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The “edge” is magical. For example, environmental science studies habitat borders where certain plant varieties grow strongly at the edge and not further. Similar phenomena have been observed in astronomy at the edges of the universe.
Human societies are no exception. A new revolution is underway with high computing powers that move to the edge, a phenomenon becoming increasingly known as Edge Computing.Industry 4.0, IoT
IoT is about collecting and analyzing data, insights, automation, and automating processes that involve machines, people, things, places, and other objects. IoT is therefore a mixture of sensors, actuators, and connectivity. It also includes storage and cloud computing.
Industry 4.0, also called the fourth industrial revolution, is heavily dependent on IoT tech. It will reshape automotive, transport, and healthcare as well as commerce. Their merging is a natural phenomenon, as AI and ML are the driving forces behind all 5G/IoT innovations.5G supports strong IoT
One of the most important innovations in 5G is its strong support for IoT. This includes support for low-cost and long-battery-life sensors.
Data storage and computing will become a ‘fabric continuum’. That fabric touches all industries and a slew of AI, ML and Edge Compute solutions will eventually discover their optimum zones and roles depending on the use case.Hyperscalers
Google, Amazon, Microsoft and other cloud service providers have introduced a new type of IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) with manageability and transparency and competitive pricing.
How to choose The Perfect Domain NameConnectivity
Some other transformations can be seen more clearly in terms of player engagements. Telecom operators using Hyperscalers (mentioned previously) and the transition of Operations Technology (OT, such as machine control systems moving to the IT domain).
In the hopes that they can be used and paid for by consumers and enterprises, IoT applications are becoming more popular. It is evident that it will be most effective to deliver it from the closest location to the customer for a variety of reasons. This zone is also a hub of activity.
All these players seek to control the space between the enterprise and the consumers.
This implies a shift from the Capex to an Opex model which will have an impact on enterprise financial models.Edge Cloud in IoT World
This can be seen as a positive change in the value chain. In what is now known as the Edge Cloud industry, the cloud is moving towards the edge.An easy explanation of Edge Cloud
The Edge Cloud is simply a combination of smart edge devices, including sensors, nodes, and gateways, with software (algorithms and security stacks. Connectivity modules. Sensing and actuating parts. and A processor in a full stack) to manage hundreds of sensors per gateway.
Where does the tech for the cloud come from?
These technologies are available and are being used in scalable ways. The protocols are standardized to allow data to be offloaded to the cloud for non-critical data processing but to retain real-time processing at Edge Cloud.Can AI and ML be stopped?
We expect millions of IoT devices and services to use Edge Clouds to help human life as Silicon prices fall and increase in volume. AI/ML is moving toward the edge is an unstoppable process, and in fact, it’s a requirement.These technologies have clear benefits for the following industries:
RT processing ensures low latency responses (improves safety, reduces defect rate)
Data security at the local level
Data sorting, filtering and pre-processing (eases cloud load).
Combining licensed and unlicensed spectrum results in more efficient transport systems.
AI image processing, object detection and audio/video recognition capabilities also have improved dramatically. These capabilities are now available with some Silicon vendors as an additional capability. As deployments increase, we expect them to be more common and better priced.Is this Edge Cloud real?
Are there overhypes about Edge Computing? There are many assumptions that underlie this incredible boom in Edge cloud theory.
It is not clear if Edge Cloud will grow as big as it seems. It is a highly-growth industry, there is some evidence. The ownership of this service is still being determined. Telco versus Hyperscaler, specialist enterprise system integrator, or Cloud Edge specialist.
Edge Cloud is not a one-size-fits-all solution. It is not clear what applications will require Edge Cloud capabilities, such as those in manufacturing RPA or healthcare. Companies are still evaluating business cases and pricing models.
Edge Computing is a solution searching for an application. Are consumers less willing to spend because of the short round trip delay? Is it possible to confuse edge storage with edge computing, and treat all applications the same?
What about the sunk costs of central data centers? They could be underutilized, or even end up storing non-critical data. If Edge Computing is all about Real-Time, then a 5G slice could be an important part of the solution. What business model will be sustainable between hyperscalers and telcos?
