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Introduction to Right Decision

A right decision is taken with a clear and rational mind, free from bias, emotions, or external pressure. While the outcome of a decision may not always be favorable, the right decision is based on sound reasoning and judgment to do what is best in the given situation. Right decision-making is a great skill to master. Right decision-making refers to choosing among all the options that seem right for the individual, organization, country, or world. All right decisions are not as impactful as few are.

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How to Make the Right Decision?

If you are in your mid-career, you would know how important it is to make the right decision the first time. It can make or break a company. For example, an executive decides to let go of a client without considering the consequences. Now it turns out that the company’s competitor got the same client, and that single client has generated double what they earned in the last quarter. Now, what would the executive feel?

In this article, you will learn how to divide your decisions into different categories and how to create a decision framework for your big-impactful right choices.

What to think before making any right decision?

Now everyone makes the right decision. Primarily based on the given moment in time!

Before you know how to make the right decision, you need to know the elements which can support your decision in every sphere of your life, especially your career. So, to improve one’s ability to choose the right option from a series of alternatives, one needs to know what to do.

1. Limitations/Constraints

You will not be able to know everything about everything. When a career decision is due, your time is limited to making the right decision. So what would you do then? You need to know your limitations. Thus it’s always better if you can set a series of constraints.

For example, if you want to choose a specialization, set time, institution, money, and campus placement constraints. Suppose you put a time of 15 days to decide what profession you should choose. And you chose the institutions (suppose the best 20 and no more). You also chose how much money you would spend on hiring a career counselor to help you with the right decision-making. Lastly, you will check the placements provided by the institutions (in different specializations) only in India. Now you can see that you need to make the right decision within the purview of these constraints.

Once you limit your area of thinking, you can immediately improve your right decision.

2. Opportunity Cost

Suppose you are the manager of a product company. You’re about to launch a product. How would you decide to go for market testing before launching a product? How about going ahead with it? Here’s a simple thing you need to understand: opportunity cost.

Suppose your product launch becomes extraordinarily successful due to market testing. Or else the market testing may not be successful. We will not go with success. Let’s see what happens when we pick the worst scenario. If you imagine that market testing is a failure, what else can you do with the money if you don’t invest it? You may use it to improve the product features. You may enhance your value chain or hire a vendor to provide great value. So, if you choose to go for market testing, your opportunity cost would equal the price of failure plus what you could do if you had not invested the money in market testing. Think about it.

3. Impact

If you hire a person and he leaves within ten days, there will be a loss for the company. But if you compare it with the strategic failure of the company, the impact is much lesser. So, at the beginning of making the right decision, always consider the implications of wrong choices. No, there’s no point in becoming risk-averse. But you need to understand the impact beforehand. You may need to take the help of an experienced professional.

You need to take care of these three things before making the right decision. No, there is no guarantee that you will make the right decision. But you will be closer to perfection.

Types of Right Decisions 1. Long-term/Short Term

Some decisions have a long-term effect. So, if you’re currently making the right decision and it has a long-term impact on your career, think twice. A slight misstep can cause a butterfly effect and ruin your career. That’s why author Robert Greene mentioned in his book “The 48 Laws of Power” – “Never outshine the master.”

2. People/Money

These are tough choices. If a company wants to thrive, it has to make confident decisions about its people. But this is a delicate situation as people are the organization’s cornerstone. If you keep or let go of any employee, it will also affect the existing people in the company. If you’re making any right decision about money, either you will gain a huge profit if you make this decision or lose a considerable sum. Sometimes, the decision regarding people would be more critical than money decisions or vice versa.

Ask questions like – “Who would get more affected if this decision goes wrong?” or “What would we risk here by making the right decision?”

3. Contraction/Expansion

Now, you need to decide which types of decisions you are making. Is it a decision to step back, or is it a decision to grow ahead? Accordingly, you will set up your right decision-making constraints and take a final call.

These are the fundamental decisions you make in your career and business. As you expand your business and trade, you will face many choices, like negotiating a deal, increasing the overall investment in training and development, and stopping the production of certain products. But if you see the above types, each of the right decisions you will make will ultimately fall into these six categories: long–term, short-term, people, money, contraction, and expansion. Understand them well, and you will make the right decision.

Framework for Making Right Decisions

There is no all-size-fit formula for every decision. No. But there is something that you can use. We will discuss a framework that will help you make the right decision, especially in cases where the impacts are the biggest for the company and career.

Let’s look at the framework. We will call it – “Yes/No Framework.”

Step 1: Visualize

What exactly are you looking for? Why are you compelled to make the right decision? There should be an outcome that you’re visualizing right now. What is it? Write that outcome down on the paper right away. Now ask yourself – “If I make the right decision, will it provide me this outcome in the end (provided all things work as per plan)?” If your answer is yes, go to the next step. If your answer is no, spend some more time clarifying the outcome.

