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Introduction to QlikView Tools

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One can utilize QlikView in mobile applications to access Qlik documents. Furthermore, QlikView is user-friendly and requires no special skills to operate, making it a popular choice for monitoring business processes and operations in various departments such as marketing, sales, and human resources. The tool supports ODBC connectivity, which allows users to access numerous data sources.

Different QlikView Tools

The following are the various QlikView tools available:

1. Qlik Power Tools

Qlik Power Tools are a collection of small software programs that provide additional functionalities to QlikView. These tools are primarily used for troubleshooting purposes and are not official Qlik products, i.e., they come without a warranty. There are different types of QlikView power tools available, each serving a specific purpose:

This QlikView Power tool provides facilities to repair large shared files and legacy files. It allows users to view server objects and other files in the Qlik server repositories. This tool also supports viewing the content of binary shared files to repair the loaded files on it.

b. Qv Server Object Connector:

Server objects are available when working with documents on the Qlik server. This tool is a customized data connector to load data from shared files to a document for analysis.

c. QlikView Server Agent:

This tool helps in managing server services more elegantly on many servers at multiple sites from a single location. It is easy to use and manages stopping and starting services at a time.

d. QlikView Server Super-Agent:

It is a powerful tool that is free of charge and acts as a monitoring tool for the QlikView server. It allows users to perform hands-on exercises with data structures and activate the user by sampling a test on every function based on call-based usage of data from the QMS API.

e. QMS API Client:

QMS API Client is an API that allows users to interact with QMS API functions on the QlikView server without needing to write code. It lets users work with data structures and test each function by making calls to the QMS API.

f. Qv User Manager:

This tool prompts the CALs process by assigning and removing CALs used in CSV format. In other words, it helps to clear documents that were not used in recent days and monitors the QLik server remotely.

g. QvsDetector:

This tool tests the QVS machine and helps in detecting QVS from the server on the same network. It helps to fix issues in the customer environment by detecting QVS with the same credentials.

h. Server Object Handler:

This tool takes responsibility for monitoring and administrating server objects in documents that are located remotely. It also enables the ownership changing process on a selected degree of server objects.

i. Schedule Migration Tool:

It outlines how to remove old work from a distributed service process by having issues in the Publisher service after an upgrade. It is the responsibility of QlikView administrators who consider migrating from version 9 to 11/10. Since shared storage is not used, it is recommended to run the service with domain service.

j. Shared File Repair:

This command-line tool is preferably used as a cleaning tool. It helps in defragmenting a shared file to decrease its size. It provides a GUI to perform repair functions on more shared files.

This tool performs an object handler function on the batch script.

l. XMLDBsviewer:

This tool identifies users and groups in Qlikview and permits searching and editing tasks in the QlikView Publisher Repository database in XML format.

2. Qlik Developer Tools

Qlik Developer Tools are designed to help developers explore the resources built by connecting to other developers and within the Qlik Sense desktop. The developer tool view can be accessed to link multiple data information in QlikView. The various developer tools available are:

a. Qviewer: 

A paid tool used to view QVD file contents in a tabular form and named as one of the top apps. It helps manage and validate data or schemas.

b. QlikView Document Analyzer:

This tool analyzes the QlikView document to extract metadata. Users can efficiently view document views in several aspects and monitor their document using this analyzer tool.

c. QVSource:

d. NPrinting:

It is a reporting mechanism that generates reports and distributes them to users via email for publishing.

e. TortoiseSVN:

f. SnagIT:

This tool has built-in program software to read screen recording and screen capture. Users can edit, share, and organize the visuals to grab user attention.

g. Notepad ++:

This tool is popular for its text editing tool and uses Qlik Language definitions. They are the read-me file with basic instructions.

h. Screenshots:

This is a popular tool for taking screenshots of selected regions.

i. Mapping tools:

This tool maps GIS locations and provides sufficient points on the maps.

j. Perfmon:

This tool is used for performance monitoring and explains configurations. It monitors CPU, speed, network performance, bandwidth, and the processor’s clock counters.

k. RightQlik:


QlikView tool stands out due to its visual analytics features, making dashboards visually appealing to users. Furthermore, it has robust client-server communication owing to the QlikView server in the backend system. QlikView is considered to be the business intelligence tool of the future.

