Trending February 2024 # Dbms Joins: Inner, Theta, Outer, Equi Types Of Join Operations # Suggested March 2024 # Top 2 Popular

You are reading the article Dbms Joins: Inner, Theta, Outer, Equi Types Of Join Operations updated in February 2024 on the website We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested March 2024 Dbms Joins: Inner, Theta, Outer, Equi Types Of Join Operations

What is Join in DBMS?

Join in DBMS is a binary operation which allows you to combine join product and selection in one single statement. The goal of creating a join condition is that it helps you to combine the data from two or more DBMS tables. The tables in DBMS are associated using the primary key and foreign keys.

In this DBMS tutorial, you will learn:

Types of Join

There are mainly two types of joins in DBMS:

Inner Joins: Theta, Natural, EQUI

Outer Join: Left, Right, Full

Let’s see them in detail:

Inner Join

Inner Join is used to return rows from both tables which satisfy the given condition. It is the most widely used join operation and can be considered as a default join-type

Inner Join further divided into three subtypes:

Theta join

Natural join

EQUI join

Theta Join

Theta Join allows you to merge two tables based on the condition represented by theta. Theta joins work for all comparison operators. It is denoted by symbol θ. The general case of JOIN operation is called a Theta join.


A ⋈θ B

Theta join can use any conditions in the selection criteria.

Consider the following tables.

Table A

Table B

column 1 column 2

column 1 column 2

1 1

1 1

1 2

1 3

For example:

column 1 column 2

1 2


EQUI Join is done when a Theta join uses only the equivalence condition. EQUI join is the most difficult operation to implement efficiently in an RDBMS, and one reason why RDBMS have essential performance problems.

For example:

A ⋈ A.column 2 = B.column 2 (B)

A ⋈ A.column 2 = B.column 2 (B)

column 1 column 2

1 1

Natural Join (⋈)

Natural Join does not utilize any of the comparison operators. In this type of join, the attributes should have the same name and domain. In Natural Join, there should be at least one common attribute between two relations.

It performs selection forming equality on those attributes which appear in both relations and eliminates the duplicate attributes.

Consider the following two tables


Num Square

2 4

3 9


Num Cube

2 8

3 18

C ⋈ D

C ⋈ D

Num Square Cube

2 4 8

3 9 18

Outer Join

An Outer Join doesn’t require each record in the two join tables to have a matching record. In this type of join, the table retains each record even if no other matching record exists.

Three types of Outer Joins are:

Left Outer Join

Right Outer Join

Full Outer Join

Left Outer Join (A B)

Left Outer Join returns all the rows from the table on the left even if no matching rows have been found in the table on the right. When no matching record is found in the table on the right, NULL is returned.

Consider the following 2 Tables


Num Square

2 4

3 9

4 16


Num Cube

2 8

3 18

5 75


A ⋈ B

Num Square Cube

2 4 8

3 9 18

4 16 –

Right Outer Join ( A B )

Right Outer Join returns all the columns from the table on the right even if no matching rows have been found in the table on the left. Where no matches have been found in the table on the left, NULL is returned. RIGHT outer JOIN is the opposite of LEFT JOIN

In our example, let’s assume that you need to get the names of members and movies rented by them. Now we have a new member who has not rented any movie yet.


A ⋈ B

Num Cube Square

2 8 4

3 18 9

5 75 –

Full Outer Join ( A B)

In a Full Outer Join , all tuples from both relations are included in the result, irrespective of the matching condition.



A ⋈ B

Num Square Cube

2 4 8

3 9 18

4 16 –

5 – 75


There are mainly two types of joins in DBMS 1) Inner Join 2) Outer Join

An inner join is the widely used join operation and can be considered as a default join-type.

Inner Join is further divided into three subtypes: 1) Theta join 2) Natural join 3) EQUI join

Theta Join allows you to merge two tables based on the condition represented by theta

When a theta join uses only equivalence condition, it becomes an equi join.

Natural join does not utilize any of the comparison operators.

An outer join doesn’t require each record in the two join tables to have a matching record.

Outer Join is further divided into three subtypes are: 1)Left Outer Join 2) Right Outer Join 3) Full Outer Join

The LEFT Outer Join returns all the rows from the table on the left, even if no matching rows have been found in the table on the right.

The RIGHT Outer Join returns all the columns from the table on the right, even if no matching rows have been found in the table on the left.

In a full outer join, all tuples from both relations are included in the result, irrespective of the matching condition.

