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Introduction to PostgreSQL Unnest

PostgreSQL unnest is the type of array functions; the unnest function in PostgreSQL is basically used to expand the array into rows. Unnest function is converting an array into a table-like structure; we can also generate a table structure of an array using unnest function in PostgreSQL. Unnest array function is very useful in PostgreSQL for expanding the array into the set of values or converting the array into the table structure. If we need a table-like structure of array simultaneously, we have to use the unnest function on the array on which we have converted array data into the table-like structure.

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Syntax:

Below is the syntax:

Unnest(Any_array_number (Any array element number which was we have used with unnest function) Unnest (Any_array_text (Any array element text which was we have used with unnest function) Select unnest (any_array (Number of text value which was used in array.)) Select unnest (any_array (Number of text value which was used in array.)) limit number;

Below is the parameter description syntax of Unnest array function:

Unnest: This function we defined in PostgreSQL to set the element in a table-like structure. We have used unnest element with text as well as number array. We must define the number or text element with the unnest array function in PostgreSQL.

Any array text: This is defined as using an array of text values to convert the array into the table-like structure in PostgreSQL by using unnest array function.

Any array number: This is defined as a number. Using the unnest array function, we have used any number values to convert an array into the table-like structure in PostgreSQL.

Select: This operation selects the array’s value using the unnest array function in PostgreSQL. Select operations are very useful and important while using unnest array function in PostgreSQL.

Limit: In PostgreSQL, we have also using the limit clause with unnest function in PostgreSQL. While using the limit clause will show the number as per the limit we have used with unnest function.

How does Unnest Function work in PostgreSQL?

The first overload of usefulness aims to transform the values from an array into a single array.

In the old version of PostgreSQL, when we have to convert an array into the table structure, we have to use an array with the cross join. After joining the array with cross join, we generated the same series.

After generating the series, all the array elements will be structured into the table using cross join and generate series function.

The below example shows that in the old version, we used cross join with generate series function to convert the array into the table structure.

Code:

SELECT test_unnest[A] as array_element FROM  (SELECT ARRAY[11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20] As test_unnest) as gen_ser CROSS JOIN generate_series(1, 10) As A;

Output:

The above example shows that we have used array element as [11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20]; we have used this array element with generate series function for converting an array into the table like structure.

We have also used cross join with the array element and generated a series function for converting an array into a table-like structure.

By using unnest function, we do not need to use a cross join or generate series function to convert an array into a table like structure. We have simply using unnest function with an array.

In PostgreSQL, we have also utilised an array for a number or text to create a table-like structure.

We can also use unnest function with an order by clause. Using an unnest function, we have an order by clause with a 1 in it.

We have also use the limit clause with unnest function. After using a limit clause, it will show the output as per the number which was we have used with the limit.

Examples of PostgreSQL Unnest

Different examples are mentioned below:

Example #1 – Unnest function with array as a number.

Below example shows that unnest function with array as a number. In the below example, we use an array of numbers as [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].

Code:

SELECT unnest(ARRAY[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]);

Output:

Example #2 – Unnest function with array as text.

Below example shows that unnest function with array as text. In the below example, we are using an array of text as [‘ABC’, ‘PQR’, ‘XYZ’, ‘ABC’, ‘PQR’, ‘XYZ’, ‘ABC’, ‘PQR’, ‘XYZ’, ‘ABC’, ‘PQR’, ‘XYZ’].

Code:

SELECT unnest(ARRAY['ABC', 'PQR', 'XYZ', 'ABC', 'PQR', 'XYZ', 'ABC', 'PQR', 'XYZ', 'ABC', 'PQR', 'XYZ']);

Output:

Example #3 – Unnest function with an order by clause.

Below example shows that unnest function with an order by clause. In the below example, we use an array of numbers as [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].

SELECT unnest(ARRAY[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]) order by 1;

Output:

Example #4 – Unnest function with limit clause.

Below example shows that unnest function with a limit clause. In the below example, we use an array of numbers as [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].