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Quick Guide To Video Annotation Tools And Types In 2023

Video annotation tools make it possible to annotate difficult and complicated videos with higher accuracy, precision, and consistency. The global market for data annotation tools is projected to surpass $3 billion by 2028.

This article explores the types of video annotation tools and how to choose the best one for your business.

Before choosing the most suitable annotation tool for your business needs, you need to know the types of video annotation techniques. This will give you an understanding of your annotation requirements.

2D boxes: In this type of video annotation, square and rectangular boxes are used to mark objects in the videos. Annotators draw boxes close to the object of interest.

3D boxes: As the name suggests, this method uses 3D cuboid boxes to label the objects allowing the AI model to accurately measure all 3 dimensions of the object and its interaction with surrounding objects.

Polygon Labelling: When the object of interest has an irregular shape, polygon labeling provides more precision. This requires the annotator to know precision labeling.

Landmarks / Keypoints: Keypoint labeling is done by adding points to the objects. This is useful for capturing the movement of facial expressions, body parts, and other moving skeletal objects. 

Lines & Splines: One of the main purposes of lines and splines is to identify lanes and boundaries of an area that are popularly used in autonomous vehicle systems.

How to approach video annotation

Before deciding on which video annotation tool to choose or whether to outsource the service entirely, take the following steps:

1. Recognize the need

Before choosing your video annotation tool, you need to clearly understand what value you want to achieve from it. Why do you wish to annotate your video data? If you wish to use video annotation for a long-term project, then acquiring a dedicated tool and upgrading your workforce would be a better option. On the other hand, if you have short-term goals, such as using a supermarket surveillance system, then outsourcing would be a more economical choice. 

2. The selection criteria

For outsourcing the service, you need to consider technical aspects as well as financial aspects. A video annotation tool should be considered:

Based on efficiency: The tool should have a user-friendly interface; it should also have hotkeys and other features which increase annotation efficiency

Based on functionality: The video annotation tool should be selected based on the types of labeling you require. Considering the previous section on the types of video annotation and the nature of the project are important factors in choosing the right tool,

Based on formatting: Video annotation can be done in various formats, including COC JSON, Pascal Voc XML, Ternsorflow TFRecord, etc. Having a tool that directly converts to various formats can be more efficient.

Based on application: Consider whether your project requires a web-based or an offline application. Offline tools are better for private or confidential data since it is risky to upload that data to third-party tools. 

3. Thoroughly evaluate

The next step is to search and evaluate available vendors and tools on the market. It is important to ensure that the vendor provides the flexibility and post-purchase services that align with your annotation needs. 

You can also check out our sortable and filterable video annotation tools and data annotation services lists.

Further reading

If you have further questions please do not hesitate to contact us:

Shehmir Javaid

Shehmir Javaid is an industry analyst at AIMultiple. He has a background in logistics and supply chain management research and loves learning about innovative technology and sustainability. He completed his MSc in logistics and operations management from Cardiff University UK and Bachelor’s in international business administration From Cardiff Metropolitan University UK.





Guide To Different Types Of Operators Used In Go

Introduction to Go, Operators,

Any programming language comes with certain operators that are used to perform some logical/mathematical operations. Operators are typically constructed that typically work like functions. Operators are basically denoted by special characters and used for additions(+), subtractions(-) and even like assignments(=)

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Languages generally have built-in operators, and some languages allow user-defined operators.

The elements or numbers on which the operator is applied are called operands. The position of an operator with respect to operands can be prefix, postfix or Infix.

