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Since the time NTFS was devised and formulated in the Windows OS, data storage requirements have drastically changed. There was a dire need for a next-generation file system which could work well and take care of the issues which were present in NTFS. That’s when Microsoft called the shots and developed ReFS (Resilient File System) back in 2012 – and was introduced in Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012. ReFS was designed to maximize the data availability and reliability even if the concerned storage devices experienced a hardware failure.

Ever since storage devices came into play, the requirement of storage space has increased exponentially. Even multi-terabytes of storage devices are common these days. Hence, a need for persistently reliable structure kept cropping up simultaneously. ReFS has an architecture that is designed to work well with extremely large data sets without any performance impact. In this guide, we will see how to enable or disable the ReFS File System in Windows 11/10 and try to format a drive using it, but before that let’s have a look at some key features of this stately file system.

In this article, we will talk about the features of the Resilient File System and see how to enable or disable the ReFS File System in Windows Server operating system, and try to format the drive using this file system.

Features of Resilient File System

Data Availability: ReFS File System proliferates data availability by showing resiliency to data corruption or failures. Automatic data integrity checks help keep ReFS online, and you hardly suffer any volume downtime.

Tensile Scalability: Requirements for the increased amount and size of the data keep surging up with the changing technology. ReFS puts forth the ability to challenge extremely large data sets and work well with them without any performance issues.

Acute Error Correction: ReFS File System comes coupled with an automatic data integrity scanner known as Scrubber which periodically scans the data volume, identifies the potential corrupt sectors, and processes them for repair.

Which file system does Windows 11/10 use?

If it is a standard default installation, the OS uses the NTFS structures. With a failed Windows 11/10 operating system with Storage Space enabled, it is the ReFS + NTFS file systems.

Enable ReFS File System on Windows 11/10

Now that you know that ReFS came into existence to cope up with the limitations of the NTFS File System let’s take a look at how you can enable it on your Windows 11/10 system and use it to format an external drive.

Before proceeding with the changes, please make sure to create a system restore point. If any issue comes up in future, then you can use this restore point to roll back the changes.

1. Press Windows Key + R on your keyboard to launch Run prompt. Type  chúng tôi  and hit Enter to open Registry Editor.

2. Navigate to the below path on the left side pane of Registry Editor.


3. Create a DWORD and name it RefsDisableLastAccessUpdate. Set its value as 1 to enable it.

4. Up next, navigate to the below path in left side pane.


Now under this key, create a new DWORD and name it as AllowRefsFormatOverNonmirrorVolume and set its value as 1 to enable it.

6. Sign out and sign in again to make the changes effective. Now you can plug in an external device and choose ReFS file system to format it. Also, you can open the Properties leaf of any drive to see what File System it is associated with.

What is Resilient File System or ReFS?

Resilient File System or ReFS is a file system like NTFS, exFAT, etc. However, it is capable of working with large datasets without impacting the performance in any way. When NTFS and other formats fail to execute required high-end tasks fluently, ReFS does the job effortlessly.

How do I enable ReFS file system?

You can read more about ReFS or Resilient File System on Technet.

You're reading How To Disable Or Enable Refs Or Resilient File System On Windows 11/10

What Is Fast Startup In Windows And How To Enable Or Disable It

One of the newer additions to modern versions of Windows is Fast Startup. This feature claims to speed up your boot time, so you spend less time waiting for your computer to boot and more time using it. Windows machines typically have this feature enabled by default, so users may already be experiencing fast boot times without realizing it. While it may sound like a great feature, there are a few cases where you may want to consider disabling Fast Startup.

Tip: wondering whether the best course of action is putting your laptop to sleep or shutting it down? We answer the question.

What Does Windows Fast Startup Do

To understand why someone may want to enable or disable Fast Startup, we have to first understand what is going on under the hood when it’s enabled. What causes the boot time to speed up?

When Fast Startup is enabled, the computer doesn’t perform a cold shutdown. Instead, it stores system files in a hibernation file before turning itself off. When you reboot the PC, it accesses the hibernation file and resumes your session from the data contained there. The PC doesn’t have to reload everything from scratch, resulting in a faster overall boot time.