Code:

SELECT unnest(ARRAY[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]) limit 5; SELECT unnest(ARRAY[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]) limit 8;

Output:

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How Does Split Function Work In Scala?

Definition of Scala Split

As the name suggest split is used to split the string in Scala. In a programming language, we have a requirement where we want to split our long string based on some regular expression or any special character, any character, space, ‘,’ (comma) for this purpose we have split method in Scala available. We can call this method on any string. After splitting the string, it will return us the array contain all the elements present inside it. The split function also divides the string into several parts. In the coming section, we will discuss more about the method and its usage in real life for a better understanding.

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Syntax:

This method is used to split our string in Scala. We can call this method on any string object. Let’s see the syntax for better understanding of the methods how we can use this while programming. See below;

1. With limit pass as a parameter

split(String regular_expression, int limit)

In the above syntax we are passing two parameters as the input in Scala. The first one is the regular expression and other one is limit.

2. Without limit param

split(String regular_expression)

In the above syntax, we are passing only one parameter the input for the split method without specifying the limit here. In the coming section, we will discuss more about its practice usage for better understanding and hands on.

How does Split Function Work in Scala?

As now we know that split function is used to split the string, We can split string based on some regular expression or any any special character or any substring we want to give. We can pass any expression there. We have two syntax for this method one is with specify the limit and another one is without specifying the limit for the split method. Limit parameter will limit the number of values in the array. Now we can discuss more about the method signature and their return type as well. Which are as follow see below;

split(String regular_expression): This method takes two parameter as the input. By using this parameter, we can specify the string by which we want to split our string. We can specify any character, substring, any regular expression also accepted here. The return type for this method is array only, it will return us new array containing the parameter after the split.

split(String regular_expression, int limit): This method is also used to split the string based on the regular expression. But this method takes two parameters as the input. The first parameter is the regularexpression on the basis of this string would be spitted. The second parameter about this we will discuss in detail see below;

limit: This parameter is used to specify the limit of values in the final array. In short, it just restricts our resultant array to some number only. Below we will see one practice example of how we can specify this parameter in the method see below;

Example:

split("hello", 5);

In this way we can specify the limit parameter in the split function, it will only limit the values inside the array to 5 here.

Example:

object Main extends App{ println("XXXXXXXX") var mystr = "samplestringcontinuestring" val finalresult = mystr.split("string") }

In the above lines of code, we are trying to split our string. First we are creating a string named as ‘mystr’, on this we are calling the split method. Inside the methods, we are mentioning ‘string’ as the split expression for our string. So whenever the ‘string’ word will appear in our variable it will split the string and divide them into several parts and skip that string. So in the above case output will be a sample, continue because we are splitting it on basis of the ‘string’ keyword.

In the same way we can specify the limit parameter to limit our output array. In this, if we limit our parameter as ‘1’ then only it will print the ‘sample’ string for us as the output.

Examples of Scala Split

In this example, we are trying to split our string in several parts. Here we are using the split function with and without the limit parameter, some of the string is split by using the substring, some based on the space, and limit is also applied here.

Example #1

Code:

object Main extends App{ println("Demo for split method in Scala !!! ") var mystr1 = "samplestringcontinuestring" var mystr2= "mystrytotestthesplit" var mystr3 = "demoexmapleto test" var mystr4 = "smaple string to test spilt method with limit" val finalresult1 = mystr1.split("the") val finalresult2 = mystr2.split("the") val finalresult3 = mystr3.split(" ") val finalresult4 = mystr4.split(" ", 5) println("Result for each string would be  ::") for ( r1 <-finalresult1 ) { println(r1) } println("*****************************") for ( r2 <-finalresult2 ) { println(r2) } println("*****************************") for ( r3 <-finalresult3 ) { println(r3) } println("*****************************") for ( r4 <-finalresult4 ) { println(r4) } }

Example #2

In this example we are using limit parameter with the split method here so this will restrict the resultant array also the value in the array will be limited here.