These new revelations will be revealed soon. As the space develops, it will be more obvious how AI/ML technology will align in the new world order. This could lead to new positions for service providers and their alliances with the solution providers.
AI/ML will eventually combine to create a unique landscape that will attract users and consumers over the next decade.
You're reading How To Work Ai/Ml And Edge Computing In Iot
The term cloud computing is now as firmly lodged in our technical lexicon as email and Internet, and the concept has taken firm hold in business as well. By 2023, Gartner estimates that a “no cloud” policy will be as prevalent in business as a “no Internet” policy. Which is to say no one who wants to stay in business will be without one.
You are likely hearing a new term now, edge computing. One of the problems with technology is terms tend to come before the definition. Technologists (and the press, let’s be honest) tend to throw a word around before it is well-defined, and in that vacuum come a variety of guessed definitions, of varying accuracy.Cloud Storage and Backup Benefits
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Edge computing is a term you are going to hear more of in the coming years because it precedes another term you will be hearing a lot, the Internet of Things (IoT). You see, the formally adopted definition of edge computing is a form of technology that is necessary to make the IoT work.
Tech research firm IDC defines edge computing is a “mesh network of micro data centers that process or store critical data locally and push all received data to a central data center or cloud storage repository, in a footprint of less than 100 square feet.”
It is typically used in IoT use cases, where edge devices collect data from IoT devices and do the processing there, or send it back to a data center or the cloud for processing. Edge computing takes some of the load off the central data center, reducing or even eliminating the processing work at the central location.IoT Explosion in the Cloud Era
To understand the need for edge computing you must understand the explosive growth in IoT in the coming years, and it is coming on big. There have been a number of estimates of the growth in devices, and while they all vary, they are all in the billions of devices.
* Gartner estimates there were 6.4 billion connected devices in 2023 will it reach 20.8 billion by 2023. It estimates that in 2023, 5.5 million new “things” were connected every day.
* IDC predicts global IoT revenue will grow from $2.71 billion in 2023 to $7.065 billion by 2023, with the total installed base of devices reaching 28.1 billion in 2023.
* IHS Markit forecasts that the IoT market will grow from an installed base of 15.4 billion devices in 2023 to 30.7 billion devices by 2023 and 75.4 billion in 2025.
* McKinsey estimates the total IoT market size was about $900 million in 2023 and will grow to $3.7 billion by 2023.
This is taking place in a number of areas, most notably cars and industrial equipment. Cars are becoming increasingly more computerized and more intelligent. Gone are the days when the “Check engine” warning light came on and you had to guess what was wrong. Now it tells you which component is failing.
The industrial sector is a broad one and includes sensors, RFID, industrial robotics, 3D printing, condition monitoring, smart meters, guidance, and more. This sector is sometimes called the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and the overall market is expected to grow from $93.9 billion in 2014 to $151.01 billion by 2023.
All of these sensors are taking in data but they are not processing it. Your car does some of the processing of sensor data but much of it has to be sent in to a data center for computation, monitoring and logging.
The problem is that this would overload networks and data centers. Imaging the millions of cars on the road sending in data to data centers around the country. The 4G network would be overwhelmed, as would the data centers. And if you are in California and the car maker’s data center is in Texas, that’s a long round trip.Cloud Computing, Meet Edge Computing
Processing data at the edge of the network — where it is taken in – has a number of benefits, starting with reducing the latency and makes connected applications more responsive and robust. Some applications might need immediate response, such as a sensor for failing equipment or for detecting a break-in.
It also takes the computation load off the data center if data can be processed and reacted upon at the point of origin rather than making the round trip to and from the data center. So it reduces the burden on both the data center and the network.
One company specializing in this is Vapor IO, a startup that puts mini data centers called Vapor Edge Computing containers at cell towers. The containers are smaller than a car but contain redundant racks of computing systems that use special software for load balancing. The load is balanced both at each container and between containers scattered at cell towers around a city.
A special software stack for managing a group of locations makes the containers in an area function and appear as a single data center. It has all of the standard data center features, such as load balancing and automated site-to-site failover.
Vapor IO is a part of what are known as micro data centers, self-contained systems in ruggedized containers to withstand the elements that provide all the essential components of a traditional data center but in a small footprint. Vapor is not alone, although it is a startup dedicated specifically to the micro data center.
