the majority of it be purged after six months. The long, preemptive national nightmare of persistent robotic surveillance appears to be over.
But the bill continues, and reveals an unmistakable bias on the part of its authors. The law would prohibit a public agency or related party “from equipping or arming an unmanned aircraft system with a weapon or other device that may be carried by or launched from an unmanned aircraft system and that is intended to cause bodily injury or death, or damage to, or the destruction of, real or personal property.”
It’s a beautiful thing, really: The long-awaited marriage of hollow legislative showboating and robophobic fear-mongering. Because, aside from generating untold fist pumps from the anti-drone camp, this particular stipulation would accomplish nothing. The FAA already prohibits the arming of police aircraft. Notice, for example how there aren’t any door gunners hanging machine guns out of LAPD helicopters? Why, then, assume that a flying robot would be exempt from our puny, human laws?
It’s a question that’s central to understanding this legislation, and its potential impact throughout the country. “We don’t required manned aviation to acquire search warrants for their operations,” says Mario Mairena, Senior Government Manager at the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International, a non-profit that promotes the UAS industry. “So why impose this requirement on unmanned aviation? This bill is attempting to rewrite search warrant requirements.”
With rare exception, plain-sight surveillance of a subject, or his or her home, is a warrantless pursuit. Can the police use a telephoto lens to peer into someone’s window from across the street? Absolutely. In fact, the United States Supreme Court ruled in 1989 that a Florida sheriff was within his rights to conduct a helicopter flyover of a suspected marijuana grower’s property without a warrant (though he later obtained a search warrant, having spotted marijuana through missing roof panels).
The legislation’s privacy-related requirements are similarly mystifying, since, as the bill itself references, there are rules currently in place governing the retention of footage from manned law enforcement aircraft. Unless data is being used for an open investigation, police departments dump their aerial footage. And yet, an exception is proposed in this bill, that puts a specific, six-month expiration date on the vast majority of drone-collected imagery.
The only rational explanation for AB1327 isn’t rational at all—that, since drones represent such a quantum leap in surveillance capability, the legislature must take drastic measures to limit their use. Perhaps California’s legislators are big-time science fiction fans, and want to strike an early blow against the inhuman agents of the coming Singularity? What’s clear, though, is that they don’t know how drones work.
Robots, much to my own disappointment, don’t have superpowers. They’re no more or less capable than their manned equivalents. Even if the Predators deployed on lethal missions overseas can seem like omniscient, superhuman assassins, the kinds of UAS that police departments can afford are of the 6 to 10-pound variety, with flight times of some 15 to 90 minutes. They could be useful and cost-effective for targeted surveillance, but quadcopters are short-hop vehicles, and poorly equipped for stakeouts or wholesale data collection.
Of course, there’s the possibility that drones will eventually pose precisely the threat implied by California’s legislature. Ryan Calo, an assist professor at the University of Washington and co-chair American Bar Association Committee on Robotics and Artificial Intelligence, sees the bill as a sensible attempt to get ahead of a potential privacy threat. “Laws aren’t always just about telling us what’s illegal. They can also send a message.” Calo’s only criticism of the legislation is its limited scope—it addresses drone-based footage, while ignoring wider issues of mass surveillance, such as privacy violations that occur after acquiring a warrant, or modes of snooping that don’t specifically involve airborne robots. “Imagine if the day after this law goes into effect, a police chief decides, I’m not going to buy a drone now. But I am going to buy a robot that climbs up buildings and films people,” says Calo.
And yet, as you may have heard, robots are creepy. “Politicians are using this to scare the American public,” says Mairena, who believes that California risks alienating the burgeoning UAS industry, and losing some 18,000 jobs state-wide and $82M in related tax revenue over the next decade or so. Personally, I’m positive the bill is going to pass, and inspire similar legislation around the country. Fear tends to expand, not contract. If there’s any doubt that California’s proposed drone law is based on something more concrete or defensible than a vague panic over evil robots and their evil ways, remember AB1327’s crucial weapons ban. The state of California is firmly opposed to mounting guns on drones flying in U.S. airspace. Just like the FAA, and all non-insane persons in America. Disarming police drones that were never going to be armed in the first place is the kind of empty gesture every human get behind.