Different Go Operators

Different operators are as follows:

Arithmetic Operators

Logical Operators

Relational operators

Bitwise Operators

Assignment Operators

Miscellaneous/Other operators

1. Arithmetic

Let us assume a=6, b=3

Add: This is used for the addition of numbers

Eg: c = a+b ;

Subtract: This is used for the subtraction of numbers

Eg: c = a-b;

Multiply: This is used for the multiplication of numbers

Divide: This is used for the division of numbers

Eg: c = a/b;//c gives 2

Modulus: This is used to get the remainder after a division of numbers

Eg: c = a%b;

Increment: This is used for increasing the integer value by 1

Eg: a++

Decrement: This is used for decreasing the integer value by 1

Eg: a– 2. Logical

Logical operations like AND, OR operations, NOT are done by these operators.

Let x = 0, y=1

AND (&&): If both operands are non-zero valued, the AND of them becomes true.

Eg: x && y = false

NOT (!): Not is used to reverse the logical value of the operand.

Eg: !x = true

!y = false

!(x&&y) = true

3. Relational

Relational operators return true or false based on operations on operands.

Let a = 3; b = 4; c = 3;

Equals (==): This returns true if the operands are equal

Eg: a==c returns true

a==b returns false

NotEquals (!=): This returns true if operands are not equal

Eg: a!=c returns false

a!=b returns true

LessThan (<): This returns true if the left operand is less than the right

E.g.: a<b returns true

LessThanOrEqualTo (<=): This returns true if the left operand is greater than or equal to the right operand

E.g.: a<=b returns true

4. BitWise

These Operators work bit by bit and output the logic based on bit operations.

Below is the truth table for reference:



0 0 0



1 0 1



0 0 1


1 1 1 1


Eg: Let A = 10, B = 13

A = 0000 1100

B = 0000 1101

&: Used to perform bitwise AND Operation

Eg: A & B = 0000 1100 = 12

^: Used to perform XOR operation

Eg: A ^ B = 0000 0001 = 1

<<: This is the left shift which is used to shift the bits to the left by a number that is specified on the right

E.g., A << 2: This would shift the A value by 2

i.e: 0000 0010

0000 1000 = 8

0000 0001 = 1

5. Assignment

These are used for assigning values from the right operand to the left based on the operator.

Let a=4, b = 2

=: Used to assign the value simply from right to the left.

Eg: a = b

+=: Used to add the value and assign it to the left operand

-=: Used to subtract the value and assign it to the left operand

*=: Used to multiply the value and assign it to the left operand

/=: Used to divide the value and assign it to the left operand

%=: Used to assign the reminder after division

<<=: Used to left shift and assign the value to the variable

&=: Bitwise AND Assignment.

^=: Bitwise XOR Assignment.

6. Other/Miscellaneous

& and * are two more operators that Go supports

&: This is used to get the actual address of a variable

Usage: &a;

*: This is used to get the pointer to a variable

Usage: *a

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Advantage Different Types Of Mutual Funds (Futures Guide)

Types of Mutual Funds – An interesting fact about mutual funds is that they are Split into numerous divisions based on the nature of the investment, closure of the scheme, and under-tax incentive schemes as well as the nature of payout. So, there is a typology within the categorizations which points to just how diverse mutual funds can be. The golden rule of mutual fund investing is that the higher the stakes, the bigger the reward. So, is a mutual fund in mutual interest? It depends on the match between the fund’s direction and the investor’s needs. Let’s explore just how many different types of mutual funds there are.

That said, mutual funds offer many benefits that trading on stocks does not. But along with these mutual funds benefits come the risks as well. Read on to learn more about the various kinds of top mutual funds today.

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Mutual Funds -Varying Typologies

Based on the time of closure of the scheme, the mutual fund’s basics can also be divided into open and closed-ended schemes. Where there is no specific date when the scheme will be closed, it is open-ended. So, while open-ended funds are more liberal in their outlook, close-ended funds are fairly narrow-minded! While debt funds or schemes are also called income funds, diversified funds or schemes are called balanced funds.