Some very big names in data center technology are also experimenting with micro data centers. Schneider Electric, the European power and cooling giant, has a line of micro data center modules, and Vertiv (formerly Emerson Network Power) has its own line of outdoor enclosures.
It looks to be a growing market as well. The research firm Markets and Markets believes that the micro data center sector could be worth a staggering $32 billion over the next two years.
You may hear edge computing referred to by other names than micro data centers. They include fog computing and cloudlets. Fog computing, or “fogging,” is a term used to described a decentralized computing infrastructure that extends the cloud to the edge of the network.
Cloudlets are mobility-enhanced micro data centers located at the edge of a network and serve the mobile or smart device portion of the network. They are designed to handle resource-intensive mobile apps and take the load off both the network and the central data center and keep computing close to the point of origin.
The cloud is a great place for centralized computing, but not every computing task needs to run on a centralized system. If your car is getting real-time traffic and GPS updates from the surrounding area, there’s no reason to send data back and forth to a data center five states and a thousand miles away. So as the IoT grows, expect edge computing to grow right along with it. They will never be an either/or choice for data center providers, the two will always work in tandem.
Most businesses these days majorly rely on the Internet of Things (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to drive business growth and envisage the next big trends. Today, it is easier for companies to collect more and more data thanks to IoT. When coalescing IoT withRole of AI and IoT in Improving Enterprise Management
The rise of IoT devices creates a massive amount of data in a short period of time. This could be in any form like text, audio, video, image, or even in an unstructured form. It would be difficult for humans to process the data and thereafter provide its analysis. As data accrues continuously in the IoT systems, leveraging AI is one of the effective ways to use it for optimization. The integration of AI and IoT is progressively influencing how businesses are operating and sing their profits. They allow enterprises to move towards the cloud as an organization requires a large amount of computing power while running with AI. Both technologies are able to assist companies to better engage and satisfy their customers. In fact, it is said that over 85 percent of consumer relationships with a brand will be driven by AI in the next coming years. In this context, the world is already seeing the use of chatbots that are perfectly delivering personalized customer experience by responding to customers’ queries with reliable answers. Many industry experts consider that AI and IoT are no longer in use separately. AI closes the loop in an IoT environment where IoT devices accumulate or create data, while Artificial Intelligence assists in automating essential choices and actions based on that data. Currently, most organizations using IoT are only at the first visibility phase where they can perceive ongoing events through IoT assets. The technologies can help organizations to make accurate predictions, which can assist them to run more efficiently. Also, AI and IoT will provide them useful insights into those time-consuming and redundant tasks that can be automated or fine-tuned to become more effective. Since the majority of the population nowadays is shifting to urban areas, it has become more significant to strike a perfect balance between supply and demand. Fortunately, by leveraging AI and IoT, business leaders can better manage their inventory and ease the pressure on their stock by knowing when to refill items. This helps relieve marketers from having to purchase too many products and then finding that they cannot sell all of them. So, leveraging AI and IoT will be more beneficial to them compared to the current manual methods they are using.Leveraging the Combined Strategy of AI and IoT
As companies are racing to wear the tech leadership cap, they are increasingly drafting strategies for the internet of things, reviewing additional jobs on this tech and garnering more values in their current IoT installation using artificial intelligence. With the basic command of flow diagrams together with trends and forecasts, the use of AI and IoT combined helps get a very clear idea for further research. By integrating IoT with AI, the startup capital for an IoT project can grow rapidly as they are positioned on the top. A large number of companies across diverse industries are starting or already proceeded to learn more about the amalgamation of AI and IoT in order to provide new services as well as operate more effectively the service suppliers for IoT. IoT applications and implementations are essentially influenced by Artificial Intelligence. Whether it is a small investment or a startup, companies that have begun to unite IoT with AI accomplished a larger profit over the past decades. Now, major IoT providers are started to offer integrated AI applications based on machine learning analytics. Moreover, IoT applications provide machine learning-driven analytics which is part of AI that identifies the patterns and detects irregularities in the information generated by the smart sensors and devices.Wrapping Up
Merely building the model is not enough without stakeholders not being to interpret the outputs of your model
In this article, understand how to interpret your model using LIME in RIntroduction
I thought spending hours preprocessing the data is the most worthwhile thing in Data Science. That is what my misconception was, as a beginner. Now, I realize, that even more rewarding is being able to explain your predictions and model to a layman who does not understand much about machine learning or other jargon of the field.