You're reading Dbms Joins: Inner, Theta, Outer, Equi Types Of Join Operations

The Curious Beginnings Of Outer Wilds

The Curious Beginnings of Outer Wilds

The Indie Game that shot for the stars and reached them. Outer Wilds has one of the more interesting origin stories out there.

Whether you’ve played it or not, the indie game Outer Wilds has gained quite the cult following. The beautifully simplistic game reignited the wanderlust of many gamers around the world. It featured a fantastic story which was told solely through environmental story-telling and an even more fantastic soundtrack. 

The game was originally released in May of 2023. Since then, it’s gained a large following and more recently released its first DLC: Echoes of the Eye. It’s become one of those games that you can’t quite re-experience. One of those games where when you finally put the controller down, you exhale a sigh of… bewilderment! As such, if you’ve not played Outer Wilds, continue reading at your own risk. I promise you, you’ll want to experience all this game has to offer in your own playthrough. 

The Origins of Outer Wilds 

The small studio, Mobius Digital Games in Los Angeles are responsible for Outer Wilds. However, it didn’t start this way. In fact, Outer Wilds was born as a student project. Alex Beachum was working on his Masters thesis at the University of Southern California.

His project started as an idea to create something new in games design altogether. He wanted to break old game design foundations and work on something completely new.

A Living World 

 “We wanted to make a game where you’re exploring a world as it changes over time. In like really dramatic ways, just to get away from the idea that game environments are these static things.” – Alex Beachum. 

Many gamers will know just what he means by this. How many games have you played where you visit one location, leave in and maybe days or months have passed in-game, and upon returning to the location, nothing has changed. It’s one of the main faults of these virtual worlds, nothing changes. Everything is programmed to remain the way it was at its conception. 

The Freedom to Play 

Furthermore, Alex had another goal with his thesis. He wanted to create a game where the only reason for players to play it and explore the world was to satiate their own curiosity. There was no quest-giver, no impending doom that you must stop… Nope, instead you get to explore and play the world on your own terms. A kind of freedom which isn’t often found in modern games. 

A Response to Skyward Sword

Alex says he was heavily inspired by Legend of Zelda: Windwaker. A game which is so huge and expansive that exploring it is a key factor. And yet, Alex says that Outer Wilds was a response to Legend of Zelda: Skyward Sword. 

A Unity Development 

Alex wanted to create a space-travelling game. But of course, he’d need a spaceship for that! Something that navigates on a 4D plane, and thus something that’s incredibly tricky to get right. Programming such a thing is no easy feat, but Alex managed to make a prototype in Unity. 

Something he developed even further when he made another prototype. One in which the player simply sits upon a planet, roasting a marshmallow on an open fire. In the distance, a sun explodes, enveloping all around it until it hits the player and all goes dark and silent. Something which will be very familiar to Outer Wilds players. But it’s fascinating to see all these small pieces in Alex’s idea development which eventually moulded together to create the award-winning game. 

An Outer Wilds Hero?

Alex didn’t get to work right away on Outer Wilds. He graduated and worked on another project for some time before he returned to LA and joined a college friend’s (Loan Verneau) game studio. But this small upcoming games studio had a very interesting benefactor. Actor Masi Oka (Heroes) wanted to start a video game studio. 

Before Masi Oka had his breakthrough role in Heroes, he had worked on creating visual effects for movies, including the Star Wars prequels. Masi later went on a hired Alex’s college friend and the two founded Mobius. 

Although Mobius wasn’t set to work on Outer Wilds, after it’s success and awards, it only made sense to have the whole Mobius team develop and expand this game. 

From Student Project to Publication 

Later, the team at Mobius were approached by Annapurna about publishing the game. However, Annapurna didn’t want to publish a flipped student project. Instead, they wanted the best possible version of this game. And thus began development on the Outer Wilds we know and love. 

The team were now able, thanks to funding, to expand this world. They had new art assets, more time to add more elements of story and worldbuilding. 

Outer Wilds Awarded 

The game was adored by all upon its release. And thus, it was awarded a plethora of gaming awards. It was nominated for a whopping 28 awards and won 6. As a small indie game, this was an enormous success. 

It’s received consistently good reviews across all major gaming websites. 

Outer Wilds Echoes of the Eye

Finally, after 2 years since its release, the first DLC has dropped. Outer Wilds Echoes of the Eye adds more to the game. More mysteries, more exploration and – no doubt – more awards! 

If you’ve not had the chance to play through it, now might be the time! If you’re an open-world fan who loves exploration, then this game is for you. 