Step 2: Journey Towards Outcome

If you answered the question in the previous step, ask yourself, “What need/s to happen before the outcome?” For example, if your outcome is to increase sales for the next quarter, here is what needs to happen before the outcome –

You need to improve your strategic position in the market

You need to recruit sales superstars or train the existing sales professionals

You need to spot weaknesses in the process/structure to get more converts

Once you write down these things, ask yourself – “If these things happen, would the desired outcome be achieved?” If the answer is yes, go to the next step, and if the answer is no, spend some more time on the things which need to happen before the outcome.

Step 3: People Matter

As you decide upon the steps before the outcome, allocating resources is time. You need to choose people who can do these things (things before the outcome) and ask yourself – “Can the person/employee to whom I allocated the resources deliver the outcomes?” If the answer is yes, go to the final step, and if the answer is no, pick better people till you are satisfied. These people are generally in top positions or senior-level positions in the company.

Step 4: Make the Right Decision

The things you need to do before the outcome are to improve your strategic position, recruit/train your salespeople and work on the weaknesses that act as hindrances in generating better revenues. After analyzing every step taken to reach here, execute your ideas.

Often, while making the right decision, people need clarification about all the other options they can take. Draw a framework for each option and see which one you feel most confident about. Ask yourself – “If I make this decision, will it give me better results than the other alternatives?” If the answer is, you can make the right decision.


The final analysis can be challenging. It’s a very complex process, especially involving your business or career. But use the above framework and the information we have shared here. The right decision-making process will become much more manageable.

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Advantage Different Types Of Mutual Funds (Futures Guide)

Types of Mutual Funds – An interesting fact about mutual funds is that they are Split into numerous divisions based on the nature of the investment, closure of the scheme, and under-tax incentive schemes as well as the nature of payout. So, there is a typology within the categorizations which points to just how diverse mutual funds can be. The golden rule of mutual fund investing is that the higher the stakes, the bigger the reward. So, is a mutual fund in mutual interest? It depends on the match between the fund’s direction and the investor’s needs. Let’s explore just how many different types of mutual funds there are.

That said, mutual funds offer many benefits that trading on stocks does not. But along with these mutual funds benefits come the risks as well. Read on to learn more about the various kinds of top mutual funds today.

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Mutual Funds -Varying Typologies

Based on the time of closure of the scheme, the mutual fund’s basics can also be divided into open and closed-ended schemes. Where there is no specific date when the scheme will be closed, it is open-ended. So, while open-ended funds are more liberal in their outlook, close-ended funds are fairly narrow-minded! While debt funds or schemes are also called income funds, diversified funds or schemes are called balanced funds.

Based on tax incentive schemes, mutual funds can split into tax saving and not tax saving funds. Another typology is possible based on periodicity/time of payouts, such as dividends. The categorization is as follows:

Dividend Paying Fund Schemes

Reinvestment Schemes

Schemes can also be in various permutations and combinations. For example, equity funding is open ended and can have a dividend-paying plan. What is important is that mutual funds work for the mutual benefit of investors and companies.

Look before your leap is a fit adage for the mutual fund markets. Before investment, one should be clear about the nature of the scheme and choose as per risk aversion and periodicity of dividends from the scheme.

Mutual Funds: Various Types Index Funds

They are those mutual funds that invest in a portfolio of securities representing the entire particular market or its piece. An example is the entire stock market or part of it, such as international stocks or small firms. Funds can be built to duplicate the performance of their relevant market. Index funds track the market’s indexes. These funds are affordably priced and easy to maintain. For instance, an NSE index fund will aim to provide the same return as the NSE index.

Actively Managed Funds

It is actively managed by professionals or portfolio managers who pick stocks that match investment strategies. Concerning the market index, such funds aim to outperform it. For example, rather than tracking the NSE index, active stock managers in India will try to outdo the index. Investors have to pay managers for their work, and it is up to the mutual fund managers to outsmart the index.

Lifecycle or Target Date Funds

It invests in a combination of bonds and stocks. These mutual funds originate from investments in several funds. The allocation of the fund to its investments changes over a while. With age, the investor turns older, and the ratio of money allocated to stocks versus bonds becomes conservative. It works well if you have a portfolio manager to monitor the funds.

Lifestyle funds involve a blend of stock and bond funds that do not change over time. Lifestyle funds can be moderate, aggressive, or conservative.

Tax-managed Funds

Balanced Funds

Basically, those funds invest in a combination of stocks and bonds. These funds typically have a conservative mix of close to 60% in stocks and the remaining pre cutting in bonds. Balanced funds are a combination of growth and income funds. They provide current income and more growth later. Such mutual funds have low to moderate stability. Further striking an even keel, they promise moderate mutual funds returns though the investor does experience some risk.