Consider this scenario – your problem statement deals with predicting if a patient has cancer or not. Painstakingly, you obtain and clean the data, build a model on it, and after much effort, experimentation, and hyperparameter tuning, you arrive at an accuracy of over 90%. That’s great You walk up to a doctor and tell him that you can predict with 90% certainty that a patient has cancer or not.
However, one question the doctor asks that leaves you stumped – “How can I and the patient trust your prediction when each patient is different from the other and multiple parameters can decide between a malignant and a benign tumor?”
This is where model interpretability comes in – nowadays, there are multiple tools to help you explain your model and model predictions efficiently without getting into the nitty-gritty of the model’s cogs and wheels. These tools include SHAP, Eli5, LIME, etc. Today, we will be dealing with LIME.
In this article, I am going to explain LIME and how it makes interpreting your model easy in R.What is LIME?
LIME stands for Local Interpretable Model-Agnostic Explanations. First introduced in 2023, the paper which proposed the LIME technique was aptly named “Why Should I Trust You?” Explaining the Predictions of Any Classifier by its authors, Marco Tulio Ribeiro, Sameer Singh, and Carlos Guestrin.
Built on this basic but crucial tenet of trust, the idea behind LIME is to answer the ‘why’ of each prediction and of the entire model. The creators of LIME outline four basic criteria for explanations that must be satisfied:
The explanations for the predictions should be understandable, i.e. interpretable by the target demographic.
We should be able to explain individual predictions. The authors call this local fidelity
The method of explanation should be applicable to all models. This is termed by the authors as the explanation being model-agnostic
Along with the individual predictions, the model should be explainable in its entirety, i.e. global perspective should be consideredHow does LIME work?
Expanding more on how LIME works, the main assumption behind it is that every model works like a simple linear model at the local scale, i.e. at individual row-level data. The paper and the authors do not set out to prove this, but we can go by the intuition that at an individual level, we can fit this simple model on the row and that its prediction will be very close to our complex model’s prediction for that row. Interesting isn’t it?
Further, LIME extends this phenomenon by fitting such simple models around small changes in this individual row and then extracting the important features by comparing the simple model and the complex model’s predictions for that row.
LIME works both on tabular/structured data and on text data as well.
You can read more on how LIME works using Python here, we will be covering how it works using R.
So fire up your Notebooks or R studio, and let us get started!Using LIME in R
Step 1: The first step is to install LIME and all the other libraries which we will need for this project. If you have already installed them, you can skip this and start with Step 2install.packages('lime') install.packages('MASS') install.packages("randomForest") install.packages('caret') install.packages('e1071')
Step 2: Once you have installed these libraries, we will first import them:library(lime) library(MASS) library(randomForest) library(caret) library(e1071)
Since we took up the example of explaining the predictions of whether a patient has cancer or not, we will be using the biopsy dataset. This dataset contains information on 699 patients and their biopsies of breast cancer tumors.
Step 3: We will import this data and also have a look at the first few rows:data(biopsy)
Step 4: Data Exploration
4.1) We will first remove the ID column since it is just an identifier and of no use to usbiopsy$ID <- NULL
4.2) Let us rename the rest of the columns so that while visualizing the explanations we have a clearer idea of the feature names as we understand the predictions using LIME.names(biopsy) <- c('clump thickness', 'uniformity cell size', 'uniformity cell shape', 'marginal adhesion','single epithelial cell size', 'bare nuclei', 'bland chromatin', 'normal nucleoli', 'mitoses','class')
4.3) Next, we will check if there are any missing values. If so, we will first have to deal with them before proceeding any further.sum(is.na(biopsy))
4.4) Now, here we have 2 options. We can either impute these values, or we can use the chúng tôi function to drop the rows containing missing values. We will be using the latter option since cleaning the data is beyond the scope of the article.biopsy <- na.omit(biopsy) sum(is.na(biopsy))
Finally, let us confirm our dataframe by looking at the first few rows:head(biopsy, 5)
Step 5: We will divide the dataset into train and test. We will check the dimensions of the data## 75% of the sample size smp_size <- floor(0.75 * nrow(biopsy)) ## set the seed to make your partition reproducible - similar to random state in Python set.seed(123) train_ind <- sample(seq_len(nrow(biopsy)), size = smp_size) train_biopsy <- biopsy[train_ind, ] test_biopsy <- biopsy[-train_ind, ]
Let us check the dimensions:cat(dim(train_biopsy), dim(test_biopsy))
Thus, there are 512 rows in the train set and 171 rows in the test set.