Process And Types Of Communication

Think about one day you wake up, and you cannot talk. Or if you are stuck in a room with a crying baby and have no idea why it is crying or what the baby wants? Sounds frustrating, right? The ability to talk or ‘communicate ‘ can be taken for granted. Nevertheless, one needs to remember that it is something central to our everyday life.

What is Communication?

Derived from the Latin word ‘communis,’ meaning common, communication implies a common ground for understanding. Humans have a compulsive need to speak with one another. The foundation of interpersonal relations is mutual understanding; without communication, it cannot happen. In addition to being a social animal, man is a communicative being. He can verbalize his thoughts, making him empowered. Culture and civilization would not have developed to this position without communication.

Experts have given various definitions of communication. According to some, the interchange of thought or information brings about mutual understanding and confidence or good human relation. For others, communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions, or emotions which involves two or more people. Nevertheless, some say that it is an aggregate of all that one does as one try to create meaning in the minds of others.

Types of Communication

Communication can be of different types, and it can be distinguished based on the number of people addressed, the form of addressing, the number of people involved, the flow of information, and so on.

Intrapersonal Communication

Intrapersonal communication is meant when someone says they “communicate with oneself.” We can all speak with ourselves internally by paying attention to the inner voice, and our interactions with people are influenced by how we mentally process information. Even though it may not be obvious and does not directly involve other people, intrapersonal communication still impacts practically all forms of engagement.

Dyadic Communication

The interaction between two people is frequently referred to as a dyad, and the type of communication that takes place is called dyadic communication. Dyadic communication may occur face-to-face or through mediated channels such as phone, email, text message, instant message, and social networking sites. Most interpersonal communication takes a dyadic form, among the best indicators of how well a relationship will turn out. In one study, researchers discovered that by observing how family members interacted through joking, sharing daily updates, and discussing their relationships, they could accurately predict whether they were happy with one another. For instance, even in bigger settings like classrooms, parties, and workplaces, communication frequently involves several dynamic dyadic interactions.

Interpersonal Communication

Although some people mistakenly believe that dyadic communication is the same as interpersonal communication, not all two-person interactions can be regarded as interpersonal in the truest sense. Interpersonal communication has characteristics that are not exclusive to two people, and they might be seen in trios or even in compact clusters. A different way to put it is that interpersonal communication entails two-way interactions between individuals who are a part of a special and irreplaceable relationship and treat one another as an individual.

Organizational Communication

When people come together to accomplish a common objective, larger, more permanent groups of people communicate within the organization. Organizations exist for various objectives, including economic, nonprofit, charitable, religious causes, political, medical, and even recreational.

Mass Communication

Newspapers, magazines, television, radio, blogs, websites, and other print and electronic media are examples of media used for mass communication. There are various ways in which this sort of communication is different from an interpersonal, small group, organizational, and public communication. First, most mass communications are directed at a substantial audience without connecting the sender and recipients. Second, many messages distributed through mass communication platforms are created, or at the very least funded, by big businesses. Mass communication is significantly less personal and more of a product than other forms of communication. Most mass messages are still controlled by corporate, media, and governmental sources, who decide what messages will be conveyed to consumers, how they will be put together, and when they will be provided. Even though blogs have given common people the opportunity to reach vast audiences, these sources still control the majority of mass messaging.

Process of Communication

Sorting, choosing, and delivering symbols in such a way as to aid the receiver in understanding and forming in his mind the meaning that existing in the communicator’s mind is a key component of communication. Communication is more than one act, whether speaking, writing, listening, or reading. The process is dynamic and transactional, and it has six stages.

The sender has an idea − The sender has an idea that they want to convey. The process of communication begins with this stage.

Sender transforms the idea into a message − The second step in communication involves actively converting the idea or notion into a message. Encoding is the process by which the sender transforms their idea into a message their recipient will understand. They do this by choosing the message’s words, tone, organization, style, duration of the gestures, and facial expressions based on their idea, the audience, and personal preferences or mood.

The sender transmits the message − They choose a communication channel, such as a telephone, computer, letter, memo, report, face-to-face exchange, etc., via which they physically deliver their message to their receiver. Depending on the message, the audience’s location, the necessity for speed, and the formality of the occasion, one will choose a certain channel and media. Transmitting the message would be the first task when the idea or thought has taken shape in mind. To do this, a communication channel is employed, using both verbal and nonverbal communication. This is the third stage of the communication process.