Code:

object Main extends App{ println("Demo for split method in Scala !!! ") var mystr1 = "samplestringcontinuestring" var mystr2= "mystrytotestthesplit" var mystr3 = "demoexmapleto test" var mystr4 = "sample string to test spilt method with limit" val finalresult1 = mystr1.split("the", 0) val finalresult2 = mystr2.split("the", 2) val finalresult3 = mystr3.split(" ", 1) val finalresult4 = mystr4.split(" ", 5) println("Result for each string would be  ::") for ( r1 <-finalresult1 ) { println(r1) } println("*****************************") for ( r2 <-finalresult2 ) { println(r2) } println("*****************************") for ( r3 <-finalresult3 ) { println(r3) } println("*****************************") for ( r4 <-finalresult4 ) { println(r4) } }

Output:

Conclusion

Split is used to divide the string into several parts containing inside an array because this function return us array as result. We can also limit our array elements by using the ‘limit’ parameter. Otherwise, it will just contain all the parameters from the string that has been spitted.

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How Does Printf Function Work In Perl With Examples

Introduction to Perl printf

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Syntax:

The Perl scripts have default keywords, functions and scalar variables that means the variable accepts only the single value. It can be any numbers, letters, characters, digits with operators, but the first character of the variable always must be the letter or symbol; like the underscore operator, it’s not a digit.

$ variable name = value; printf(" ", $variable name); ---some Perl script logics--- How does the printf Function Work in Perl?

The Perl script printf() method prints only the user datas with the specified format specifiers on the screen. Actually, the function prints only the values, which is interpreted using the List datas through via using some format specifiers with the current result as the output. The filehandle concept is used for more space in the printf function, which handles the errors and exceptions by using exception classes and modules but the printf() function that prints the outputs by using some format specifiers. Generally, the printf function used some properties which are related to their fields and attributes.

Like that this function as many of the properties are to be same as the print function in the script. That’s the way it shows the better output format, which has already related to their user inputs. This is more similar to the field specifiers with co-related to their text string format specifiers with some delimiters like comma, semi-colon, underscore etc. Using some Regular Expressions concepts, the user inputs are to be validated and evaluated at the back end codes, showing the output on the user screen.

Examples of Perl printf

Given below are the examples of Perl printf:

Example #1

Code:

$var = 1562.45; $strn = ("Welcome To My Domain"); printf("Hi user your input is $%6.3f and converted output is %snn", $var, $strn);

Output:

Explanation:

In the above example, we used two variables like $var and $strn, and both the variables are used with some formats like $var variable assigned values are only the float type of numbers so the decimal point of results to be expected once the given variable is executed on the script like that it will be printed on the user screen.

Same time the next variable $strn accepts only the string values like “Welcome to My domain”, so it’s a string format it specifies the user information’s the printf function which has passed the calls to the string and also the field is specified to the variables and then it will insert into the memory locations for separate positions.

Example #2

Code:

printf("Welcome To My Domain:n"); printf("'%7d'n", 7); printf("'%7d'n", 596903); printf("'%7d'n", -94758); printf("'%7d'n", -904685); printf("n"); printf("Have a Nice Day:n"); printf("'%-8d'n", 785); printf("'%-8d'n", 1023894785); printf("'%-8d'n", -923487568); printf("'%-8d'n", -1293475); printf("n"); printf("n"); printf("Thanks for your interest in our application:n"); printf("'%09d'n", 3); printf("'%09d'n", 223); printf("'%09d'n", 9234687); printf("'%09d'n", -9238747); printf("'%09d'n", -2390478); printf("'%04d'n", 23); printf("'%04d'n", 'Welcome'); printf("'%04d'n", 'Welcome34'); printf("'%04d'n", -9243747); printf("'%04d'n", -4590478); printf("'%02d'n", 'Tyujk'); printf("'%02d'n", 'udg 4857 sdhfg'); printf("'%02d'n", 9238747); printf("'%03d'n", -93476538747); printf("'%02d'n", -239754478);

Output:

Explanation:

In the second example, we have used the same printf function in different ways. We can pass the inputs in numbers that will be the integer, float, decimal, short, long and double; it can be any of the types passing into the function, and it is converted into the required output format.