Step 6: We will be using a random forest model using the caret library. We will also not be performing any hyperparameter tuning, just a 10-fold CV repeated 5 times and a basic Random Forest model. So sit back, while we train and fit the model on our training set.
I encourage you to experiment with these parameters using other models as wellmodel_rf <- caret::train(class ~ ., data = train_biopsy,method = "rf", #random forest trControl = trainControl(method = "repeatedcv", number = 10,repeats = 5, verboseIter = FALSE))
Let us view the summary of our modelmodel_rf
Step 7: We will now apply the predict function of this model on our test set and build a confusion matrixbiopsy_rf_pred <- predict(model_rf, test_biopsy) confusionMatrix(biopsy_rf_pred, as.factor(test_biopsy$class))
Step 8: Now that we have our model, we will use LIME to create an explainer object. This object is associated with the rest of the LIME functions we will be using for viewing the explanations as well.
Just like we train the model and fit it on the data, we use the lime() function to train this explainer, and then new predictions are made using the explain() functionexplainer <- lime(train_biopsy, model_rf)
Let us explain 5 new observations from the test set using only 5 of the features. Feel free to experiment with the n_features parameter. You can also pass
the entire test set, or
a single row of the test setexplanation <- explain(test_biopsy[15:20, ], explainer, n_labels = 1, n_features = 5)
The other parameters you can experiment with are:
n_permutations: The number of permutations to use for each explanation.
feature_select: The algorithm to use for selecting features. We can choose among
“auto”: If n_features <= 6 use "forward_selection" else use "highest_weights"
“none”: Ignore n_features and use all features.
“forward_selection”: Add one feature at a time until n_features is reached, based on the quality of a ridge regression model.
“highest_weights”: Fit a ridge regression and select the n_features with the highest absolute weight.
“lasso_path”: Fit a lasso model and choose the n_features whose lars path converge to zero at the latest.
“tree”: Fit a tree to select n_features (which needs to be a power of 2). It requires the last version of XGBoost.
dist_fun: The distance function to use. We will use this to compare our local model prediction for a row and the global model(random forest) prediction for that row. The default is Gower’s distance but we can also use euclidean, manhattan, etc.
kernel_width: The distances of the predictions of individual permutations with the global predictions are calculated from above, and converted to a similarity score.
Step 9: Let us visualize this explanation for a better understanding:How to interpret and explain this result?
Blue/Red color: Features that have positive correlations with the target are shown in blue, negatively correlated features are shown in red.
Uniformity cell shape <=1.5: lower values positively correlate with a benign tumor.
Bare nuclei <= 7: lower bare nuclei values negatively correlate with a malignant tumor.
Cases 65, 67, and 70 are similar, while the benign case 64 has unusual parameters
The uniformity of cell shape and the single epithelial cell size are unusual in this case.
Despite these deviating values, the tumor is still benign, indicating that the other parameter values of this case compensate for this abnormality.
Let us visualize a single case as well with all the features:explanation <- explain(test_biopsy[93, ], explainer, n_labels = 1, n_features = 10) plot_features(explanation)
On the contrary, uniformity of cell size <= 5.0 and marginal adhesion <= 4: low values of these 2 parameters contribute negatively to the malignancy with a malignant tumor. Thus, the lower these values are, the lesser the chances of the tumor being malignant.
Thus, from the above, we can conclude that higher values of the parameters would indicate that a tumor has more chances of being malignant.
We can confirm the above explanations by looking at the actual data in this row:End Notes
Concluding, we explored LIME and how to use it to interpret the individual results of our model. These explanations make for better storytelling and help us to explain why certain predictions were made by the model to a person who might have domain expertise, but no technical know-how of model building. Moreover, using it is pretty much effortless and requires only a few lines of code after we have our final model.