The anti-diagonal elements in a matrix are the elements that form straight line from right upper side to right bottom side. For example, if we have a matrix as shown below −1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
then the diagonal elements would be 1, 5, 9 and the anti-diagonal elements would be 3, 5, 7.
To find the sum of these anti-diagonal elements, we can use apply function.Example
Live DemoM1<-matrix(1:9,ncol=3) M1 Output [,1] [,2] [,3] [1,] 1 4 7 [2,] 2 5 8 [3,] 3 6 9 Example sum(diag(apply(M1,2,rev))) Output  15 Example
Live DemoM2<-matrix(1:100,nrow=10) M2 Output [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [,5] [,6] [,7] [,8] [,9] [,10] [1,] 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 [2,] 2 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92 [3,] 3 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 83 93 [4,] 4 14 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94 [5,] 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 [6,] 6 16 26 36 46 56 66 76 86 96 [7,] 7 17 27 37 47 57 67 77 87 97 [8,] 8 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98 [9,] 9 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 [10,] 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
sum(diag(apply(M2,2,rev)))  505Example
Live DemoM3<-matrix(sample(0:9,36,replace=TRUE),nrow=6) M3 Output [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [,5] [,6] [1,] 8 6 1 4 2 6 [2,] 3 5 7 5 6 7 [3,] 3 2 6 9 8 2 [4,] 3 2 5 9 4 6 [5,] 7 2 8 3 6 4 [6,] 6 0 2 5 6 6
sum(diag(apply(M3,2,rev)))  34Example
Live DemoM4<-matrix(sample(1:10,64,replace=TRUE),nrow=8) M4 Output [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [,5] [,6] [,7] [,8] [1, ] 6 1 2 1 3 1 7 7 [2,] 1 2 9 9 5 10 4 10 [3,] 4 2 5 4 5 8 8 10 [4,] 7 5 8 4 7 7 1 4 [5,] 10 9 1 5 6 8 2 5 [6,] 7 9 7 1 5 4 2 6 [7,] 4 9 4 5 8 9 2 9 [8,] 7 7 6 9 1 8 1 2
sum(diag(apply(M4,2,rev)))  54Example
Live DemoM5<-matrix(sample(1:100,81),nrow=9) M5 Output [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [,5] [,6] [,7] [,8] [,9] [1,] 32 34 99 73 93 65 82 50 9 [2,] 49 69 62 37 96 40 57 97 86 [3,] 11 84 22 53 87 12 95 88 100 [4,] 44 77 48 58 71 78 2 10 45 [5,] 39 66 72 23 24 20 55 59 35 [6,] 18 79 52 98 29 43 7 75 74 [7,] 80 15 70 91 13 60 61 1 38 [8,] 41 5 4 17 46 30 26 81 21 [9,] 54 51 6 25 47 89 36 85 67
sum(diag(apply(M5,2,rev)))  530Example
Live DemoM6<-matrix(sample(101:999,36),nrow=6) M6 Output [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [,5] [,6] [1,] 726 139 975 492 672 686 [2,] 501 754 818 724 547 446 [3,] 204 480 530 112 872 761 [4,] 789 165 572 899 538 298 [5,] 987 119 274 369 936 132 [6,] 306 696 448 618 951 137
sum(diag(apply(M6,2,rev)))  2342Example
Live DemoM7<-matrix(rpois(49,5),nrow=7) M7 Output [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [,5] [,6] [,7] [1,] 3 3 6 5 6 4 5 [2,] 1 9 7 4 2 5 4 [3,] 4 6 5 5 4 4 0 [4,] 6 5 5 4 5 10 1 [5,] 7 3 4 5 3 5 5 [6,] 4 4 5 2 5 2 5 [7,] 9 7 6 5 0 1 2
sum(diag(apply(M7,2,rev)))  35Example
Live DemoM8<-matrix(rpois(81,3),nrow=9) M8 Output [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [,5] [,6] [,7] [,8] [,9] [1,] 0 3 5 1 2 2 2 2 3 [2,] 2 2 0 4 3 5 3 5 5 [3,] 5 2 5 5 1 2 2 5 6 [4,] 4 4 5 3 3 3 2 1 5 [5,] 7 6 3 2 2 8 3 1 2 [6,] 5 2 3 1 5 3 1 2 1 [7,] 2 6 4 3 2 4 4 2 2 [8,] 1 3 3 3 2 1 3 1 0 [9,] 1 4 5 3 5 5 2 2 2
sum(diag(apply(M8,2,rev)))  24
Of the many and varied things going wrong in Washington today, the frontal assault on science is one of the most alarming. Sequestration will be a blip compared to the setback that could result if Congress makes science–the peer-reviewed, community-checked, fact-based realm of science–all about politics.