Income Funds

They are those mutual funds that invest in fixed-income securities, generating a regular income. Though this is a stable option, it is not without its risks. The income fund’s interest rates are sensitive to a certain degree.

Open or Close: The Many Options

A close-ended fund has outstanding fixed shares that operate for a fixed duration of around a decade. These funds have a set redemption period and are only available briefly. They appear on the stock exchange. All year long, flexible funds are available for subscription. These are open-end funds because investors have the flexibility to purchase or sell their investment at any point in time. These do not appear on the stock exchange, in contrast to close ended funds.

Opening a World of Possibilities: Different Open-Ended Funds

Debt/income plans use debentures, government securities, and other debt instruments to route a significant portion of the investable cash. With this kind of mutual fund, there is a low risk and low returns. Capital appreciation is low as against equity mutual funds.

Money market mutual fund schemes aim at capital preservation whereby gains will follow through as interest rates are higher on these funds as against bank deposits. These funds pose less risk and are highly liquid. These funds are ideal for investors who want short-term instruments while waiting for better options. Reasonable returns are the USP of these funds.

Equity or growth funds are popular mutual funds among retail investors. For long-term benefits, this is the best open-ended fund. It could be a high-risk investment for the short term, but it more than makes up for it in the long term.

Index schemes follow passive investment strategies and benchmark indices such as Sensex and Nifty. Another type of open-ended funds is sectoral funds invested in specific sectors such as IT, pharmaceuticals, or capital market segments such as small, medium, and large caps. The risks are high, but so are the returns.

Another type of open-ended scheme is tax saving which offers long-term opportunities and tax benefits. Called Equity Linked Savings schemes, they have a 3-year lock-in period.

Balanced funds are open-ended funds to enjoy growth and income at regular intervals and are perfect for investors who are cautious yet risk-taking.

Closing the Investment Gap Safely: Close-Ended Mutual Fund Schemes

Close-ended mutual funds have a stipulated maturity period, and investors can invest during the New Fund Offer period for a limited time. These are protective mutual funds that invest and guard capital simultaneously. A close-ended mutual fund is capital protection. The principal remains secure in this kind of fund while receiving acceptable returns. This mutual fund actively invests in high-quality fixed-income securities with limited exposure to equities.

Fixed Maturity Plans, or FMPs, are mutual fund schemes within a specific maturity period. Schemes include debt instruments that mature in line with a particular period and earn interest components of securities within a portfolio. Investors refer to the interest component of fixed-income securities as coupons. Passive functioning characterizes fixed maturity plans, which incur lower costs than actively managed plans.

Interval Mutual Funds: Best of Both Worlds

Operating within the combination of open and close-ended schemes, they allow investors to trade units at predetermined intervals.

Managing the Mutual Fund: Active Versus Passive Distinction

Actively managed funds mean there are active attempts by the portfolio manager to outperform the market or trade benchmarks. Passive management includes holdings where the securities to measure and replicate the mutual fund’s performance of benchmark indexes.

One of a Kind: Specialty Funds Funds of Funds: The Bigger Picture

These funds invest in other funds and are similar to balanced funds. They have higher MER as against stand-alone mutual funds.

The Philosophy of Investing: Many Approaches

Portfolio managers follow different investment philosophies and styles of investing to meet a fund’s investment objectives. Funds with different investment styles permit diversification beyond the type of investment and are a good means of reducing risk.

Top-Down Approach: This approach towards investing looks at the larger economic picture and invests in specific companies which look set to perform well in the long term.

Bottom-Up Approach: This focuses on choosing specific companies that perform well regardless of the state of the industry and/or economy.

A blend of the two generally follows portfolio managers overseeing a global portfolio.

Technical analysis is another style of investing that relies on past market data to detect the direction of investment prices.

Around the World: Mutual Funds by Region

Global or international funds are those where the investor invests anywhere in the world. The benefit of these funds is that they are a component of a well-balancing portfolio that carries country and political risks while reducing risk through diversification.

Sector funds are targeted at specific sectors of the economy, including health, finance, and biotechnology. It is a mutual fund scheme that is extremely risky and immensely profitable.

Regional funds focus on certain parts of the world, like a particular region or nation. These mutual fund stocks make investing easier in foreign countries, but you have to be ready for a high percentage of losses. Local factors tend to be very influential in deciding the fate of such mutual funds. From political leadership to economic status, the region’s dynamics affect the mutual fund and the money made from it.


  Rob Chernow said that the best part about mutual funds is that they offer safety and diversification but do not necessarily offer diversification or safety.

Many analysts have discussed how mutual funds are subject to risks, and the offer document is an important consideration. Mutual funds have a risk-reward trade-off whereby the higher the risk, the greater the reward.