Some formats will follow the rules and control the fields with some heights, widths, and even other fields like printing left-justified, right-justified and zero-filled numbers stored in the variables for calculating their functions and storages the memory locations. It accepts both positive and negative numbers followed by its signatures and its relevance to their usages.

Example #3 printf("'%4s'n", "Welcome"); printf("'%76s'n", "Welcome"); printf("'%-76s'n", "Welcome"); printf("Welcome To My Domainn"); printf("Have a Nice Dayn"); printf("kjadgvds hasjkgdf ashdjfh jsdhfhj ajsgn"); printf("WelcometTo My Domainn"); printf("jasg hsagdfj skjdfhk skdh shfj sjn"); printf("Welcomen To My Domainn"); printf("kjshdfj kjahksj nkjh 2734 shj2983 3974y kn"); printf("C:UsersKripya-PCDocumentsarticles\n"); printf("hsdfjg jhajs kjaskdj kjaksd jaskn"); printf("weh jkhj kawj kwejk jwlkl lkwqejkwlkqjlkn"); printf("'%.3f'nn", 873.974); printf("87v hk jskj oi3y khk38 i347 bi3748n"); printf("'%.5f'n", 873.975); printf("jdshj38 3784 3748687j he83sk 94n"); printf("'%6.4f'n", 748.28374); printf("u3928 oiwu498y bu4589 io349 b3974n"); printf("'%7.14f'n", 734.837495); printf("3749 yiwe b843 sekk48905 je48n"); printf("'%06.4f'n", 83.8346); printf("2638 hy3w8 j8939475 jbi34y8b wu4985b 3u984y bu498n"); printf("'%-6.3f'nn", 857.98374); printf("26837 hjkwehr234yv hj gu4 s h  jkh jkjkh 3987n"); printf("'%-5.25f'n", 8347958.892365);

Output:

Explanation:

In the printf() function, we used both numbers and string characters in various format specifiers, and even some comparison operators are used and called with the same reference names. Because the printf function used some operators allowed with string formats and it has generated the reports with formats and even though the formatted holds with the some numbers that can be called through with the help of some conversions.

And these conversions will used some operators like the % sign with the end of the characters even though the same number of characters are assigned through its conversions. Using some exponential notations is required for the printf function.

Conclusion

In conclusion, they must have some built-in methods for printing the outputs on the screen for each programming languages. Likewise, each method has its own attributes and properties for showing its results as much as needed from the user perspective. In Perl, the printf function used some format specifiers for displaying the outputs on the user screen.

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How Strlen() Function Work In Php With Examples

Introduction to PHP strlen()

A large set of built-in functions make it easier for the coder or the developer to deal with string-related operations in PHP. The strlen() is one of the popular functions we can say of the PHP string to get the length of the string. As its name has been formed by combining two words, str, and len, str refers to the word string, and the length is the length itself. This function will return the length of the given string. This can be used to get the length of the string of any substring whenever required in the program.

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Syntax:

strlen(String)

strlen: It is the function itself.

String: This is the only parameter that takes as a string.

Return Type:

This returns the length of the string, and it will always be an Integer. There is nothing much with the syntax of this function.

How strlen() Function work in PHP?

Before moving ahead with the strlen, we must have a strong first upon which this function will be applied. It takes the string as a parameter and returns the length of that given string. We can use the characters, special characters, URL, numeric values, and special sequence characters as part of the given string.

The user of strlen ()

Code:

$string = "WELCOME TO INDIA"; echo "Lenght of the given String is: "; echo strlen($string);

The above line of code given the length output as 16 as ‘WELCOME TO INDIA’ contains 16 characters, including the spaces.

