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Google Drive allows you to store and share files with whoever you want, and that has made many people’s lives easier than ever. No longer do you need to send someone a file as an attachment in an email, as you can just upload the file to your Google Drive, get the sharing link and send it along.

As long as the file exists on your Google Drive and the other person has the shared link, he should be able to access the file. But what if you want to share a file with someone only for a limited time? Google Drive does not let you do that officially, but there is a third-party script that helps you do that.

Here’s how you can go about using the script with your Google Drive account.

Set an Expiry Date for Google Drive Share Links

1. Open a web browser on your desktop, and head to the script page to make it work with your Google Drive account.

5. You will then be asked who you would like to share the selected files with and what permissions they should have (either view or view with editing) for the shared files. Specify their email addresses in the given text boxes.

6. The third step is where you can select when the sharing link for the selected files should expire. You have two drop-down menus to choose values from: the first menu lets you choose a number, and the second lets you choose the unit (hours, days, etc.).

In the example I have set the sharing link to expire in ten hours. To do that I selected “10” from the first drop-down menu and “Hours” from the second drop-down menu.

8. Once the expiration has been set up, you should be able to see all of your shared files on the script’s panel. You should also see a cancel button for cancelling the sharing.


If you wish to share a file you have stored in Google Drive with someone but only for a limited time, you can use the above script to do that.

Image credit: Expired

Mahesh Makvana

Mahesh Makvana is a freelance tech writer who’s written thousands of posts about various tech topics on various sites. He specializes in writing about Windows, Mac, iOS, and Android tech posts. He’s been into the field for last eight years and hasn’t spent a single day without tinkering around his devices.

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How To Use Google Disavow Links Tools?

Internet has both good and bad stuff. You can spend lot of time and publish a quality article on your site. However, a bad backlink to that article will impact the ranking in Google and other search engines. Whenever you found bad links to your site, Disavow links is the final option to inform Google to ignore the the spammy backlinks pointing to their sites. You can use this tool as part of regular site cleanup activity. Here is a step by step explanation of how to use Google disavow links tool for protecting your site from bad inbound links. Learn more on how to disavow links in Bing Webmaster Tools account?

Why Bad Links Pointing to Your Site?

There are many reasons how a bad link can point to your site’s page.

You might have created links in forums and blogs when you started your website.

You hired a SEO agency who created a paid backlinks from shaddy websites.

Competitors can purposely create unnatural links pointing your site to lower the search ranking.

Whatsoever is the reason, it is a good idea to get rid of bad links.

Where Can I See My Bad Links? Before Using Google Disavow Links Tool

If you have manual action, it is necessary to cleanup the links before you use disavow tools.

First, do the analysis of the links and prepare the details of websites having your links.

Contact the site owners to remove the link by using the contact form on their site.

If you know the email address, send the webmaster about the situation and request for removing the links pointing to your site.

After your attempts, make the final list of sites that still contains bad link.

Note: For manual action case, you need to submit a reconsideration request after your effort in removing the bad links. Learn more about how to submit a reconsideration request.

If you did not receive any manual action and wanted to disavow the links, simply prepare the disavow file for submission. For example, we have contacted the above pornography site owner with screenshot to remove the link. As there was no response, we have no other option disavowing the domain.

Remove Link to Website

You can find pornography, gambling, casino or any other illegal sites pointing to your website and disavow them to protect your site.

How to Submit Disavow Links to Google?

Disavow links option is not available inside Search Console account. However, you need to login to your Search Console account before using the tool using an external link.



– Download Inbound Links Details

The first step is to download all the bad inbound links pointing to your site.

Login to your Search Console account and go to “Top linking sites” under “Links” section.

You can get the file as CSV, Excel or Google Sheet format

Export Links

Step 2 – Creating chúng tôi File

From the list of links downloaded in the Step1, create your own chúng tôi file (you can use any name for the file). Normally when you save a text file in a Notepad it will be saved in ANSI format which is not accepted by Google. Hence, ensure to select UTF-8 format when saving your text file if you use Notepad. The option of selecting UTF-8 when saving your Notepad text file is shown in the below picture:

Saving file in UTF-8 format

Similarly, TextEdit on Mac by default uses rich text format when saving files. Go to “Format” menu in TextEdit app and select “Make Plain Text” option. When saving the file, make sure to check the format is in UTF-8.