Based on tax incentive schemes, mutual funds can split into tax saving and not tax saving funds. Another typology is possible based on periodicity/time of payouts, such as dividends. The categorization is as follows:

Dividend Paying Fund Schemes

Reinvestment Schemes

Schemes can also be in various permutations and combinations. For example, equity funding is open ended and can have a dividend-paying plan. What is important is that mutual funds work for the mutual benefit of investors and companies.

Look before your leap is a fit adage for the mutual fund markets. Before investment, one should be clear about the nature of the scheme and choose as per risk aversion and periodicity of dividends from the scheme.

Mutual Funds: Various Types Index Funds

They are those mutual funds that invest in a portfolio of securities representing the entire particular market or its piece. An example is the entire stock market or part of it, such as international stocks or small firms. Funds can be built to duplicate the performance of their relevant market. Index funds track the market’s indexes. These funds are affordably priced and easy to maintain. For instance, an NSE index fund will aim to provide the same return as the NSE index.

Actively Managed Funds

It is actively managed by professionals or portfolio managers who pick stocks that match investment strategies. Concerning the market index, such funds aim to outperform it. For example, rather than tracking the NSE index, active stock managers in India will try to outdo the index. Investors have to pay managers for their work, and it is up to the mutual fund managers to outsmart the index.

Lifecycle or Target Date Funds

It invests in a combination of bonds and stocks. These mutual funds originate from investments in several funds. The allocation of the fund to its investments changes over a while. With age, the investor turns older, and the ratio of money allocated to stocks versus bonds becomes conservative. It works well if you have a portfolio manager to monitor the funds.

Lifestyle funds involve a blend of stock and bond funds that do not change over time. Lifestyle funds can be moderate, aggressive, or conservative.

Tax-managed Funds

Balanced Funds

Basically, those funds invest in a combination of stocks and bonds. These funds typically have a conservative mix of close to 60% in stocks and the remaining pre cutting in bonds. Balanced funds are a combination of growth and income funds. They provide current income and more growth later. Such mutual funds have low to moderate stability. Further striking an even keel, they promise moderate mutual funds returns though the investor does experience some risk.

Income Funds

They are those mutual funds that invest in fixed-income securities, generating a regular income. Though this is a stable option, it is not without its risks. The income fund’s interest rates are sensitive to a certain degree.

Open or Close: The Many Options

A close-ended fund has outstanding fixed shares that operate for a fixed duration of around a decade. These funds have a set redemption period and are only available briefly. They appear on the stock exchange. All year long, flexible funds are available for subscription. These are open-end funds because investors have the flexibility to purchase or sell their investment at any point in time. These do not appear on the stock exchange, in contrast to close ended funds.

Opening a World of Possibilities: Different Open-Ended Funds

Debt/income plans use debentures, government securities, and other debt instruments to route a significant portion of the investable cash. With this kind of mutual fund, there is a low risk and low returns. Capital appreciation is low as against equity mutual funds.

Money market mutual fund schemes aim at capital preservation whereby gains will follow through as interest rates are higher on these funds as against bank deposits. These funds pose less risk and are highly liquid. These funds are ideal for investors who want short-term instruments while waiting for better options. Reasonable returns are the USP of these funds.

Equity or growth funds are popular mutual funds among retail investors. For long-term benefits, this is the best open-ended fund. It could be a high-risk investment for the short term, but it more than makes up for it in the long term.

Index schemes follow passive investment strategies and benchmark indices such as Sensex and Nifty. Another type of open-ended funds is sectoral funds invested in specific sectors such as IT, pharmaceuticals, or capital market segments such as small, medium, and large caps. The risks are high, but so are the returns.

Another type of open-ended scheme is tax saving which offers long-term opportunities and tax benefits. Called Equity Linked Savings schemes, they have a 3-year lock-in period.

Balanced funds are open-ended funds to enjoy growth and income at regular intervals and are perfect for investors who are cautious yet risk-taking.