The chair of the U.S. House of Representatives’ science committee is floating a bill that would eliminate peer review at the National Science Foundation, essentially replacing it with a Congressional stamp of approval. President Obama has signaled he opposes this, and the bill’s future is unclear right now. But Republican lawmakers are nothing if not tenacious.
Science has been suffocating in a toxic political atmosphere for years, with national leaders outwardly denying climate change is happening, celebrities pushing dangerous anti-vaccine (and anti-science) views on a frightened and malleable public, and conservatives angling to teach creationism using taxpayer dollars. The proposed 2014 federal budget doesn’t help, with major cuts in planetary research and high-energy physics just two of the problems. But this latest salvo could be one of the most damaging anti-science campaigns yet.
That’s because on its face, it sounds innocuous. Wise, even. It’s called the “High Quality Research Act.”
The draft legislation, as originally reported by ScienceInsider, would force the National Science Foundation to adopt three criteria in judging every grant proposal. Quoting ScienceInsider’s copy of the draft, NSF-funded research must be:
3) “… not duplicative of other research projects being funded by the Foundation or other Federal science agencies.”
Right now, NSF grants–which are highly competitive–are decided by panels of expert scientists, who rank them on their intellectual merit and their broader impacts on society. “Questions and problems of utmost importance” is a key phrase here. It would be hard to argue that research on duck penises is of utmost importance, for instance. But it does have scientific merit, and incredible impacts on the research community and society at large.
Did you know ducks are one of a very small number of species that commit rape? Female ducks have evolved clockwise spiraling vaginas to avoid this forced copulation, and in turn, male ducks have evolved counterclockwise corkscrew penises. Scientist Patricia Brennan’s study, also the target of GOP ridicule, examined how the presence of other male ducks affects genital morphology. She and her colleagues found competition is a driving force behind these traits.
“Generating new knowledge of what factors affect genital morphology in ducks, one of the few vertebrate species other than humans that form pair bonds and exhibit violent sexual coercion, may have significant applied uses in the future, but we must conduct the basic research first,” Brennan writes in an excellent Slate essay defending her research.
Basically, the bill is the latest effort by Republicans to attack basic scientific research, in the physical as well as the social sciences. From Sarah Palin mocking fruit fly research to John McCain questioning the value of astronomy outreach, this game has a long history. The NSF bill’s author is Rep. Lamar Smith, who authored the much-loathed and eventually-killed SOPA bill to “stop online piracy.” He sent a letter last week to acting NSF director Cora Marrett, questioning a swath of scientific studies conducted with NSF dollars.
“I have concerns regarding some grants approved by the Foundation and how closely they adhere to NSF’s ‘intellectual merit’ guideline,” he wrote. He proceeded to call out studies titled “Picturing Animals in National Geographic,” “Comparative Histories of Scientific Conservation: Nature, Science, and Society in Patagonian and Amazonian South America,” “The International Criminal Court and the Pursuit of Justice,” and a few others.