Make Plain Text in Mac

You have two options to provide the link details in the file:

Alternatively, enter link by link instead of using the complete domain. Ensure, you use one link per line.

# Remove these Links from spam-site

Step 3 – Uploading chúng tôi File

The final step is to upload the chúng tôi file you created in the Step2.

Login to your Search Console account.

Choose Website Property

Google will display a warning message regarding the potential danger of using the tool. It is important that you use this tool only when you are not able to remove the spammy backlinks in order to raise a reconsideration request and very sure that the links you mentioned in the file are causing a problem for your site ranking. It is not necessary to use this tool if no manual penalty is set on your site by Google or you do not find any suspicious links.

Upload Disavow File

Select the chúng tôi file you created in the Step2 and submit your file to Google. Earlier, you need to wait for few weeks time for recrawling. Now you don’t see to wait and will see the details instantly after successfully uploading the file. Google will send you an email about the disavow list details.

Confirmation From Google

Step 4: Cancel or Modify the Uploaded File

There could be situations that you have wrongly submitted the file or want to modify the list.

Anytime, go to the Disavow tool and select your website property.

You will see the current status of the submission like how many domains and links are disavowed.

You can also download the previously submitted file for reference.

Cancel or Replace Disavow List


Here is a summary of what you should do and what you should not with disavow link tool:


Ensure to download links from both WWW and Non-WWW versions of your site to get the complete list of backlinks pointing to your site since these two sites are considered as two different sites by Google.

Upload only text file and ensure to select UTF-8 encoding format when saving the file.

Use only links entered per line in the file.

Add additional information using # in the start of each line.


Don’t add any additional links not available in the downloaded link file.

Avoid using Notepad file encoded in ANSI format. If you are using Mac, make sure to create plain text file instead of RTF with TextEdit.

Don’t upload document or excel file.

Avoid adding information in the file without #.

Avoid using complete domain in the file.

How To Set Up And Use A Ram Drive In Windows

A RAM drive or a RAM disk is a hard drive made up of your computer’s RAM. It can’t save data permanently, but it’s incredibly fast. If you want to try it out, you can create a RAM drive with free software and without a single computer upgrade. This article will walk through how you can set up and use a RAM drive on Windows 10 and Windows 11.

Using ImDisk Toolkit

ImDisk Toolkit is an application for managing virtual drives. It also includes a utility that allows the creation of RAM drives.

Download ImDisk from

Install the application. Be sure to include all the components during the installation.

Windows 11

Creating a RAM disk with Windows 11 is way faster than with Windows 10, as you get an “installation finished” message as soon as you initiate the ImDisk setup.

Windows 10

If you’re on Windows 10 continue with the following steps to finish the RAM disk installation and then restart the system once.

Adjust the disk size in the box at the top of the window. We recommend at least 4GB of storage to get a feel for how the disk works.

Then unlock the settings pane with your administrator password.

Fast Startup speeds up the process of turning on your computer by saving a system state between completely off and hibernation to your hard drive. This happens when the computer writes the contents of your RAM to a stable hard drive. As you may guess, this could mess with your RAM drive’s ability to preserve and track its data. With Fast Startup off, boots may take slightly longer, but it’s doubtful that you’ll notice much.

Disabling fast startup will satisfy the warning window, but let’s consider why. This will also allow ImDisk to save your RAM drive’s data to an image file when you shut down your computer. If you don’t, the contents of your RAM drive will be erased completely every time, with no saved image storage. It would also disable the RAM drive’s ability to load the previous content. Basically, the drive would act much more like RAM and much less like a disk. Depending on your use case, that may be disappointing or unusable.

Using Your RAM Drive

You can access and use it just like any normal hard drive. It shows up in Windows File Explorer just like any other drive.

However, a RAM drive is exponentially faster than traditional types of storage. And we mean exponentially. You can verify it yourself using Anvil’s Storage Utilities, a raw speed comparison tool. In the following test, my Windows device C drive registered an overall score of 77.63 Mbps with average read and write speeds of 40.44 and 37.20 Mbps respectively.