Closing the Investment Gap Safely: Close-Ended Mutual Fund Schemes

Close-ended mutual funds have a stipulated maturity period, and investors can invest during the New Fund Offer period for a limited time. These are protective mutual funds that invest and guard capital simultaneously. A close-ended mutual fund is capital protection. The principal remains secure in this kind of fund while receiving acceptable returns. This mutual fund actively invests in high-quality fixed-income securities with limited exposure to equities.

Fixed Maturity Plans, or FMPs, are mutual fund schemes within a specific maturity period. Schemes include debt instruments that mature in line with a particular period and earn interest components of securities within a portfolio. Investors refer to the interest component of fixed-income securities as coupons. Passive functioning characterizes fixed maturity plans, which incur lower costs than actively managed plans.

Interval Mutual Funds: Best of Both Worlds

Operating within the combination of open and close-ended schemes, they allow investors to trade units at predetermined intervals.

Managing the Mutual Fund: Active Versus Passive Distinction

Actively managed funds mean there are active attempts by the portfolio manager to outperform the market or trade benchmarks. Passive management includes holdings where the securities to measure and replicate the mutual fund’s performance of benchmark indexes.

One of a Kind: Specialty Funds Funds of Funds: The Bigger Picture

These funds invest in other funds and are similar to balanced funds. They have higher MER as against stand-alone mutual funds.

The Philosophy of Investing: Many Approaches

Portfolio managers follow different investment philosophies and styles of investing to meet a fund’s investment objectives. Funds with different investment styles permit diversification beyond the type of investment and are a good means of reducing risk.

Top-Down Approach: This approach towards investing looks at the larger economic picture and invests in specific companies which look set to perform well in the long term.

Bottom-Up Approach: This focuses on choosing specific companies that perform well regardless of the state of the industry and/or economy.

A blend of the two generally follows portfolio managers overseeing a global portfolio.

Technical analysis is another style of investing that relies on past market data to detect the direction of investment prices.

Around the World: Mutual Funds by Region

Global or international funds are those where the investor invests anywhere in the world. The benefit of these funds is that they are a component of a well-balancing portfolio that carries country and political risks while reducing risk through diversification.

Sector funds are targeted at specific sectors of the economy, including health, finance, and biotechnology. It is a mutual fund scheme that is extremely risky and immensely profitable.

Regional funds focus on certain parts of the world, like a particular region or nation. These mutual fund stocks make investing easier in foreign countries, but you have to be ready for a high percentage of losses. Local factors tend to be very influential in deciding the fate of such mutual funds. From political leadership to economic status, the region’s dynamics affect the mutual fund and the money made from it.


  Rob Chernow said that the best part about mutual funds is that they offer safety and diversification but do not necessarily offer diversification or safety.

Many analysts have discussed how mutual funds are subject to risks, and the offer document is an important consideration. Mutual funds have a risk-reward trade-off whereby the higher the risk, the greater the reward.

The only trick is minimizing the risk and maximizing the gains. But the catch is that reward is only possible where there is a risk. Mutual funds are a form of investment that is just as risky as futures trading the only difference is that you are entrusting the capital to a portfolio manager who is a skilled professional adept at getting the rewards without incurring the risks. Choosing the right mutual fund and how to invest in mutual funds can have immediate and long-term financial repercussions. Cash is a fact, but profit is an opinion. Mutual funds make that opinion a certainty.

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Redis Data Types: A Comprehensive Guide To Types And Commands

Definition of Redis Data Types

Redis data types is one of the most famous NoSQL databases, which finds its application in caching, storing, and managing user sessions, ad servicing, and recommendations. Redis is an open-source database server that stores data as key-value pairs in RAM memory. The keys manage, delete, and perform various operations on the values paired with them. The value can be any one of the data types supported by Redis. Some of the data types are strings, lists, hashes, sets, sorted sets, hyperloglogs, and bitmaps. Some of the commands are GET, LPUSH, HSET, and SISMEMBER.

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Key Highlights

Redis is an open-source database server that stores data in RAM as key-value pairs, which makes Redis remarkably fast.