The only trick is minimizing the risk and maximizing the gains. But the catch is that reward is only possible where there is a risk. Mutual funds are a form of investment that is just as risky as futures trading the only difference is that you are entrusting the capital to a portfolio manager who is a skilled professional adept at getting the rewards without incurring the risks. Choosing the right mutual fund and how to invest in mutual funds can have immediate and long-term financial repercussions. Cash is a fact, but profit is an opinion. Mutual funds make that opinion a certainty.

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Learn 4 Best Different Types Of C# Functions

Introduction to C# Functions

C# functions are the essential parts of the C# program that can consist of several elements, such as the function name that is used as the function’s reference, return types of the data operated in the functions, the logical body of the function, parameters that can be passed as arguments for the function, and the Access Specifier for defining the accessibility of the function inside the program. The different functions that can be integrated into a C# program are a combination of functions with or without parameters, which can or cannot have the return values, depending on the requirement provided.

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There are several components in functions –

We have a unique name called the Function name to make a function call.

We will use the Return Type to specify the return value data type.

The block of statements that contains the executable statements is called Body.

We can pass the functions during the function call as a list of Parameter arguments.

To specify the accessibility of function in the application, we can use the Access specifier.

Different C# Function

Without parameters(arguments) and return type.

With parameters(arguments) but without return type.

Using parameters(arguments) and with the return type.

Without parameters(arguments) and with the return value.

{ }

Return statements, parameters, and Access-specifier are optional in the above syntax.

 Functional Aspects  Syntax(Function)

return values Declaration: int display ( int );

Function call: display ( value );


return values Declaration: void display ( int );

Call: display (value);


return values Declaration: void display ();

Call: display ();


return values Declaration: int display ( );

Call: display ( );


If a function’s return value is “void,” it cannot return any values to the calling function.

Note: If the return value of the function, such as “int, double, float, string, etc.” is other than void, then it can return values to the calling function.

1. Using Without Parameters and Without Return Type

We specified the function with no parameter and no return type, a function that does not return any values here, as void type as a return type value. In this program, any values should not be passed to the function call Display(), and also, there are no values that are returned from this function call to the main function.

Let’s see the example with a function build without a return type and parameter,



using System; namespace FunctionSamples { class Program_A { public void Display() { Console.WriteLine("Non Parameterized Function"); // No return statement } static void Main(string[] args) // Main Program { Program_A program = new Program_A (); // to create a new Object program.Display(); // Call the Function } } }

2. Using With Parameters (Arguments) and Without Return Type

In this program, a string is passed as a parameter to the function. This function’s return type is “void,” and no values can be returned. The value of the string is manipulated and displayed inside the function itself.



using System; namespace FunctionSample { class Program_B { public void Display(string value) { Console.WriteLine("Hello " + value); } static void Main(string[] args) { Program_B program = new Program_B(); // Creating Objec program.Display("Welcome to C# Functions"); // Calling Function } } }


3. Using With Parameters (Arguments) and with Return Type

In this program, a string is passed as a parameter to the function. The return type of this function is “string,” and the return value of the string can be returned from the function. The value of the string is manipulated and displayed inside the function itself.



using System; namespace FunctionsSample { class Program_C { public string Show(string message) { Console.WriteLine("Inside the Show Function Call"); return message; } static void Main(string[] args) { Program_C program = new Program_C(); string message = program.Show("C# Functions"); Console.WriteLine("Hello "+message); } } }

4. Using Without Parameters (Arguments) and with Return Value

In this program, arguments or parameters will not be passed to the function “calculate” but to the main function; the values are returned from this calculate () function call. The variables a and b values are calculated in the function called “calculate,” and in the main function, the sum of these values is returned as a result.



using System; namespace FunctionsSample { class Program_D { public void calculate() { int a = 50, b = 80, sum; sum = a + b; Console.WriteLine("Calculating the given to values: " +sum); } static void Main(string[] args) { Program_D addition =new Program_D(); addition.calculate(); } } }


C# Passing Parameters to Methods

When creating a method with arguments/parameters in c#, we must pass arguments/parameters to that specified method when calling our application’s function. We have several ways to pass parameters to the method; let’s see the parameters/arguments.

Parameters Description

Value Parameters Value parameters are called the “input parameters.” Instead of the original parameters, the input parameters will pass a copy of the actual value; due to that, there will not be any cause or changes made to the parameter during the called method, and it will not affect on original values while the control passes to the caller function.

Reference Parameters Reference parameters are called the “input/output parameters.” The reference parameter will pass the reference memory of the original parameters. Thus, the changes/alteration made to the parameters in called method, while the control returns to the caller function, affects the actual values.

Output Parameters

It is an “output parameter” like the reference type parameters. The only difference is there is no need to initialize it before passing the data.

Conclusion – C# Functions

In this article, we well-read the usage of the functions/ methods available in C# and learned the different C# functions. I hope this article has helped you understand the several functional aspects of C#.