In comparison, the values for ImDisk RAM drive were off the charts with an overall score of 29675.8 Mbps, along with average read and write scores of 21615 and 8080 Mbps respectively.

In most cases, it isn’t feasible to buy more RAM simply to have a bigger RAM disk. However, with between 8GB and 32GB of RAM, you can do some useful things. These include:

Video and photo editing: these processes can be resource-intensive, and more traditional means of storage can create a bottleneck slowing them down.

Gaming: if you have a lot of RAM, you can run some games from your RAM disk. Imagine how smoothly your games would run if you did this.

Statistical modeling: this requires access to data at high speeds. A RAM disk can provide the necessary read/write speeds.

Precautions and Recommendations

You will need to ensure that data stored on your RAM disk is backed up to an image, of course. Luckily, ImDisk pretty much takes care of this. In addition, if you aren’t using a laptop with a strong battery, you should hook up your PC or laptop to a UPS. This way, if there’s a surge or power outage, you’ll be able to shut down your computer safely without losing data.

Frequently Asked Questions What makes a RAM drive so fast?

RAM drive is fast by definition because it repurposes the computer’s random access memory (RAM) to serve as temporary file storage. In other words, it functions as the software abstraction of a hard drive.

How big can a RAM disk be?

The RAM disk size depends on the amount of RAM your computer has at the moment. Under no condition it can exceed that limit. For safety purposes, it is prudent not to assign more than 50% of your PC’s RAM to serve as a RAM disk. For example, if you have 16GB of RAM on your computer, you can allocate up to 8 GB for the RAM drive.

When should you use a RAM drive?

A RAM drive is most useful for applications where fast data writing and reading is important. It is best suited for highly technical computing tasks where high throughput is mission critical. For example, if you want your computer to perform 3D video rendering, a RAM drive will help you write data much faster than SSD due to faster encoding.

Can you use RAM drive as a boot drive?

Yes, you can use your laptop or PC RAM drive to boot up your operating system, but we don’t recommend it. The process will be very slow because of the volatile nature of this memory option. As your data is lost entirely each time you disconnect RAM drive, it will take a long time to back up your operating system. Also you need to keep your laptop or PC powered on to avoid RAM drive disconnection while booting.

Image credit: Jéshoots on Pexels

Sayak Boral

Sayak Boral is a technology writer with over eleven years of experience working in different industries including semiconductors, IoT, enterprise IT, telecommunications OSS/BSS, and network security. He has been writing for MakeTechEasier on a wide range of technical topics including Windows, Android, Internet, Hardware Guides, Browsers, Software Tools, and Product Reviews.

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How To Fix Google Drive Not Syncing On Mac

The Backup and Sync app from Google works just fine to let you sync your local content with your Google Drive account. Occasionally, you might come across errors with this sync process. When the sync issues occur, you can’t sync any of the files from your Mac to your Google Drive account.

There are a few things you can do when Google Drive is not syncing on your Mac. These methods include restarting the sync process, disabling the proxy server, and so on.

Table of Contents

Pause & Restart The Sync

When your files stop syncing with the Backup and Sync app, the first thing to do is to pause and resume the sync process. This refreshes your sync connection and helps fix the issues you’re facing with syncing your files.

Quit The App & Reopen It

Sometimes the app faces some minor glitches which can be resolved by simply closing the app and then reopening it. This is the most basic method you can try and it works in many cases.

Log Out Of The App & Log Back In

If Google Drive is still not syncing on your Mac, you can try logging out and then logging back into the app on your machine. This should give it a fresh start to sync your content.

Select Settings from the left sidebar.

Log back into the app with your account.

Reboot Your Mac

If this is the first time you’re facing an issue with Backup and Sync on your Mac, try rebooting your Mac and see if that fixes the problem for you.

Launch Backup and Sync when your Mac boots-up and let it sync your files.

Turn Off The Firewall On Your Mac

The firewall settings define what connection requests your Mac can send and receive. Since Google Drive sync uses your network connection to transfer files, you need to make sure your firewall isn’t interfering with it.