Data types pair the keys with the values so you can perform various operations on them.

Some common Redis data types are strings, sets, sorted sets, hashes, lists, hyperloglogs, and bitmaps.

Each data type has its own command set for managing the access pattern regularly, providing transaction support, and performing a large number of operations in a constant time.

Redis Data Types

Data types and commands that are supported by Redis are given below.

a) Strings

Strings are a widely used Redis data type. It stores data in a sequence of bytes and is binary-safe.

Each string can store data up to 512 MB.

The data can be text, integers, floats, videos, images, and audio files.


String data type allows 3 types of commands.

SET command: It helps to create a new key-value pair in the database.

GET command: It helps to fetch the value of the specified key.

DEL command: It deletes the specified key and its value.


The command SET stores the value “project” in a key eduCBA.

The GET command retrieves and displays the value “project”.

The DEL command deletes the value in the key eduCBA and returns the number of values deleted.

b) Lists

Lists are strings sorted in an ordered sequence.

Lists allow simultaneous insertion of values both in the head and tail ends of the lists at a constant time.

The addition of values at a constant time is very helpful for faster writing operations.


LPUSH: It helps to push the value to the left end of the list.

RPUSH: It helps to push the value to the right end of the list.

LRANGE: It provides a range of items in the lists.

LPOP/RPOP: It helps to display and remove the value from both the right and left ends.

LINDEX: It helps to extract value from the specified position within the lists.


The addition of values to the list using LPUSH and RPUSH displays the number of values in the lists.

LRANGE provides the values in lists between 0 and 7.

c) Hashes

A Redis hash stores a large number of unordered objects or keys in minimal space.

It maps the unordered keys to the string values.

The value should always be a Redis string.

Other complex data structures are not allowed in Hash.

The Redis hash can store more than 4 billion key-value pairs.


HSET: It assigns a value to a key in the hash.

HGET: It fetches values associated with a key within the hash.

HGETALL: It displays the whole content of the hash.

HDEL: It deletes a key and its associated value from the hash.


The HSET command checks for the existence of the value.

It provides the output of the number of values entered in the hash.

Similarly, when the HDEL command is executed, it deletes the value and displays the number of values in the hash.

The HGETALL command displays all values in the hash key.

d) Sets

Sets are unordered collections of string values, and hence they prohibit duplication of data.

Since they are in an unordered sequence, you cannot add values to the right and left sides of the sets.

The values of the sets are very unique and non-repeatable.


SADD: It helps to insert a value into a set.

SISMEMBER: It helps to find the existence of value in a set.

SMEMBERS: It helps to fetch and display all values from a set.

SREM: It deletes the specified value from the set.

SRANDMEMBER: It helps to fetch a random set value from a set.

The SADD command adds the value “redis” to the set and returns the integer (1) since the number of values added is 1.

The SMEMBERS display all values in the set.

e) Sorted Sets

Sorted sets, otherwise known as Zests, are similar to the mix of Redis sets and Redis hash.

The key-value pairs in the sorted sets are made of distinctive string keys known as members and the value is known as scores.

The scores are nothing but a floating point value that sorts the elements or keys in the desired order.

If two scores are added to the same value, the last added score will exist in the sorted set by replacing the previously added one.


ZADD: It helps to insert a key-value pair with a score into the sorted set.

ZRANGE: It displays values in the sorted order from low to high, based on the range of scores. The actual score values are displayed by using the WITHSCORES option.

ZREVRANGE: It displays the values of a sorted set arranged from high to low based on the range of scores.

ZRANGEBYSCORE: It displays values from the sorted set based on the predefined range of scores.

ZREM: It helps to delete values from a sorted set.


The command ZADD adds the value “redis” to the key along with the score 1.

The ZRANGE along with the WITHSCORES command displays the values and their scores sorted in ascending order.

f) HyperLogLogs

Hyperloglogs (HLLs) are probabilistic data structures.

It gives the count of the distinctive values in a collection.