Overall, this works as a hybrid of a cold shutdown and hibernation. Because it requires Windows’s hibernation capability, Fast Startup can only be enabled if hibernation is turned on.

Why Disable Fast Startup?

A faster boot time sounds like a great feature to have, so why would you want to disable it?

Some device drivers may greatly dislike being put into hibernation. As a result, they may cause strange things to occur, such as making the device act funny or even crashing the computer. Because your computer isn’t shutting down fully, these devices are being brought in and out of hibernation and causing issues.

It’s worth noting, however, that if you restart the PC with Fast Startup enabled, it will perform a cold shutdown anyway before booting back up again. This is helpful if you want to give your system a proper shutdown, such as when you’re updating software.

Tip: did you put your Windows PC in sleep mode, but it keeps waking up? Learn how to prevent that.

Should Fast Startup Always Be Disabled?

No! Fast Startup can cause issues, but it doesn’t need to be disabled if you don’t have any problems with it. If you’ve used a Windows machine for a while without experiencing any issues, you can keep it enabled and enjoy the extra time shaved off your boot process. Just keep in mind that if you want to access the hard drive from outside Windows (such as when running an SFC scan), you won’t be able to.

If you’re noticing issues, such as driver BSODs or devices not working as they should, try disabling Fast Startup and see whether it can help. This is especially true if you notice these problems vanish after you restart the PC and trigger a proper shutdown. If you absolutely want to dual-boot or access your hard drive outside of the Windows environment, you should disable Fast Startup.

How to Enable or Disable Fast Startup

Before you enable Fast Startup, you need to ensure that hibernation is enabled, as Fast Startup will not work without it.

Enable Hibernation

Enable Fast Startup via Control Panel

Now that you’ve confirmed that hibernation is enabled, you can enable Fast Startup from the same settings page used above.

Good to know: check out this list of handy registry hacks to optimize your Windows experience.

Enable Fast Startup from the Registry Editor

If you want to enable Fast Startup using the Registry Editor, follow the steps below:

Search for and open Registry Editor from the Windows Search bar.

Navigate to the following location:


SYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlSession ManagerPower

Disable Fast Startup Using Command Prompt

If you don’t want to use Windows Settings or the Registry Editor to enable or disable Fast Startup, you can use the Command Prompt.

In the Command Prompt window, type the following command: powercfg -h off. Press Enter.

This will disable hibernation and, consequently, Fast Startup.

Good to know: ever wonder what the differences are between Command Prompt and PowerShell? We detail them for you.

Frequently Asked Questions Does Fast Startup drain battery?

Yes, Windows consumes more battery on some laptops if Fast Startup is enabled. Typically, the feature should work only to speed up your boot time, but in some instances, users face battery drainage if this feature is turned on. You can disable it and check whether the battery life of your laptop improves as a result. If it doesn’t, you can safely turn it back on.

Does Fast Startup interfere with Windows updates?

When Fast Startup is enabled, your computer doesn’t perform a regular cold shutdown, which is often required to apply Windows updates. This can make your system outdated over time and vulnerable to security threats. Hence, if you want to ensure Windows updates are always installed automatically, disable Fast Startup. Alternatively, restart your computer to apply the latest updates.

Is Fast Startup bad for an SSD?

Although Fast Startup will not affect the health of your SSD, it will do very little to improve boot time, as SSDs are already significantly faster than older hard drives. Therefore, disabling Fast Startup on a modern SATA or NVMe SSD can be a sensible choice, especially if you want to dual-boot or save storage space by disabling hibernation.

Image credit: Freepik. All screenshots by Tanveer Singh.

Tanveer Singh

Tanveer hunts far and wide for PC Hardware, Windows, and Gaming ideas to write about. An MBA in Marketing and the owner of a PC building business, he has written extensively on Technology, Gaming, and Marketing. When not scouring the web, he can be found binging on The Office, running for his life in GTFO, or wrecking karts in Smash Karts.

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How To Change File Type On Windows 11/10

In this post, we will show you how to change the file type extension on Windows 11/10. Every file on our PC has a file type. For audio files, it might be MP3, for documents it might be Docx or pdf, for videos it might be mp4, Mkv, etc. Each category of file type has many numbers of file formats according to their compression level or other factors. The programs recognize the files by their format and open them.