The names of these studies are now flash points, joining the ranks of others previously held up as exemplars of your money wasted on privileged intellectuals. But the leaders of these projects were awarded grants, in each case a few hundred thousand dollars, because a committee of their peers and competitors judged them worthy and important for scientific research. No offense to Rep. Smith, but he’s not exactly qualified to judge the nature of ecological protection in South America, or the conservation benefit of National Geographic’s nature photography. Neither am I–the committee of peers that made those awards is the rightful decider.
President Obama, speaking to the National Academy of Sciences on its 150th anniversary this week, signaled he won’t stand for this political change.
“In order for us to maintain our edge, we’ve got to protect our rigorous peer review system,” he told the gathering Monday. “One of the things that I’ve tried to do over these last four years and will continue to do over the next four years is to make sure that we are promoting the integrity of our scientific process; not just in the physical and life sciences, but also in fields like psychology and anthropology and economics and political science — all of which are sciences because scholars develop and test hypotheses and subject them to peer review.”
That Obama felt the need to define science highlights the real problem with Smith’s legislation, and the problem with the Republicans’ attack on science in general: They aim to undermine the very meaning of it. They’re not just judging the results. They’re judging the validity of even asking the question. Of even wanting to look for an answer. And that is the scariest thing of all.
The T-Mobile/AT&T merger is on, but that isn’t stopping the carrier from putting out some very awesome phones this year. The HTC Amaze 4G ($260 with a two-year contract) is sort of like a hybrid of the myTouch 4G Slide with its awesome camera and the HTC Sensation with its unibody aluminum design. It is a bit on the heavy side and HTC Sense might not appeal to everybody. It is also a bit on the pricey side.
Like the majority of HTC’s phones these days, the Amaze has a sturdy yet attractive unibody aluminum design. The Amaze stands out from other phones, however, due to its more rounded corners and light silver and black motif. The backing has a combination of aluminum and soft rubber, giving it both a unique look and comfortable feel in hand. Measuring 5.1-by-2.6-by-0.46-inches thick, the Amaze slips easily into your pocket or bag. The aluminum design comes with a bit of a trade-off, however: It tips the scales at 6.1 ounces.
The Amaze has a 4.3-inch qHD (quarter high definition, 540-by-960 pixels) super LCD display. The display looks gorgeous with bold, yet natural colors, deep blacks, and bright whites.
You’ll find all the touch and hardware buttons on the Amaze, but like the myTouch 4G Slide, it has two camera buttons on its left spine: one for capturing video, one for taking photos. While I always appreciate a shutter button, I’m not sure if two is necessary. When I was trying to take a picture sometimes I took video by mistake because I hit the wrong button. The buttons are two different sizes (video capture is smaller), but I still made that error a few times.
Gingerbread with HTC Sense
One of these features is a new customizable lock screen, which works similarly to the lock screen in iOS 5. You can pick a theme for your lock screen (the phone offers quite a few of them to choose from) and then select four apps that you visit most frequently. When you turn on your phone, you’ll see the four apps at the bottom of the screen. To unlock the screen, simply drag the circle into position over an app, at which point you’ll jump straight to that app. Thanks to this feature, you don’t have to go through multiple menus to reach your e-mail or other frequently accessed items.
You’ll find a clutch of new widgets in Sense, but my favorite is the gorgeous new Weather widget. HTC has a solid tradition of creating visual weather apps, and it’s nice to see the company continue to improve them.
Like the myTouch 4G Slide, the Amaze has an 8-megapixel camera and an HD camcorder that can shoot video in up to 1080p. The camera has a backside illuminated sensor, which is fairly standard in point and shoot cameras these days and is ideal for shooting in low-light situations without need for a flash. The Slide’s F2.2 lens is a wider aperture than many recent cameras, which also translates to better low-light shooting without the flash. The easy-to-use camera interface lets you pick from a variety of shooting modes, including Manual and Automatic modes.