Generally, the counting process requires memory equal to the number of values, whereas HLLs use fixed memory and reduce memory consumption.

The maximum memory size of HLLs is 12KB.

The Redis server stores the HLLs as Redis strings.

HLLs provide an approximate count of the values.


PFADD: It helps to insert one or several values into Hyperloglogs.

PFCOUNT: It helps to display the count of unique values from Hyperloglogs.

PFMERGE: It combines two different HyperLogLogs into a single Hyperloglog.


The PFADD command adds the value “redis” to the key eduCBA and displays the count as 1.

The PFMERGE combines the two values of the keys eduCBA and tutorial.

g) Bitmaps

Redis allows bit-level operations on strings known as bitmaps.

Bitwise operations are executed using commands in two ways: operation on single-bit and operations on groups of bits.

It saves more memory space when storing information.


SETBIT: It establishes the bits based on a 0 or 1 value.

GETBIT: It helps to fetch the bit value specified by a key.

BITOP: It helps to perform bitwise operations between strings.

BITPOS: It obtains the first bit with a specified value of 1 or 0 in a string.

BITCOUNT: It counts the number of bits set to 1 in a string.


The SETBIT considers the first argument as a bit number and the second argument as the value of the bit.

The GETBIT displays the value of bit 11.

Benefits of Redis Data Types and Commands

Since Redis stores data in RAM, it provides a super-fast website browsing experience and session storage.

Easy setup and faster access are the greatest benefits of Redis.

Redis has a unique hashing mechanism called Redis Hashing.

It exhibits a data replication process, hence any change in the master node will affect the slave node, and the data will be updated automatically.

It has a mass insertion mechanism that helps in loading millions of pieces of data into the cache in a short period.


Redis is extremely fast and is used in various applications. Each Redis data type finds its own applications to perform various tasks. Some applications are as follows: traffic balancing applications, social media posts, user data, ordered leader boards of player scores in an online competition, and unique user interactions or queries.

FAQs Q1. What are the data types supported in the Redis database?


The Redis database commonly supports seven types of data, such as strings, sets, sorted sets, hashes, lists, hyperloglogs, and bitmaps.

Q2. Why is Redis super-fast?


Redis is a type of NoSQL database server that stores data on disk, it stores data in RAM, which is much faster than on disk.

It supports well-organized lower-level data structures.

Redis also supports input/output multiplexing and a single-threaded execution loop for efficient execution.

Q3. What is the maximum number of keys that can be handled by Redis in a single instance?


In a single instance, Redis can handle up to 2^32 keys irrespective of data types. It was proved that per instance, Redis can handle up to 250 million keys.

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Process And Types Of Communication

Think about one day you wake up, and you cannot talk. Or if you are stuck in a room with a crying baby and have no idea why it is crying or what the baby wants? Sounds frustrating, right? The ability to talk or ‘communicate ‘ can be taken for granted. Nevertheless, one needs to remember that it is something central to our everyday life.

What is Communication?

Derived from the Latin word ‘communis,’ meaning common, communication implies a common ground for understanding. Humans have a compulsive need to speak with one another. The foundation of interpersonal relations is mutual understanding; without communication, it cannot happen. In addition to being a social animal, man is a communicative being. He can verbalize his thoughts, making him empowered. Culture and civilization would not have developed to this position without communication.

Experts have given various definitions of communication. According to some, the interchange of thought or information brings about mutual understanding and confidence or good human relation. For others, communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions, or emotions which involves two or more people. Nevertheless, some say that it is an aggregate of all that one does as one try to create meaning in the minds of others.

Types of Communication

Communication can be of different types, and it can be distinguished based on the number of people addressed, the form of addressing, the number of people involved, the flow of information, and so on.

Intrapersonal Communication

Intrapersonal communication is meant when someone says they “communicate with oneself.” We can all speak with ourselves internally by paying attention to the inner voice, and our interactions with people are influenced by how we mentally process information. Even though it may not be obvious and does not directly involve other people, intrapersonal communication still impacts practically all forms of engagement.