Use of strlen() with the special sequence character as a string

We should be careful while passing a string containing special sequence characters like n,t,r, etc. As we can see, we n the 2 characters, but it will be counted as one while we will pass this as a parameter with the strlen() function.

Code:

$string = "rHello"; // a string $length = strlen($string); // lenghtof the string

The above line of code gives the output as 6 rather than 7. If we replace with any other character, then we will see the length 7 as an output. This could be a bit tricky while coding in php using the string strlen() function.

Examples of PHP strlen()

Given below are the examples mentioned :

Example #1

Get the length of the given string.

Code:

<?php $string = "WELCOME TO INDIA"; $Length = strlen($string); echo "Length of the given String is: ".$Length;

Output:

As we can see, there is not much in using this function due to the simplicity of this string function. We can consider this function as one of the easiest functions of the PHP string in nature, passing the string as a parameter to get the length.

Example #2

Get the length of the given string after removing all the spaces from that string.

Code:

<?php $string = "WELCOME TO INDIA"; $lenght = strlen($string); echo "Actual string: ".$string; echo "nLength of the given String including space: ".$lenght; $stringAfterRemovedSpace = str_replace(" ","",$string); echo "nActual String with no spaces: ".$stringAfterRemovedSpace; echo "nLength of the given String excluding space: ".strlen($stringAfterRemovedSpace);

Output:

Example #3

An example program demonstrates the use of strlen() function with the string containing the special character and the escape character.

Code:

<?php $string = "n WELCOME TO INDIA"; $Length = strlen($string); echo "Length of the given String is: ".$Length;

Output:

In the above program, when we count the character, it will come up to 19 in the manual, but it the program output, we can see that the length is showing 18. The length is showing one character lesser just because n is being counted as one.

Example #4

Code:

<?php $string = "WELCOME TO INDIA"; $length = strlen($string); echo "Actual String: ".$string; echo "nLength: ".$length; echo "nReverse String: "; { echo $string[$i]; }

Output:

In the above example code, we can see that the reversing string in php comes up with various stages, which include the getting length of the string, too, because the length of the given string helps the developer of the coder to loop through the end to the first position of the string.

Example #5

Length of the string and length of the reverse string of the same.

Code:

<?php $string = "n WELCOME Home!!!"; $length = strlen($string); echo "Actual String: ".$string; echo "nLength: ".$length; echo "nReverse String: "; $reverseString = ""; { $reverseString .= $string[$i]; } echo $reverseString; echo "nLength of the Reverse String: ".strlen($reverseString);

Output:

Conclusion

Built-in function strlen() can be used to get the length of the string. A developer should be aware enough of the functioning of this function. For example, if n, t, etc. contains in a string, then this 2-character special sequence can be considered as one. This function can be used to get the length of a string to make the further required operations. If we are writing our own custom string reverse code, then we can use this function to calculate the actual length of the string.

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How Does Agg Operation Work In Pyspark?

Introduction to PySpark AGG

PYSPARK AGG is an aggregate function that is functionality provided in PySpark that is used for operations. The aggregate operation operates on the data frame of a PySpark and generates the result for the same. It operates on a group of rows and the return value is then calculated back for every group. The function works on certain column values that work out and the result is displayed over the PySpark operation.

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There are certain aggregate functions in PySpark that are used for the operation in the Python PySpark model. Some of them include the count, max ,min,avg that are used for the operation over columns in the data frame. The function calculates on the set of values given and returns a single value.

Syntax for PySpark Agg

The syntax is as given below:

c.agg({'ID':'sum'}).show()

c: The new data frame post group by.

agg: The Aggregate function to be used based on column value.

sum: Aggregation valueas Sum.

Output:

How does AGG Operation Work in PySpark?

Aggregation is a function that aggregates the data based on several logical rules over the PySpark data frame. It operates over a group of rows and calculates the single return value based on every group. The aggregate function returns the same values every time when they are called. We have a defined set of aggregate functions that operate on a group of data in PySpark and the result is then returned back in memory.