Keeping the firewall turned off while syncing the files should fix most connection issues.

Select Security & Privacy on the following screen.

Checkmark The Folders That You Want To Sync

If you’re having issues with Google Drive not syncing certain folders on your Mac, make sure those folders are enabled in the Backup and Sync app. The app only syncs the checkmarked folders.

Here’s how you ensure it.

Ensure The App Opens At Login For Automatic Sync

If Backup and Sync doesn’t sync your files automatically, it may be you haven’t set it to automatically launch at boot-up. You can fix it by adding the app to your startup items list.

Run The Script Bundled With “Backup and Sync”

The Backup and Sync app comes with a script and running it sometimes fixes many issues with the app on your Mac. You can access it by revealing the content of the app package.

Open the Contents folder.

Open the MacOS folder.

Disable The Proxy Connection

Proxy connections may sometimes interrupt your sync process. Therefore, keep your proxies disabled while you use the Backup and Sync app to sync your files with your Google Drive account.

Reinstall The “Backup and Sync” App

If Google Drive is still not syncing with your Mac, your final option is to reinstall the Backup and Sync app on your machine. This’ll clear your old configuration and create new settings and account files for you.

Close AppCleaner.

Head over to the Backup and Sync download page, download the app, and install it on your Mac.

Open the app and log-in to your Google account to sync your files.

How To Set Up And Use Google Nest Speakers

Adam Molina / Android Authority

How to set up Google Nest speakers

Read next: The best Google products you can buy

Here: The best Google Assistant commands

How to control the volume on your Google Nest speaker

Lily Katz / Android Authority

Some surfaces on the Nest Mini and Nest Audio are touch-sensitive, providing physical controls for volume and playing and pausing music. You can, of course, use voice commands (more on this in a moment), but sometimes touch is simpler or less disruptive.

On a Nest Mini, tap the left side of its face to reduce volume, and the right side to increase it ― these directions assume your power cord is facing away from you. Tap the center of the grill to play or pause.

The Nest Audio has these sensors on the very top of the speaker. Tap on the left corner to lower the volume, or the right to increase it. Tap in between to play or pause.

Meanwhile, the Nest Hub and Nest Hub Max have volume rockers located behind their displays on the right-hand side. To play or pause content, just tap the appropriate onscreen icon.

Voice commands for volume are extremely intuitive ― if you can think of one, it’ll probably work. Here are a few examples:

“Hey Google, set the volume to 5.”

“OK Google, increase volume.”

“Hey Google, lower volume.”

“OK Google, change the volume to 30 percent.”

How to mute your Google Nest

Read more: The smart home privacy policies of Amazon, Apple, and Google

How to reboot your Google Nest

Tap and hold on a device’s home screen tile.

Select the gear icon, then the triple-dot menu.

Tap Reboot.

Read next: Here’s how to fix Google Assistant

How to enable Guest Mode on Google Nest speakers

Lily Katz / Android Authority

If you’re hosting a social gathering and want to give others access to your Google Nest speakers without risking personal data, the solution is Guest Mode. You can enable it by saying, “Hey Google, turn on Guest Mode,” and — perhaps unfortunately — disable it with the opposite command. Google seems to assume you’ll be around to keep an eye on guests, or that visitors may not know about Guest Mode in the first place.

While Guest Mode is on, a speaker won’t share personal data linked to your Google account, such as Google Calendar events. It also automatically deletes any Assistant activity records or voice recordings, even if you’ve opted into them.

Google warns that speakers may save activity linked to various Google or third-party services. If someone asks your Nest Audio to play a YouTube video on your Chromecast, for example, it’s going to affect your video history and recommendations.

Next: These are the best third-party Google Assistant speakers

Frequently asked questions

Without getting too technical, Wi-Fi 6 and 6E are not only faster than Wi-Fi 5, but allow for more simultaneous connections. Wi-Fi 5 can be acceptable — but many people are layering smart home accessories on top of phones, tablets, PCs, media streamers, and wearables, which can be too much to handle. Once a router is saturated, it has to temporarily drop older connections to support new ones.