The receiver gets the message − The recipient must first receive the message for communication to take place. The recipient must read a letter before it can be understood. The audience must be able to hear and pay attention to the speaker if they are giving a speech. Once the message has been delivered, the recipient must “listen” and interpret the transmission.

The receiver sends feedback − The last link in the communications process is feedback or the receiver’s answer. After receiving it, the receiver reacts somehow to the message and communicates that reaction to the speaker. The feedback stage of communication is crucial because it allows the speaker to determine how well received their message was. By observing the audience’s reaction, the speaker can determine whether or not they are getting their point across. Feedback can be communicated vocally or nonverbally, which is how the communication process is finished.


Communication is a dynamic process that is often taken for granted. Failed communication can lead to many misunderstandings. Imagine if a pilot misunderstood the command given by air traffic controllers. Losing direction or missing landing, or even a crash is possible. Learning to master the skill of communicating efficiently is crucial to saving ourselves from big troubles.

Types And Categories Of Consumer Loan

What is a Consumer Loan?

The term “consumer loan” refers to the type of loan extended to consumers to fund specific items or purposes. Typically, consumers avail of loans for financing home purchases, debt consolidation, education, general living expenses, etc. On the other hand, growing small businesses take on loans to fund working capital requirements, equipment purchases and real estate, inventory purposes, etc. In short, various consumer loan products are available in the market. Thus it is important for consumers to understand their own needs before availing of any of the products. This article will briefly explain consumer loans and their different types.

Start Your Free Investment Banking Course

Download Corporate Valuation, Investment Banking, Accounting, CFA Calculator & others

Types of Consumer Loan 1. Mortgage

A mortgage is a secured loan from a bank to a consumer for buying a house, which usually costs much more than an average person earns in a year. This type of loan is stretched over a longer period to ease out monthly installments, the most common mortgage being a 30-year fixed-rate loan.

2. Auto Loan

An auto loan is either extended by a bank or the car dealer itself to finance the purchase of a vehicle. The term of a typical auto loan ranges from 2 years to 7 years. The tenure is shorter, and the down payment is larger for an auto loan due to the rapid car value depreciation. It is typically secured in nature.

3. Education Loan

The objective of an education loan is to fulfill the education needs of a student by paying the college/tuition fees. In this way, students can pursue their life goals through proper education. This is an unsecured type of loan, and the repayment only starts a few months after the student graduates from college.

4. Personal Loan

A personal loan caters to various day-to-day needs of the borrower. It is the most versatile type of loan in the consumer loan market due to its wide range of end-use purposes, including debt consolidation, vacations, etc. This type of loan usually has a long tenure and can be either secured or unsecured.

5. Refinance Loan

As the name suggests, this loan is used to refinance an existing loan. A refinance loan can be used to refinance any of the abovementioned loans. Typically, it has a fixed payment with a lower interest rate, primarily attracting consumers.

6. Credit Card

It is the most commonly used and popular among the various types of consumer loans. A borrower usually uses it to buy daily needed items, such as groceries, apparel, etc., on credit. The rate of interest charged on this type of loan is a bit on the higher side, and thus failure to pay on time can attract a very high penalty.

Examples of Consumer Loan

Let us look at some of the available personal loans as of August 2023.


Estimated APR

Loan Amount

Min. Credit Score


$5,000 – $100,000


Marcus by Goldman Sachs

6.99% – 19.99%

$3,500 – $40,000


Wells Fargo

5.74% – 24.24%

$3,000 – $100,000

PenFed Credit Union

5.99% – 17.99%

$500 – $20,000


Source: Nerdwallet

Eligibility for Consumer Loan Categories of Consumer Loan

Consumer loans fall into either of two categories – open-end loans and closed-end loans.

1. Open-end Loan

In this type of loan, the borrower can avail of the fund for any purpose but must pay back a minimum portion of the loan within a certain date. Thus, this type of loan is also referred to as revolving credit.

2. Closed-end Loan

This type of loan is availed for financing some specific purchases. The loan is paid back by the borrower in equal monthly payments over some time, and thus it is also referred to as installment credit. It is usually secured by collateral, and failure to pay installments can lead to the seizure of collateral.

Uses of Consumer Loan

Some of the most common uses of consumer loans are as follows:

Purchasing a house or repairing an old house

Paying tuition fees for higher education

Purchasing cars for both commercial and private use

Refinancing existing loan

Benefits of Consumer Loan

Some of the major benefits of consumer loans are as follows:

First, it offers easy access to funds during times of critical requirement.

Second, it enhances financial flexibility with a wide range of products.