We have several defined aggregate function having a defined functionality for several functions, some of the aggregate function includes avg , max , min ,count , the sum that are used for various data level operation.

Let’s check the creation and working of the Aggregate function with some coding examples.

Examples of PySpark AGG

Let us see some examples of how PYSPARK  AGG operation works. Let’s start by creating simple data in PySpark.

data1  = [{'Name':'Jhon','ID':21.528,'Add':'USA'},{'Name':'Joe','ID':3.69,'Add':'USA'},{'Name':'Tina','ID':2.48,'Add':'IND'},{'Name':'Jhon','ID':22.22, 'Add':'USA'},{'Name':'Joe','ID':5.33,'Add':'INA'}]

A sample data is created with Name, ID, and ADD as the field.

a = sc.parallelize(data1)

RDD is created using sc.parallelize.

b = spark.createDataFrame(a) b.show()

Created Data Frame using Spark.createDataFrame.

Output:

Let us try to aggregate the data of this PySpark Data frame.

We will start by grouping up the data using data.groupBy() with the name of the column that needs to be grouped by.

c = b.groupBy('Name') c.count() c.count().show()

Output:

The chúng tôi function takes up the column name and the aggregate function to be used. Let’s check this with examples. The SUM function sums up the grouped data based on column value.

c.agg({'ID':'sum'}).show()

The MAX function checks out the maximum value of the function based on the column name provided.

c.agg({'ID':'max'}).show()

The COUNT function count of the total grouped data was included.

c.agg({'ID':'count'}).show()

Output:

The first function aggregates the data and collects the first element from the PySpark data frame.

c.agg({'ID':'first'}).show()

The last function aggregates the data and fetches out the last value.

c.agg({'ID':'last'}).show() c.agg({'ID':'avg'}).show()

Output:

The MEAN function computes the mean of the column in PySpark. It is an aggregate function.

c.agg({'ID':'mean'}).show()

The STDDEV function computes the standard deviation of a given column.

c.agg({'ID':'stddev'}).show()

The collect_list function collects the column of a data frame as LIST element.

c.agg({'ID':'collect_list'}).show()

The collect_set function collects the data of the data frame into the set and the result is displayed.

c.agg({'ID':'collect_set'}).show()

Output:

Note:

PySpark AGG is a function used for aggregation of the data in PySpark using several column values.

PySpark AGG function returns a single value out of it post aggregation.

PySpark AGG function is used after grouping of columns in PySpark.

PySpark AGG functions are having a defined set of operations for a list of columns passed to them.

PySpark AGG involves data shuffling and movement.

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Learn How Does The Trim Function Works In Perl?

Introduction to Perl trim

Perl trim removes the leading and trailing unwanted space of the Perl string. The trim is to cut the starting and ending whitespace of the Perl string and save the memory. Trim removes unnecessary white space of the Perl string and stores the required data in the database. The trim is useful to remove the space which is occurred before the initial and final character of the string. The trim is useful when the string wanted to cut both ends of unwanted space and save the necessary data.

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Syntax

The basic trim syntax is below.

This syntax is used to clear both sides of the white space of the string.

The basic Perl syntax used a regular expression to cut the leading and trailing unwanted space of the string.

The left side trim syntax is below.

$ left_perl_trim_variable =~  s/^s+//;

This syntax is used to clear the left side of the white space of the string.

The left side Perl syntax used a regular expression to cut the leading unwanted space of the Perl string.

The right-side trim syntax is below.

$ right_perl_trim_variable =~  s/s+$//;

This syntax is used to clear the right side of the white space of the string.

The right-side syntax used a regular expression to cut the trailing space of the Perl string.

How does the trim function work in Perl?

To download the Perl software and install it in your operating system of the device.

Make a file with the Perl extension in the device and save the file in the command line path.

Example:

helloo.pl or first pearl.pl

Create the string variable and Initialize with value for the trim.