Wi-Fi 6E adds a 6GHz band to the 2.4 and 5GHz bands found on other routers. Most devices don’t support 6GHz yet, but it offers even faster speeds and can further alleviate saturation.

Mesh systems improve the coverage of your Wi-Fi, eliminating dead zones and boosting speed and reliability where signal was previously weak.

Potentially. While the Nest Audio sounds great for its price, you can get even better bass, fidelity, and volume if you’re willing to spend on something like the Sonos One or Beosound Balance.

Google also lacks portable speakers and soundbars. In fact, if you’re looking for living room audio, it might be best to go with Sonos’ Beam or Arc soundbars, since you can switch between TV and music streaming on the fly, killing two birds with one stone.

How To Back Up Mac To An External Hard Drive (5 Steps)

Home » Tutorials » How to Back up Mac to an External Drive with Time Machine

If you read my previous post about how to format an external drive for Mac, you know that I bought a 2TB Seagate Expansion external hard drive and managed to create two partitions on the disk — one for Mac backup purposes, and the other for personal use.

In this article, I’m going to show you how to back up your Mac data to an external drive. You should back up your Mac on a regular basis, especially if you’re planning to perform macOS updates. I did this several weeks ago while preparing my MacBook Pro for a system update.

Please note that the backup tool that I used is Time Machine, a built-in app provided by Apple. If you want to back up your Mac data without using Time Machine, there are also other third-party Mac backup software worth considering.

Where is Time Machine on Mac?

In the Preferences pane, you’ll see the Time Machine app located between “Date & Time” and “Accessibility”.

What does Time Machine Backup?

Time Machine is the easiest way to back up Mac. And the app is created and recommended by Apple. Once you have a timely backup, it’s incredibly easy to restore all or part of your data in case of accidental deletion or a hard drive crash.

So, what kind of data does Time Machine backup? Everything!

Be aware that the recovery process can only be conducted when your Mac can start up normally.

Note: the screenshots below are taken based on an older macOS. If your Mac is running a newer version of macOS, they will look slightly different but the process should be similar.

Step 1: Connect your external hard drive.

First, use the USB cable (or USB-C cable if you’re on the newest Mac model with Thunderbolt 4 ports) that comes with your external drive to connect that drive to your Mac.

Note: if your external drive can’t show up on Mac or macOS hints the drive is not supported, you’ll have to re-format it to a Mac-compatible file system before continuing the following steps.

Step 2: Select the disk for backup.

Now open Time Machine (I tell you how above) and select the disk you want to use. I have partitioned my Seagate drive into two new volumes, “Backup” and “Personal Use”, as you see from the screenshot. I chose “Backup”.

Step 3: Confirm backup (optional).

If you have used another disk for backup before, Time Machine will ask you whether you want to stop backing up to the previous disk and use the new one instead. It’s up to you. I selected “Replace”.

Step 4: Wait until the process is complete.

Now Time Machine will start to backup all your data. The progress bar gives you an estimate of how much time is left before the backup is complete.

I found it a bit inaccurate: Initially, it said “About 5 hours remaining”, but it only took two hours to finish. It’s worth noting that the remaining time may vary from case to case depending on the write speed of your external hard drive.

It says I have to wait 5 hoursAfter about an hour and a half, it says only 15 minutes remaining

Step 5: Eject your external drive and unplug it.

When the backup procedure is completed, don’t rush to disconnect your device as this could cause potential disk problems.

Final Tips

Like any other hardware device, an external hard drive will fail sooner or later. It’s best to make a copy of the data on your external drive — as they say, a “backup of your backups”!

One good option is to use cloud storage services like iDrive which I’ve been using and I really like the app because it’s super easy to use, and it also allows me to download Facebook photos automatically. Backblaze and Carbonite are also popular options in the market, though I am yet to give them a try.

I hope you find this tutorial helpful. I can’t emphasize enough the importance of data backup these days. Without a proper backup, it’s really hard to restore data. Although you could try a third-party Mac data recovery software, chances are they won’t get all your lost data back.

The main takeaway here is to back up your Mac with Time Machine or another app, and create a second or third copy of those backups if you can.

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