The SweepShot mode is similar to Sony’s Sweep Panorama mode, which is very cool. You press the shutter and move the camera from right-to-left, and the camera stitches together a panoramic image instantly. This mode is incredibly fun to play with and the photos look pretty good (see example) though sometimes they don’t stitch up accurately.
BurstShot is a really unique feature for a phone camera. This mode takes pictures in rapid succession as you hold the shutter button down (paparazzi style). BurstShot is useful for snapping photos of quick-moving objects, like kids and pets.
Macro mode lets you take close-up shots of objects like the example here. You can get as close as about three inches to your object before the camera starts to lose focus.
These modes are also found on the T-Mobile myTouch 4G Slide, but the HTC Amaze also has a few unique camera features. One of these features is SmartShot, which takes five consecutive photos and then stitches together
With a 1.2GHz dual core processor, the Amaze The Amaze scored a 986 on the Vellamo benchmarking app. This ranks the Amaze toward the top of the list alongside the Samsung Galaxy Tab and slightly below the Droid Bionic.
The Amaze supports T-Mobile’s faster HSPA+ 42mbps network. Data speeds were impressive with an average download speed of 7.68Mbps and average upload speed of 1.71Mbps. The fastest download speed we got clocked in at 7.39—about as fast as we’ve seen on Verizon’s 4G LTE network!
Snapchat hits 750 million active users
Snapchat was built as an alternative to social media, providing users with a way to communicate with friends and family without the pressure to look popular or perfect. From visual communication to augmented reality, Snap Maps, Stories, Spotlight, and more, Snapchat is constantly evolving to cater to its passionate global community.
The latest innovations proposed by Snapchat include Ray Tracing, which made its debut on Lenses, starting with those of the Tiffany & Co. brand with which a strategic partnership has been formalized. Snapchat+ also made its debut last summer in the first markets and spread widely in the autumn.
In the last quarter, daily active users amounted to 375 million, which is a 17% increase from Q4 2023. Additionally, the time users spent watching Spotlight content doubled. And there were 5 billion Snaps every day. Furthermore, in just six months, Snapchat+ has acquired 2.5 million subscribers, and 3 million AR Lenses have been created by 300,000 developers. 300 million users use Map every month, and 91% of Snapchatters report being happy when using the platform.
The stated goal of Snapchat is to reach 1 billion monthly active users within the next three years. While these numbers are significantly lower than those of the competition, with Facebook having 2 billion active users every day, Snap has repeatedly stressed that their focus is on competing with themselves rather than with other social platforms.
Snapchat’s success is due to its constant efforts to improve and innovate their platform. The company is always looking for new ways to engage users, such as their recent introduction of Spotlight, which allows users to view and submit short-form video content. They have also been expanding their AR capabilities, which have become increasingly popular among users.Gizchina News of the week Snapchat main features:
Snap Map: This feature allows users to see where their friends are located on a map. Users can choose to share their location with selected friends or with all their contacts.
Stories: Snapchat’s Stories feature allows users to post photos and videos that disappear after 24 hours. Users can add filters, stickers, and other effects to their Stories.
Lenses: Snapchat’s Lenses feature allows users to add augmented reality filters to their selfies and videos. These filters can change the user’s appearance, add animations to the screen, and much more.
Chat: Snapchat’s chat feature allows users to send messages to their friends. Users can also send snaps (photos or videos) directly to their friends.
Discover: Snapchat’s Discover feature allows users to view content from media companies, celebrities, and other sources. Discover features articles, videos, and other types of content that are curated by Snapchat’s editorial team.
Memories: Snapchat’s Memories feature allows users to save their snaps and stories to a private storage area. Users can view their saved content and share it with their friends.
Snapstreaks: This feature encourages users to keep sending snaps to their friends by tracking the number of consecutive days they have snapped each other. A fire emoji appears next to the user’s name when they are on a snapstreak.
Snapchat is known for its ephemeral nature, with content disappearing after a set amount of time. This has made it popular among younger users, who enjoy the platform’s creative features and casual approach to social media.
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