How to change File Type on Windows 11/10

If you want to change the file type extension or format on Windows 11/10, the following methods can help you.

By renaming the file

By converting the file

By using Save As option

Using Command Prompt

Let’s get into the details of each method and change the file type easily.

1] By renaming the file

To change the file type,

You can change back the file type to the previous or original one anytime if you remember it.

2] By converting the file

There are many programs or online services that convert one file type to another. If you want to change the Docx file to pdf, you can use a converter program or online tools like chúng tôi chúng tôi etc. You just have to upload the file and select the new file type and convert. It is a safe way to change file type as it does not involve hard writing the file type. It just converts the file to a new format.

Read: Best free online Video Converter Tools

3] By using Save As option

When saving a file on a program like Word, Excel, or Photoshop, we see an option called Save As. It will give different choices to save that particular file in different file types or formats. If you are using Photoshop, when you use the Save as an option, you can save the file in different formats like PNG, JPG, SVG, etc. If you change file types in this method, no file corruption will happen.

Read: How to remove File Type Associations using Registry Editor

4] Using Command Prompt

You can also use Command Prompt to change the file type. There are commands to change the file type of a single file or multiple files.

To change the file type of a single file,

Now, type cd /d and paste the path beside it and press Enter. It will change the cmd directory to that path.

Now, type the following command with the correct file name and types. For example, If you want to change chúng tôi to chúng tôi you can use the following command

rename "video.mp4" "video.mkv"

You can replace the file name and type according to your need. To change the file type of multiple files in the same folder, use the following command. You have to replace file type with real file formats like JPG, PNG, Docx, PDF, etc.

rename *.filetype1 *.filetype2

You can also Batch rename files and file extensions.

Read: How to rename Files or Folders in Windows

These are the different ways you can use to change file type on Windows 11/10.

How do I change a file extension in Windows 11?

There are different ways using which you can change a file extension on Windows 11, like renaming the file type, converting the file to another format we need, saving the file as a new format, or using the command prompt.

Read: How to reset all Apps and File Associations to default in Windows

How do I change a file type format?

The safe way to change a file type format is to convert the file to the new format or save the file in the new format using Save as an option. You can also rename the file type using the rename feature in the context menu or command prompt.

Related read: How to show File Extensions in Windows.

Firefox Freezes, Hangs Or Unresponsive On Windows 11/10 Computer

Are you a Firefox user? If yes, you might have come across an instance where the browser suddenly freezes or hangs and closes down unexpectedly or collapses into a not responding mode.

Freezing or Hanging is a process where a program stops responding to a user’s input. A hang or a freeze is different from a crash. A Crash ends the program, and the windows automatically shut down. The reasons can be many. It could include the installation of incompatible themes, extensions, or programming errors in plugins. I am suggesting some troubleshooting steps which you could follow in case you find that your Firefox is giving you problems in Windows.

Why is Firefox freezing?

There can be many reasons why Firefox keeps freezing on Windows PCs. One of the most common causes is insufficient resources. For example, if your system has less RAM, you cannot open more tabs in Firefox. Moreover, you will also experience speed issues with Firefox. To resolve this issue, upgrade your hardware. Other causes for Firefox freezing issues include corrupted cookies and cache, bad extensions, etc.

Firefox Freezes, Hangs or Unresponsive on Windows 11/10 1] Clear Firefox Browser Cache, History & Download History

Also, if the folder where Firefox is attempting to save the file is not accessible, it can freeze.

At times Browsing History interferes with the browser start-up and therefore can hang Firefox for indefinite periods.

You could also consider using CCleaner to clear up your entire Firefox Cache, etc.

2] Bad Firefox Add-on

 Now, if Firefox runs without freezing, it suggests a bad add-on – either an extension or toolbar – some extensions are prone to memory leaks.

Next, open Firefox Menu and select Add-ons (Or press Ctrl+Shift+A). Here you can disable or manage Firefox add-ons. Disable each one, one after the other, and try to find out the culprit. If you can identify the offending add-on or extension or toolbar, uninstall it.