Third, it is very useful for debt consolidation.

Finally, consumers can purchase items far beyond their annual earnings.

Key Takeaways

Some of the key takeaways of the article are:

Consumer loans are extended to consumers to finance the purchase of specific items or purposes.

The consumer loans allow borrowers to purchase much costlier things than their annual earnings.

The most common types of consumer loans are – mortgages, auto loans, education loans, personal loans, refinance loans, and credit cards.

Consumer loans can be categorized into open-end loans or revolving credit and closed-end loans or installment credit.


So, it can be seen that consumer loans are used in financing purchases that are otherwise financially difficult for the borrowers. Many people won’t be able to purchase a home or a car without consumer loans. Thus, consumer loan is a great privilege for people if used with caution.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Consumer Loan. Here we discuss the definition, types, examples, and categories of Consumer loans, along with uses and benefits. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Content And Types Of Digital Certificate

Introduction to Digital Certificate

The following article provides an outline for Digital Certificate. A digital certificate is a small computer file. It is used to establish a relation between both the user and his or her public key. A digital certificate contains two things, i.e. the name of the user and the phis or her public key. So that we can identify that the particular key belongs to the particular user.

Start Your Free Software Development Course

The information a digital certificate contains is as follows:

Subject name

Public key

Serial number

Other data like email, phone, etc

Valid from

Valid to

Issuer name

Here subject name stands for the name of the user. The public key stands for the photograph and signature. The serial number stands for the number of a digital certificate. Other data contain users some personal information. Validity is used to show the validity of a particular digital certificate. The issuer’s name is the name of the person who issues a digital certificate for a user.

What is Certificate Authority?

A trusted agency that issues digital certificates is known for certificate authority. A certificate authority (CA) should be the trusted one; hence in many countries, the government decides that who should and should not be a CA. Verisign and Entrust are some of the famous certificate authorities in the world.

Contents of Digital Certificate

Below given are the contents of the Digital Certificates:

X.509 is a standard that defines the digital certificate structure. In 1998, ITU(International Telecommunication Union) came up with this standard. There are 3 versions available for X.509.

Version 1:

It has the following components:

Version: It is used to identify the version of X.509.

Certificate Serial Number: It is a unique integer number that CA generates.

Signature Algorithm Identifier: It is used to identify the algorithm used by the CA at the time of signature.

Issuer Name: It shows the name of the CA who issues a certificate.

Validity: It is used to show the validity of the certificate.

Subject Name: It shows the name of the user to whom the certificate belongs.

Subject Public Key Information: It contains the user’s public key and algorithm bused for the key.

Version 2:

It has two additional fields:

Issuer Unique Identifier: It helps to find the CA uniquely if two or more CA have used the same issuer name.

Subject Unique Identifier: It helps to find the user uniquely if two or more user has used the same name.

Version 3 contains many extensions of digital certificates.

Creation of Digital certificate

Below are the different steps to create a digital certificate:

step 1 – Key Generation

In this step, a key is generated. A key can be generated using two approaches.

Approach 1:

The user creates a private and public key pair using the software. Users must keep their private key secret. A user sends the public key with additional information to the RA. RA is an intermediate between the CA and the user.

Step 2 – Registration

This step is required only if the user generates the pair of keys. If RA generates the pair of a key for the user, then key registration is done in the 1st step only. A user sends his/her public key and some other information to the RA. This software provides a wizard where users enter details and submit. Then the data travel through the network and reach the RA. After that user request for the certificate will be registered, and the format for the certificate request will be standardized. This process is called a CSR (Certificate Signing request).

Step 3 – Verification

After the registration process is complete, RA identifies the user credentials.

Step 4 – Certificate Creation

After all the above-mentioned processes were completed, RA passed all the details to the CA. CA cross-verifies all the details and generates a digital certificate for the user. CA sends the certificate to the user and keeps one copy of that to keep the records. The Copy of the certificate is stored in the certificate directory.

Types of Digital Certificates

Given below are the types of digital certificates:

Email Certificate: It contains the email id of the user. This is used to identify the email message’s signer has an email id that is the same as mentioned in the user’s certificate.

Server-side SSL Certificate: These types of a certificate are useful for merchants because merchants want their users to trust their side and buy good services from their site.

Client-side SSL Certificate: A merchant uses this type of certificate to identify their clients.

Code Signing Certificates: This type of digital Certificate allows the Software developer to encrypt the code of their software or application. After encrypting the code attacker can not change or modify that code. Code Signing Certificates ensure the highest levels of security and verification. CA of the Code Signing Certificate verifies the integrity of software and the publisher’s identity using public key infrastructure (PKI) and digital signature technology and confirms that your code has not been tampered with or corrupted.