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A Comprehensive List Of The Different Python Data Types


Python is one of the most preferred programming languages these days. It allows developers to focus all their efforts on implementation instead of complex programs and data types in python are used for that purpose only to make our work easy.

Overview of the Different Data Types

The classification or categorization of data items is known as Data types. A kind of value is signified by data type which determines what operations need to be performed on that particular data.

It is used for integral values. In python 2 versions, there was different Int and long for small and big integral values, but from python 3 it is int only.

We can represent int in 4 forms.

Decimal form ( it is by default and digits are from 0-9)

Binary form (base-2, 0, and 1)a=1111, so if do print (a)It will be a normal chúng tôi to convert it into binary, we make a change like a=0B1111So basically zero(0) small “ b” or zero(0) capital” B” is used in prefix.

Octal form (0-7 )So in this zero(0) and capital “0” or small “o” is used in prefix.

Hexadecimal (0-9, A-F)In this zero(0) and small or capital “x” is used.

Now the thing to remember is by default the answer we will get will be in decimal forms, so we can change that as well.


Float is a data type in which decimal values are there. In float, we can only have decimal no binary, oct, or hex. Eg: a=15.5 So when we see the type of “a” It will be float type.

Complex :

Print (type(x)) #so it will be complex

The real part can be binary, octal, or hex anything, but the image should be decimal only.

We can type real part in any form like binary octal or hexadecimal but not for imaginary

OB111 + 20j  it is correct. But 14+ 0B101   it is incorrect

So we can do x+y, we can do x*y  or we can do x/y  or x-y

So addition or subtraction of the complex numbers is simple. We simply do addition or subtraction of the real part of both numbers and imaginary parts of both numbers.

(a+bi)  * (c+di)   = (ac-bd) + (ad+bc)i

So whenever we multiply two complex numbers the answer we will get is by this formulae Or we have actually simplified the formula.

Simply let’s say we take two complex numbers.

a= (2 + 4j)       ,      b=  (10 + 10 j)

So now when we multiply them It will be multiplied like this-– 2 (10 + 10j) + 4j(10+10j)

– 20 + 20j  + 40j + 40j^2

And we know ^2 of imaginary part is -1. So it will become-

-20 + 60j

a= p+qj

b= r+sj

So division would be

a/b  =   pr + qs     +    qr – ps      ,  x= under root of (r^2 + s^2)

———          ——–

X                    x

This complex is used much in machine learning or mathematics specific queries.


But one thing is to remember that the first letters should be in the capital True, False

a=True Type (a)

It will show bool

So let’s take an example.

it will show false

The type would be

Print (type(c))


Now one more thing to remember is True =1 and False =0

So if we print (True + True)

The answer would be 2 (1+1)

And if we print (True-False) The answer would be 1  (1-0)


So in string data type, we can use single, double, or triple quotes. So for eg: S= ”Aashish”


We can print type(s) it will give us string

Also s = ”a”

It will also give string unlike java etc because in java etc it must have given it as a character. but there is no data type as a character in python

Now comes the triple quotes. If we have to write the string in multiple lines, then we cannot use single or double quotes, what we can use is single triple quotes or double triple quotes

Like eg :




One more thing we need to know now is the let say we have one statement. Like-

s= Aashish is a very ‘good’ boy

Now in the above statement if we want that Good should be in quotes, so while writing the string we should know that the statement should not be in single quotes. Like-

“Aashish is a very ‘good’ boy”.

And the same goes if we want something in double-quotes, then we have to make the whole statement in a single quote. Now if we want to use both single and double quotes in a statement.

“Aashish” is a very ‘good’ boy

Then we have to put the whole statement in triple quotes.

Positive and Negative Index in strings

So there is indexing in python string, so if let say we want to access the character of the word for eg: from a=  Aashish, we want to access “i”

So we can do it like-

Print (a[4])

The first alphabet is represented by 0. Also, we can do like in python a[-1], which represents the last character.

So it will print h

Slice Operator in String: basically it’s a part of the string which is known as a slice. So to fetch that slice we use it.

Eg:  “Aashish”

In slicing let say we want only “shis”

format is s[begin : end]

Which returns from beginning to end-1. So if let’s say put s[2:6]. It will return to the 5th. Now if we are not specifying begin. Then it will start at 0 s[:5].

If are not specifying it will continue to the end s[2:]. And one case is s[:]. It will return the total string.

One more case s[5:2]. We will get an empty string, as it cannot move from 5 to 2.

And we want the output as “Aashish”

So we can do it like.

output= s[0].upper() + s[1:] print(output)

So we can do it like

output = s[0:len(s)-1]  + s[-1].upper() Print (output)

Now let’s say we need to have the first character in the capital and the last character in the capital and remaining as it is. So what we need to do is simply :

Output = s[0].upper() + s[1:len(s)-1] + s[-1].upper() Print (output )

And * operator for string data type :

Is used for concatenation, and both the arguments should be string only.