3] Update Adobe Flash version

If you are facing freezing or experiencing a  delay while starting Firefox, you might want to check out if your Adobe Flash, Java plugins are up-to-date. Some versions did cause Firefox to freeze or crash. This page will tell you which version of Adobe Flash, you have installed.

For more info, visit Adobe Flash Player Download Center.

4] Check Windows shell extensions

Some Windows shell extensions can also cause problems with your Firefox browser, causing it to freeze or crash. You can use ShellExView to see all the explorer shell extensions and then try to selectively disable extensions which you suspect could be the cause of your problems.

5] Extensions of 3rd party software 6] Create a new Profile

The Firefox User Profile Manager allows you to create an additional profile. Create a new profile in Firefox and transfer all your settings and other data to the new profile, and see if it helps.

7] Reduce Firefox memory usage

You may also want to consider reducing memory usage of Firefox by changing the about:config preferences. You may especially want to tweak these settings:



browser.sessionhistory.max_total_viewers settings.

Do so only if you know what you are doing. Reducing memory usage by carrying out just tweaks, removing themes, Personas, and reducing add-ons or plugins can also help you resolve your problem.

Is Firefox compatible with Windows 11?

Yes, Firefox is compatible with Windows 11. You can download its latest version from the official website of Mozilla. It works fine on all Windows 11 computers. However, in some cases, you may experience issues with Firefox on Windows 11. But that does not mean that it is incompatible with Windows 11. The issues can occur due to many reasons, like problematic extensions, a conflicting program, corrupted cookies and cache, etc.

If it doesn’t, you may want to Refresh Firefox. You can also Tune-up and Refresh Mozilla Firefox browser online.

Fix Freezes or Crashes with these resources from TheWindowsClub:

How To Disable Timeline On Windows 10

Timeline on Windows 10 is a feature that leverages the Microsoft Graph and allows you to get back to activities (for example, app, document, website) you were working in the past. These activities could have been started on the same computer or other devices, such as a laptop, tablet, and even your phone that are connected with the same Microsoft account.

The only caveat is that in order to resume tasks across devices, Windows 10 has to track your PC activities, which for many users isn’t a big deal, but for others it can be a privacy or security concern.

In this guide, you’ll learn the steps to disable activity history which also disables Timeline on Windows 10.

How to disable Windows 10’s Timeline using Settings

Use these steps to turn off activity history on Windows 10:

Clear the Store my activity history on this device option.

Clear the Send my activity history to Microsoft option.

Under “Show activities from accounts,” turn off the toggle switch for all your accounts.

Jump to another settings page, and then come back to the “Activity history” page to refresh the page and make the option to delete your history available.

Once you complete the steps, Windows 10 will no longer be able to collect activities on your device nor you’ll be able to resume tasks on other devices using Timeline.

It’s worth noting that this feature doesn’t clear of the data Microsoft collects about you, “Activity history” only deletes “pick up where you left off” related items.

How to disable Windows 10’s Timeline using Group Policy 

Use these steps to disable Timeline using Group Policy on Windows 10 Pro, Enterprise, or Education:

Open Start.

Browse the following path: Computer ConfigurationAdministrative TemplatesSystemOS Policies 

Check the Disabled option.

Check the Disabled option.

Check the Disabled option.

Restart your computer.

After you complete the steps, Timeline will no longer work on your device running Windows 10.

How to disable Windows 10’s Timeline using Registry

Alternatively, you can permanently disable Timeline on Windows 10 modifying the Registry with these steps:

Warning: It’s very important to note that modifying the Windows Registry can cause serious problems if not used properly. It’s assumed you know what you’re doing and that you have created a 

It’s very important to note that modifying the Windows Registry can cause serious problems if not used properly. It’s assumed you know what you’re doing and that you have created a full backup of your system before proceeding.

Open Start.

Browse the following path:


Name the key System and press Enter.

Name the key EnableActivityFeed and press Enter.

Name the key PublishUserActivities and press Enter.

Name the key UploadUserActivities and press Enter.

After you complete the steps, restart your computer, and Timeline should now be disabled.