However, this is not to say that LIME has no drawbacks. The LIME Cran package we have used is not a direct replication of the original Python implementation that we were presented with the paper and thus, does not support image data like its Python counterpart. Another drawback could be that the local model might not always be accurate.
I look forward to exploring more on LIME using different datasets and models, as well, exploring other techniques in R. Which tools have you used to interpret your model in R? Do share how you used them and your experiences with LIME below!
After a long time since its launch, the AT&T Galaxy S6 and S6 Edge are now rootable. As also the AT&T S6 Edge Plus which was launched around six months before.
To achieve root access on your AT&T S6 device, simply download the kernel and Odin files from below and then use our guide below to install it and get superuser access.
KNOW that this breaks warranty of your device. Because this is custom kernel (non-Samsung kernel that is), installing it triggers the KNOX flag on your device. If a Samsung service center guy checks for this in download mode (it will shows as 0x1 when broken, from default 0x0), he will know whether to provide warranty for the device or not.
But root access is worth all this, if you ask us. Not only could you customize your device a lot with root access, but you can add many features too. Plus the ability to take full backups of app, with their settings and data.
Let’s see how to root AT&T Galaxy S6, S6 Edge and S6 Edge Plus.
Download stock Auto Root kernel for your device’s model no. from below, and then follow the guide to install it on your device.
Stock Auto-root kernel for your device:
AT&T S6 — Link
AT&T S6 Edge — Link
AT&T S6 Edge Plus — Link
AT&T Samsung Galaxy S6, S6 Edge and S6 Edge Plus Edge+, only the model nos. specified in the download section above.
Don’t try this on other S6 variant not on AT&T
Don’t try on any other device whatsoever!
Warranty may be void of your device if you follow the procedures given on this page. You only are responsible for your device. We won’t be liable if any damage occurs to your device and/or its components. Also, this trips KNOX, meaning KNOX would stop working on your device, and thus you won’t be able to Samsung Pay, or install enterprise Apps on your device at Office.
Backup important file stored on your device before proceeding with the steps below, so that in case something goes wrong you’ll have backup of all your important files. Sometimes, Odin installation may delete everything on your device!
How to Root
Step 1. Download Odin and Stock Auto Root kernel file from above.
Step 3. Extract the Odin file. You should get this file, Odin3 chúng tôi (other files could be hidden, hence not visible).
Step 4. Disconnect your Galaxy S6 from PC if it is connected.
Step 5. Enable OEM unlock on your device.
Go back to Settings, scroll down, and tap on ‘Developer options’.
Look for ‘Enable OEM unlock’ and use its toggle to enable it. Accept the warning by tapping on OK button.
Step 6. Boot Galaxy S6 into download mode:
Power off your Galaxy S6. Wait 6-7 seconds after screen goes off.
Press and hold the three buttons Power + Home + Volume down together until you see warning screen.
Press Volume Up to continue to download mode.
Step 8. Connect your Galaxy S6 to PC now using USB cable. Odin should recognize your Galaxy S6. It’s a must. When it recognizes, you will see Added!! message appearing in the Log box in bottom left, and the first box under ID:COM will also show a no. and turn its background blue. Look at the pic below.
You cannot proceed until you get the Added!! message, which confirms that Odin has recognized your device.
If you don’t get Added!! message, you need to install/re-install drivers again, and use the original cable that came with the device. Mostly, drivers are the problem (look at step 2 above).
You can try different USB ports on your PC too, btw.
Step 10. Make sure Re-partition checkbox is NOT selected, under the Options tab. Don’t use PIT tab either. Go back to Log tab btw, it will show the progress when you hit start button in next step.
If Odin gets stuck at setup connection, then you need to do this all again. Disconnect your device, close Odin, boot device into download mode again, open Odin, and then select the firmware and flash it again as said above.
If you get FAIL in the top left box, then also you need to flash the firmware again as stated just above.
Step 12. Install the SuperSU app from the play store (if not present in the app drawer). Open it, and you will have root access.
That’s it. Enjoy the Root access on your AT&T Galaxy S6!