Dyadic Communication

The interaction between two people is frequently referred to as a dyad, and the type of communication that takes place is called dyadic communication. Dyadic communication may occur face-to-face or through mediated channels such as phone, email, text message, instant message, and social networking sites. Most interpersonal communication takes a dyadic form, among the best indicators of how well a relationship will turn out. In one study, researchers discovered that by observing how family members interacted through joking, sharing daily updates, and discussing their relationships, they could accurately predict whether they were happy with one another. For instance, even in bigger settings like classrooms, parties, and workplaces, communication frequently involves several dynamic dyadic interactions.

Interpersonal Communication

Although some people mistakenly believe that dyadic communication is the same as interpersonal communication, not all two-person interactions can be regarded as interpersonal in the truest sense. Interpersonal communication has characteristics that are not exclusive to two people, and they might be seen in trios or even in compact clusters. A different way to put it is that interpersonal communication entails two-way interactions between individuals who are a part of a special and irreplaceable relationship and treat one another as an individual.

Organizational Communication

When people come together to accomplish a common objective, larger, more permanent groups of people communicate within the organization. Organizations exist for various objectives, including economic, nonprofit, charitable, religious causes, political, medical, and even recreational.

Mass Communication

Newspapers, magazines, television, radio, blogs, websites, and other print and electronic media are examples of media used for mass communication. There are various ways in which this sort of communication is different from an interpersonal, small group, organizational, and public communication. First, most mass communications are directed at a substantial audience without connecting the sender and recipients. Second, many messages distributed through mass communication platforms are created, or at the very least funded, by big businesses. Mass communication is significantly less personal and more of a product than other forms of communication. Most mass messages are still controlled by corporate, media, and governmental sources, who decide what messages will be conveyed to consumers, how they will be put together, and when they will be provided. Even though blogs have given common people the opportunity to reach vast audiences, these sources still control the majority of mass messaging.

Process of Communication

Sorting, choosing, and delivering symbols in such a way as to aid the receiver in understanding and forming in his mind the meaning that existing in the communicator’s mind is a key component of communication. Communication is more than one act, whether speaking, writing, listening, or reading. The process is dynamic and transactional, and it has six stages.

The sender has an idea − The sender has an idea that they want to convey. The process of communication begins with this stage.

Sender transforms the idea into a message − The second step in communication involves actively converting the idea or notion into a message. Encoding is the process by which the sender transforms their idea into a message their recipient will understand. They do this by choosing the message’s words, tone, organization, style, duration of the gestures, and facial expressions based on their idea, the audience, and personal preferences or mood.

The sender transmits the message − They choose a communication channel, such as a telephone, computer, letter, memo, report, face-to-face exchange, etc., via which they physically deliver their message to their receiver. Depending on the message, the audience’s location, the necessity for speed, and the formality of the occasion, one will choose a certain channel and media. Transmitting the message would be the first task when the idea or thought has taken shape in mind. To do this, a communication channel is employed, using both verbal and nonverbal communication. This is the third stage of the communication process.

The receiver gets the message − The recipient must first receive the message for communication to take place. The recipient must read a letter before it can be understood. The audience must be able to hear and pay attention to the speaker if they are giving a speech. Once the message has been delivered, the recipient must “listen” and interpret the transmission.

The receiver sends feedback − The last link in the communications process is feedback or the receiver’s answer. After receiving it, the receiver reacts somehow to the message and communicates that reaction to the speaker. The feedback stage of communication is crucial because it allows the speaker to determine how well received their message was. By observing the audience’s reaction, the speaker can determine whether or not they are getting their point across. Feedback can be communicated vocally or nonverbally, which is how the communication process is finished.


Communication is a dynamic process that is often taken for granted. Failed communication can lead to many misunderstandings. Imagine if a pilot misunderstood the command given by air traffic controllers. Losing direction or missing landing, or even a crash is possible. Learning to master the skill of communicating efficiently is crucial to saving ourselves from big troubles.

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