So  it can be “String” + “String” + “string” + …..

It cannot be like “String” + “Int”

Now * operator

s=”SUN” *3

So it is a string repetition operator. And used to multiply the string. One thing to notice here is one argument should be a string and the other should be an integer


The process of converting from one type to another type. 5 inbuilt functions are there-






Int: To convert from other types to the int type

Float to the int function, so like if we have 10.989 is there, so after the decimal point all digits will be gone so it will be done like int(10.989), it will give 10.

Complex to int: 10+ 20j, so int (10+20j), it will give type error, as we cannot convert complex to int type.

Bool to int:  int (True)   will give 1

String to int :String internally contains an only integral value or in base 10 only, so no hexadecimal or binary, etc.Therefore int(“15”)  will give chúng tôi (0B1111) will give an error

int(“10.5”) , again error as it is not integral value it is a float value.

Float: Convert into the float type

Or Float(0XFace) will give 64206.0

Complex to float is not possible :

float(False), then the answer would be 0.0

String to float type is also possible, only in the case when the string contains an integral value or float value but they should be specified in base 10.

Float (10)  will give 10.0

Float (0XFACE)  error

Float (“Aashish”) error

Complex Type

Complex (x)

If only one argument then it will become a real value

Complex (10)

The answer would be 10 + 0j

Complex (0B1111)  would be 15+0j

Complex (10.5) would be 10.5 + 0j

Complex (True) would be 1+0j

Complex (False) would be 0j

Complex (“String”) it should have either int or float value in base 10

Complex (x,y)

When two arguments are there one will go to real and one to the imaginary complex(10, 20) would be 10+20j.

Complex (10.5, 20.6) would be 10.5 + 20.6j

Complex (“10”, “20”)

It will give an error if we are having the string argument, we can’t have the second value as a string as well

Complex (10, “20”)

It will also give an error, the second argument can’t be a string in complex



If it is non zero then it will be True

bool(10) will give True

bool(0) will give false


bool(0.1) true

bool(0+0j)    False

bool(1+0j)  True


bool(“True”)   True

bool(“False”)   True

bool(“Yes”)  True

bool (“No”)   True

bool( “ ”)   False

If the string is empty then only it is false, otherwise if it not empty then it will be True


str(10)  “10”

str(0B1111) “15”

str(10.5)    “10.5”

str(10+20j)  “10+20j”

str(True)   “True”

str(False)  “False”

Fundamental Data Types vs Immutability

Immutable → we cannot change

Once we create an object, we cannot perform any changes in that object. If we try to change, then the new object would be created. This non-changeable behavior is immutability.

Python Data Type: Lists

These are the collection related data type.

l=[07, “Aashish”, 20,30, “Nimish”] Print type(l)

It will give a list. The list is always in square brackets. If we print (l), the order will be in the same in which we have given. So the order of perseverance is there. Duplicates objects are allowed.

Heterogenous objects are allowed, like int, string, etc. Indexing and slicing are applicable. Now,

print (l[0])

So will give the first element. And similarly -1 for the last. Now if let say we have an empty list.

l=[  ]

So we can add elements like-


We can remove elements like-


Now let say, we have-

l=[10, 20, 30, 40]

Now the list is mutable so at l[0] we can add value. Like-

l[0]= 100

So now 100 will be added to the starting. List will become l[100, 10, 20, 30, 40].

Python Data Type: Tuple

Now we will learn the data type Tuple. It is the same as the list except it is immutable, if we create one object so we cannot add or remove any object or value. It is like a read-only version of a list. We represent tuple by (10, 20,”aashish”).

Performance is better than the list. And it also uses less memory than a list.

Python Data Type: Set

Now we will learn about the new data type i.e Set. It is used for the group of objects or entities but duplicates are not allowed and I don’t care about the order. So if we have such a type of requirement then we go for the Set.


s1 = {1,2,3} s2 = {3,1,2}

So basically s1 and s2 are equal. So in the set, there is no first element no last element kind of concept. Curly brackets are used inset.

s= {10, 10, 20, “Aashish”, 30}

But output will come s= {10, 20, “Aashish”, 30}

But order can be anything. So indexing cannot be there or slice operator-

Print s[0]

Will give an error.

Heterogeneous objects are allowed.


In the list, it was appended. In set, it is added.

Append vs add

Append was used in the list to add items in the last. So add is used in the set, as we don’t know where it is going to get added.

s= {   }

So it is not known as an empty set it is known as an empty dictionary. As the dictionary gets privilege because of the frequent use of it more than the set.

If we want to create the empty set then we can create it like

s= set() Python Data Type: Frozen set

It is exactly like a set except it is immutable. Because inset we can make changes, but not in the frozen set. So we create the frozen set like-

s={ 10, 20, 30, 40} fr= frozenset(s) Print type(fr)

It will be frozen set s.