The Complexity Of The Internet Of Things IoT Security: What Else Do You Need to Know?
Unhappily, this pattern has played out time and time again in the realm of technology: we jump on the latest and greatest, only to worry about its safety after the fact. It’s been the same with the Internet of Things gadgets. Hacks, which can range from harmless to potentially catastrophic, are a common reason for their coverage in the media.
The Department of Homeland Security has put up a detailed document on protecting Internet of Things (IoT) gadgets because of its importance. Even though many things have changed in the IoT world since I wrote this article five years ago, many of the principles and best practices it outlines are still relevant and should be considered.IoT Security Tips
Here are a few tips mentioned below on IoT security. Those areAll IoT Devices Require Configuration
When smart cat litter boxes and smart salt shakers enter the market, it will be clear that we have reached or are very close to reaching peak adoption for Internet of Things devices. However, you shouldn’t forget about them or believe they come well set up for security. Any equipment left unattended and unprotected leaves itself vulnerable to hacking.Familiarize Yourself With Your Tech
An accurate and up-to-date inventory of all Internet of Things (IoT) assets is essential, as is knowledge of the sorts of devices on your network.
With the introduction of new Internet of Things or IoT devices to the network, it is essential that you maintain an accurate asset map. Manufacturer and model ID, serial number, software and firmware versions, etc.Demand Robust Usernames and Passwords
Common practices include reusing the same login credentials across many devices and utilizing weak passwords.
Each employee should have a unique login, and strong passwords should be required. Always update the factory-set password on new devices and consider using two-factor authentication if it’s an option. Use public key infrastructure (PKI) and digital certificates to establish an encrypted foundation for device identification and trust to establish reliable connections.Make Use Of Full-Stack Encryption
Whenever two connected devices exchange information, it is passed from one to the other, and unfortunately, this process frequently occurs without any sort of encryption. While preventing packet sniffing, a typical attack must encrypt data at every transport. All devices should have the option to send and receive data securely. Think about other options if they don’t.Keep Your Device Up-to-Date
As it may have upgraded the device’s firmware and software after it was manufactured and sold, it is recommended that you perform an update before using it for the first time. To save time, turn on the auto-update function of the device if it has one. And remember to check the device for updates regularly.
Make sure the router’s username and password are changed on the server. Manufacturer names are commonly used as the default for router names. Using your company’s name online is likewise discouraged.Turn Off Extra Features
Disabling unused features or functions is a useful security measure. It includes Web servers, databases, and anything else where code injection is possible, such as those with open TCP/UDP ports, serial ports, open password prompts unencrypted communications, or unprotected radio connections.Do Not Connect To a Wi-Fi Network When In a Public Place.
Connecting your network via Starbucks Wi-Fi is bad, even if it isn’t a bad idea in general. Public Wi-Fi hotspots are notorious for having poor security, being outdated, and being unupgraded. Use a Virtual Private Network (VPN) if you must connect to public Wi-Fi (VPN).Create a System of Visitors
With a guest network, guests may use their Wi-Fi safely at home or the office. Guests can access the internet but cannot access your internal network.
If a device is hacked, the hacker will be unable to access the main network and will be forced to stay in the guest network.Divide Your Network into Smaller Pieces
Organizations can design network segments that isolate IoT devices from IT assets using VLAN (virtual local area network ) setups and next-generation firewall regulations. In this approach, neither party should worry about the other being used from the side.
Also, think about implementing a Zero Trust Network. As its name suggests, Zero Confidence ensures the safety of all digital assets by not supposing any level of trust from any other digital assets, restricting intruders’ actions.Keep a Close Eye on Connected Gadgets
We cannot overstate the need for real-time monitoring, reporting, and alerting for enterprises to effectively manage the hazards associated with the Internet of Things.
There is a need for a fresh strategy since traditional endpoint security solutions typically fail to protect Internet of Things devices. It necessitates constant surveillance for anomalies. Allowing Internet-of-Things gadgets access to your network without closely monitoring them is equivalent to running a Zero Trust network.Conclusion
Your organization’s overall IT and cyber security strategy and best practices should include a section on securing your expanding IoT network. As you continue deploying devices to your infrastructure’s periphery, more of your assets will be at risk from cyberattacks.
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