$ perl_trim_function = "  Perl trim  ";

Use required trim syntax on the given Perl String variable.

Return the String after using trim syntax.

print " Perl trim string is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function n ";

The combined working step of trim is below.

$ perl_trim_function = "  Perl trim  "; print " original string is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function n "; print " Perl trim string is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function n "; Examples

Here are the following examples mentioned below.

Example #1

The basic trim example and Output.

Code:

$ perl_trim_function = "      Perl trim     "; print " original string is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function n "; print " Perl trim string is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function n n "; $ perl_trim_function1 ="    9, 8, 7, 6, 5    "; print " original value is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function1 n "; print " Perl trim value is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function1 n n n "; $ perl_trim_function2 = "     Perl trim, 1, 2    "; print " original value is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function2 n "; print " Perl trim value is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function2 n n n"; $ perl_trim_function3 = "     @, #, $, %, &    "; print " original value is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function3 n "; print " Perl trim value is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function3 n n n";

Output:

Example #2

Code:

$ perl_trim_function = "      left side Perl trim     "; print " original string is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function n "; $ perl_trim_function =~ s/^s+//; print " left side Perl trim string is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function n n "; $ perl_trim_function1 ="      9, 8, 7, 6, 5    "; print " original value is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function1 n "; $ perl_trim_function1 =~ s/^s+//; print " left side Perl trim value is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function1 n n n "; $ perl_trim_function2 = "      left side Perl trim, 1, 2    "; print " original value is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function2 n "; $ perl_trim_function2 =~ s/^s+//; print " left side Perl trim value is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function2 n n n"; $ perl_trim_function3 = "       @, #, $, %, &    "; print " original value is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function3 n "; $ perl_trim_function3 =~ s/^s+//; print " left side Perl trim value is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function3 n n n";

Output:

Example #3

The right side trims example and Output.

Code:

$ perl_trim_function = "      right side Perl trim     "; print " original string is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function n "; $ perl_trim_function =~ s/s+$//; print " right side Perl trim string is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function n n "; $ perl_trim_function1 ="      9, 8, 7, 6, 5    "; print " original value is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function1 n "; $ perl_trim_function1 =~ s/s+$//; print " right side Perl trim value is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function1 n n n "; $ perl_trim_function2 = "      right side Perl trim, 1, 2    "; print " original value is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function2 n "; $ perl_trim_function2 =~ s/s+$//; print " right side Perl trim value is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function2 n n n"; $ perl_trim_function3 = "       @, #, $, %, &    "; print " original value is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function3 n "; $ perl_trim_function3 =~ s/s+$//; print " right side Perl trim value is below. n "; print" $ perl_trim_function3 n n n";

Output:

Example #4

The trim uses an array example and output.

Code:

@perl_trim_function = ("  basic  ","   perl       ","   trim   "); print " original string is below. n "; print" @perl_trim_function n "; print " Perl trim string is below. n "; print" @perl_trim_functions n n "; @perl_trim_function = ("  Left  ","   side    ","   perl       ","   trim   "); print " original string is below. n "; print" @perl_trim_function n "; @perl_trim_functions =  grep(s/^s+//g, @perl_trim_function); print " left side Perl trim string is below. n "; print" @perl_trim_functions n n "; @perl_trim_function = ("  right  ","   side    ","   perl       ","   trim   "); print " original string is below. n "; print" @perl_trim_function n "; @perl_trim_functions =  grep(s/s+$//g, @perl_trim_function); print " right side Perl trim string is below. n "; print" @perl_trim_functions n n ";

Output:

Description:

The grep() method is used for array elements and trim as per users requirements.

The g operator is used for the global variable and chooses all elements for trim.

Conclusion

Trim is useful for removing the whitespace of the string in Perl technology. The trim is saving the memory space of the database and removes unnecessary spaces of the Perl string.

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This is a guide to Perl trim. Here we discuss How does the trim function works in Perl and Examples along with the codes and outputs. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

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