So now we cannot add or remove the values from the frozen set and will get the attribute error if we try to do that.

Python Data Type: Range

Now we will learn about the Range.

R = range(10)

So we will get 10 values starting from the 0. So basically it is an inbuilt function used in python. If we print r-

It will give 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

We can use it like

For x in r :    print(x)

So we will get all the values printed. How we can make the range objects.

Form:   range (n)

So will give values to 0 to n-1

Form :  range(begin : end)

So will give values from the beginning to the n-1

r= range(1, 10) For x in r :     Print (x)

So we will get 1,2,3 ….  9


Range (begin, end, increment/Decrement)

R = range(1,21,1) So 1 to 20

1,2,3,….. 20

R = Range(1, 21,2 )

1,3,5… 19

Also, we can do like for decrement

Range (20, 1, -2)

So 20, 18 ….

So now we have known things go in order in range, so wherever order is there, we can do the indexing or slicing. But the range is immutable, as the values are in sequence and if we try to add the values, an error will occur.

Python Data Type: Dict

Now we will learn about the dictionary. Dictionary is different from the above data types in the manner that it is used to represent the key values.  Represent by Dict

d={ k1: v1, k2 : V2}

So let say we have an empty dictionary

d= {   }

So we can add value like

d[100]=”Aashish” d[200]= “Ayush”

So it will look like-

{ 100 : Aashish , 200 : Ayush}

Now there would be one concern about the duplicity of the values. So duplicate keys are not allowed but values can be duplicated. S-

d[100]  = “Abhishek”

So the old value i.e Aashish will be replaced by the Abhishek, so the duplicate key is not allowed, anyhow there would be no error, but the value will get replaced by the new value.

No order there, similarly like a set. Heterogeneous values can be there. It is mutable, we can make changes. Slicing, indexing, etc are not there, due to no order.

Python Data Type: Bytes and BytesArray

l= [10, 20,30,40]

Till now it is a list. Now to convert it into the bytes we need to




Now It is used for the binary creation of the data. Bytes can only have values from 0 to 256. So basically if we add the value 256, 257 …

We will get the value error. Now in this as well indexing, slicing is there. But it is immutable, we cannot change its content. We will get an error. But if we want mutable bytes then it is known as Bytearray

l= [ 10, 20, 30, 40 ] b=bytearray(l) b[0]= 77 print(b[0])

None data type is nothing i.e no value is associated with it. To make the value available for the garbage collection-


None is also stored as object internally-

Print (type(a)) Escape Characters,  Comments, and Constants :

These are –

n  :   for the next line

t   :  for the tab space

r   : carriage return, means starting from the starting

  b : backspace

f : form feed

‘ : for single quote

“ : for double quote

\ :   for backslash symbol

We need to put # in every line.

Constants :

The things of which we cannot change the values

So as such no constant concept is there in python, but if we want the value to be constantly put it in the upper case.


For the convention purpose only.

End Notes

So we learned that Datatypes are an important concept because statistical methods and certain other things can only be used with a certain python data type. You have to analyze data differently and then categorize data otherwise it would result in a wrong analysis.


Guide To Different Types Of Operators Used In Go

Introduction to Go, Operators,

Any programming language comes with certain operators that are used to perform some logical/mathematical operations. Operators are typically constructed that typically work like functions. Operators are basically denoted by special characters and used for additions(+), subtractions(-) and even like assignments(=)

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Languages generally have built-in operators, and some languages allow user-defined operators.

The elements or numbers on which the operator is applied are called operands. The position of an operator with respect to operands can be prefix, postfix or Infix.

Different Go Operators

Different operators are as follows:

Arithmetic Operators

Logical Operators

Relational operators

Bitwise Operators

Assignment Operators

Miscellaneous/Other operators

1. Arithmetic

Let us assume a=6, b=3

Add: This is used for the addition of numbers

Eg: c = a+b ;

Subtract: This is used for the subtraction of numbers

Eg: c = a-b;

Multiply: This is used for the multiplication of numbers

Divide: This is used for the division of numbers

Eg: c = a/b;//c gives 2

Modulus: This is used to get the remainder after a division of numbers

Eg: c = a%b;

Increment: This is used for increasing the integer value by 1

Eg: a++

Decrement: This is used for decreasing the integer value by 1

Eg: a– 2. Logical

Logical operations like AND, OR operations, NOT are done by these operators.

Let x = 0, y=1

AND (&&): If both operands are non-zero valued, the AND of them becomes true.

Eg: x && y = false

NOT (!): Not is used to reverse the logical value of the operand.

Eg: !x = true

!y = false

!(x&&y) = true

3. Relational

Relational operators return true or false based on operations on operands.