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide for Digital Certificates. Here we have discussed digital certificates, the contents of a digital certificate, how it is created, and its types. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Digital Signature Types

Digital Learning

What is an SSL Certificate?

Objectives And Process Of Amalgamation With Types

What is Amalgamation?

Download Corporate Valuation, Investment Banking, Accounting, CFA Calculator & others


Typically, amalgamation occurs when two or more companies are engaged in the same line of business decisions to combine their business existence. Most entities decide to amalgamate to expand their range of services or to diversify their activities. This happens between a stronger transferee company and a weaker transferor company, in which the more worthless company is absorbed, the more substantial company resulting in the formation of an entirely different entity. As it involves the merger of two or more, it results in the formation of a new entity that is larger with a much more robust and more significant customer base.

Objectives of Amalgamation

Some of the main objectives are mentioned below:

Companies sometimes amalgamate to avail of various benefits under the corporate tax regime.

There are instances where companies enter into amalgamation with close competitors to eliminate competition in the market. However, in some cases, it creates a monopoly in the market, which is not a desirable outcome.

It offers opportunities for future growth and development – both financial and capital.

Inherently, it provides synergy benefits, meaning that the companies enjoy benefits from combining operations.

Amalgamation Process

The process can be broken into the following five steps:

The board of directors of the combining entities finalizes the detailed terms and conditions of the amalgamation agreement.

Preparation of the scheme of amalgamation, which is then submitted to the respective High Court for approval.

Obtain the consent of the shareholders of the combining companies, which is submitted to SEBI for approval.

Form a new company and issue its shares to the shareholders of the transferor company.

Liquidate the weaker transferor company and transfer all the assets and liabilities to the stronger transferee company.

Examples of Amalgamation

Some of the significant examples have been discussed below:

Arcelor S.A.: In 2002, French steel maker Usinor, Spanish steel maker Aceralia, and Arbed of Luxembourg amalgamated to form the new company named Arcelor.

Maruti Suzuki India Limited: In 2002, India’s Maruti Udyog Limited amalgamated with Suzuki Motor Corporation based in Japan to form the new entity – Maruti Suzuki.

Tata AIG General Insurance Company Limited: In 2001, Tata Group and the American International Group, Inc. (AIG) amalgamated to form the new Tata AIG General entity.

Types of Amalgamation

There are two major types, and they are as follows:

Pooling of Interests Method: In this accounting method, the transferor entity’s assets and liabilities are transferred to the books of the transferee entity at their current carrying value.

Purchase Method: In this amalgamation method, the transferee entity records the assets and liabilities of the transferor entity either at their current carrying value or based on their fair value on the date of amalgamation.

Who is Involved in Amalgamation?

The process of amalgamation typically involves the following:

Investment bankers build various financial models to evaluate and determine the value of the potential transaction.

Lawyers work with bankers and their corporate clients to select the best legal structure for the transaction.

Accountants to support the bankers in the evaluation of the transaction value.

Amalgamation vs Merger

Some of the significant differences between amalgamation and merger are as follows:

In amalgamation, companies combine to form an entirely new entity. In contrast, in a merger, companies combine, either in the formation of a new company or the existence of one of the combined companies is retained.

The process in most cases consists of three companies, while a merger in most cases involves only two companies.

Companies of comparable sizes usually get involved in an amalgamation process. In contrast, the size of companies involved in mergers varies significantly as an entity acts as the absorbing company that absorbs the relatively more minor company.

The asset and liabilities of the combining companies are transferred to the newly formed entity. In contrast, in the case of a merger, the assets and liabilities of the relatively minor entity are consolidated into the absorbing entity.


It helps eliminate competition between companies operating in the same industry.

Transfer of technical know-how among companies enhances R&D capabilities.

The companies result in a reduction in operating costs.

Lower competition results in the stability of prices of goods.

Amalgamation among substantial players in the industry might result in a monopoly market, which eliminates healthy competition.

It might result in the reduction of employees.

Deterioration of capital structure due to the additional debt of one of the entities.

Loss of goodwill and identity of the existing companies.

Conclusion Recommended Articles

Update the detailed information about Dbms Joins: Inner, Theta, Outer, Equi Types Of Join Operations on the website. We hope the article's content will meet your needs, and we will regularly update the information to provide you with the fastest and most accurate information. Have a great day!