At any time, you can enable Timeline again by using the same steps mentioned above, but on step No. 4, make sure to right-select Delete for the EnableActivityFeed, PublishUserActivities, and UploadUserActivities keys, and then reboot your device.

Watch the video on how to turn off Timeline on Windows 10:

Timeline is a feature expected to arrive on Windows 10 version 1803 (April 2023 Update) on April 30, 2023. If you don’t see the “Activity history” settings, it’s because you’re not running the latest version of Windows 10. These settings are available starting Windows 10 build 17040 and later.

Update July 23, 2023: This guide was originally published in December 2023, and it’s been updated to reflect the changes on Windows 10.

Number Or Numeric Lock Is Not Working On Windows 11/10

Sometimes the Number lock (Num Lock Key) in Windows 11 and Windows 10 might not work even when it is enabled, making things inconvenient for those working with digits. If you are facing the same problem, you will find multiple solutions in this article. We have already seen what to do if the Num Lock is not working due to Fast Startup now let us see what we can do when it happens in the general case.

Num Lock not working on Windows 11/10

To fix Num Lock not working issue on Windows 11/10, follow these steps:

Troubleshoot in Clean Boot State

Update your Device Drivers

Install the Driver in Compatibility Mode

Turn Off Mouse Key

Registry Editor method

To know more about these steps, continue reading.

A Clean Boot is used to diagnose and later troubleshoot issues with your system. During a Clean Boot, we start the system with a minimal number of drivers and startup programs which helps isolate the cause with interfering software.

Once you have booted in the Clean Boot State, enable one process after another and see which process makes the problem appear. Thus you can find the offender.

2] Update your Device Drivers

Whenever any hardware shows a problem, we should be to update the device drivers. Open Devices Manager and update the Keyboard driver.

If that doesn’t work, you might consider downloading drivers directly from the manufacturer’s website and re-installing them.

TIP: NumBlock will help control, enable, disable Num Lock key.

If the existing drivers aren’t compatible even after an updating them, you could download them from the manufacturer website and install them in the Compatibility Mode and see if it works. Here is how to go about it.

Check the “Run this program in Compatibility mode” option.

Select a previous version supported by the software.

Install the driver as it is supposed to be installed.

Wait for the installation to complete and restart the device.

If the root cause of the problem is outdated drivers or incompatible drivers this method will surely solve the issue. You can visit the manufacturer website and download the up-to-date numeric keypad drivers. However, there is a chance that the drivers aren’t the problem at all. For this, there is the next method.

4] Turn Off Mouse Key

Try this and see if that helps:

Go to the Control Panel from the Start Menu.

Navigate to the Ease of Access Center.

Go to Make the keyboard easier to use.

Navigate to Control the mouse with the keyboard and uncheck the “Turn On Mouse Keys” option.

Basically, it might all boil down to a simple settings issue, which if true would be resolved in this step. You should be good to go.

5] Registry Editor method

There is yet another option you can use even though the mouse key method should work. If you want to use an elaborate method or if you actually need another solution, this is it. Remember, since you are making changes in the Windows Registry, it will be wise to create a System Restore point just in case anything goes amiss. After you’ve done that follow these steps.

Run regedit to open the Registry Editor.

Navigate to the following key:

HKEY_CURRENT_USERControl PanelKeyboard

Now navigate to this key:

HKEY_USERS.DEFAULTControl PanelKeyboard

Now set a registry string in the name InitialKeybaordIndicators and set the value to 2147483648.

Reboot the device.

Read: No Numpad? Emulate Numpad on keyboard in Windows

Why is my NumLock button not working?

There could be numerous reasons why the NumLock button is not working on your computer. Depending upon which device you are using, the solutions may vary slightly. For example, if you are using a laptop, you might need to check if there is any dust or not. On the other hand, if you are using a wireless keyboard, make sure that you have the charged battery.

Related: Enable Num Lock on startup or reboot in Windows 11/10.

How do I fix NumLock on Windows 11/10?

All the solutions are mentioned in this article to fix NumLock not working issue on Windows 11/10. Apart from these, you must verify if all the other buttons are working as well. If not, there could be some internal issues that might not be fixed at home. You also try setting the correct Registry value, installing the driver, updating the respective driver, etc.

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