Let a = 3; b = 4; c = 3;

Equals (==): This returns true if the operands are equal

Eg: a==c returns true

a==b returns false

NotEquals (!=): This returns true if operands are not equal

Eg: a!=c returns false

a!=b returns true

LessThan (<): This returns true if the left operand is less than the right

E.g.: a<b returns true

LessThanOrEqualTo (<=): This returns true if the left operand is greater than or equal to the right operand

E.g.: a<=b returns true

4. BitWise

These Operators work bit by bit and output the logic based on bit operations.

Below is the truth table for reference:



0 0 0



1 0 1



0 0 1


1 1 1 1


Eg: Let A = 10, B = 13

A = 0000 1100

B = 0000 1101

&: Used to perform bitwise AND Operation

Eg: A & B = 0000 1100 = 12

^: Used to perform XOR operation

Eg: A ^ B = 0000 0001 = 1

<<: This is the left shift which is used to shift the bits to the left by a number that is specified on the right

E.g., A << 2: This would shift the A value by 2

i.e: 0000 0010

0000 1000 = 8

0000 0001 = 1

5. Assignment

These are used for assigning values from the right operand to the left based on the operator.

Let a=4, b = 2

=: Used to assign the value simply from right to the left.

Eg: a = b

+=: Used to add the value and assign it to the left operand

-=: Used to subtract the value and assign it to the left operand

*=: Used to multiply the value and assign it to the left operand

/=: Used to divide the value and assign it to the left operand

%=: Used to assign the reminder after division

<<=: Used to left shift and assign the value to the variable

&=: Bitwise AND Assignment.

^=: Bitwise XOR Assignment.

6. Other/Miscellaneous

& and * are two more operators that Go supports

&: This is used to get the actual address of a variable

Usage: &a;

*: This is used to get the pointer to a variable

Usage: *a

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to Go Operators. Here we have discussed different types of Go Operators with examples for better understanding. You may also look at the following article to learn more –

What Are The Different Types Of Classes In Java?

Types of classes in Java Concrete class

Any normal class which does not have any abstract method or a class that has an implementation of all the methods of its parent class or interface and its own methods is a concrete class.


Live Demo

public class Concrete {    static int product(int a, int b) {       return a * b;    }    public static void main(String args[]) {       int p = product(2, 3);       System.out.println("Product: " + p);    } } Output Product: 6 Abstract class

A class declared with abstract keyword and have zero or more abstract methods are known as abstract class. The abstract classes are incomplete classes, therefore, to use we strictly need to extend the abstract classes to a concrete class.


Live Demo

abstract class Animal {    public abstract void sound(); } public class Dog extends Animal {    public void sound() {       System.out.println("Woof");    }    public static void main(String args[]) {       Animal a = new Dog();       a.sound();    } } Output Woof Final class

A class declared with the final keyword is a final class and it cannot be extended by another class, for example, java.lang.System class.


Live Demo

final class BaseClass {    void Display() {       System.out.print("This is Display() method of BaseClass.");    } } class DerivedClass extends BaseClass {    void Display() {       System.out.print("This is Display() method of DerivedClass.");    } } public class FinalClassDemo {    public static void main(String[] arg) {       DerivedClass d = new DerivedClass();       d.Display();    } }

In the above example, DerivedClass extends BaseClass(final), we can’t extend a final class, so compiler will throw an error. The above program doesn’t execute.

Output cannot inherit from final BaseClass Compile-time error - can't inherit final class POJO class

A class that contains only private variables and setter and getter methods to use those variables is called POJO (Plain Old Java Object) class. It is a fully encapsulated class.


Live Demo

class POJO {   private int value=100;   public int getValue() {       return value;    }    public void setValue(int value) {       this.value = value;    } } public class Test {    public static void main(String args[]){       POJO p = new POJO();       System.out.println(p.getValue());    } } Output 100 Static class

Static classes are nested classes means a class declared within another class as a static member is called a static class.


Live Demo

import java.util.Scanner; class staticclasses {    static int s;    static void met(int a, int b) {    System.out.println("static method to calculate sum");    s = a + b;    System.out.println(a + "+" + b); }    static class MyNestedClass {       static {          System.out.println("static block inside a static class");       }       public void disp() {          int c, d;          Scanner sc = new Scanner(;          System.out.println("Enter two values");          c = sc.nextInt();          d = sc.nextInt();          met(c, d);          System.out.println("Sum of two numbers-" + s);       }    } } public class Test {    public static void main(String args[]) {       staticclasses.MyNestedClass mnc = new staticclasses.MyNestedClass();       mnc.disp();    } } Output static block inside a static class Enter two values 10 20 static method to calculate sum 10+20 Sum of two numbers-30 Inner Class

A class declared within another class or method is called an inner class.


Live Demo

public class OuterClass {    public static void main(String[] args) {       System.out.println("Outer");    }    class InnerClass {       public void inner_print() {          System.out.println("Inner");       }    } } Output Outer

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