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Apple pulls select iPhones in Germany in another Qualcomm case [Update]

Apple will pull iPhone 8 and iPhone 7 phones from its store shelves in Germany, after a new injunction gave Qualcomm another win in the two firms’ ongoing legal spat. A court in Munich, Germany has granted the chip-maker a sales injunction against select iPhone handsets in the country, though Apple has said it will appeal the decision.

It comes on the heels of an earlier injunction earlier this month, which saw Qualcomm persuade a court in China that Apple infringed on its patented technology. That ruling saw Qualcomm demand Apple cease selling all of its most recent models in the country, something the Cupertino firm claimed was an over-reach of the ruling. Instead, it worked on an update for iOS which it says addresses the contentious features.

In Germany, though, Apple is taking what seems like a more conservative approach to the ruling. The judge in the case had said that the injunction would not be applied immediately, and that Apple could continue selling the models in question should an appeal be filed. Apple, though confirming that it would indeed be appealing the decision, said that it would still temporarily cease sales of the iPhone 7 and iPhone 8.

That will only apply to its own stores in Germany, CNBC reports today, of which there are fifteen. The iPhone XS, iPhone XS Max, and iPhone XR – all released this year – will continue to be available. Third-party retailers, along with carriers, will still be free to offer all of the iPhones, including the two involved in this case.

Qualcomm’s argument is that select iPhones use Intel chips which infringe on a patent it holds detailing battery management during wireless use. Known as envelope tracking, the technology is handled by chips from supplier Qorvo. That firm has denied any infringement.

“We believe our envelope tracking chip does not infringe the patent in suit, and the court would have come to a different conclusion if it had considered all the evidence,” Qorvo Chief Intellectual Property Counsel Mike Baker said of the ruling. He also criticized the fact that the creator of the company’s chip “wasn’t given the opportunity to testify or present other evidence that disproves Qualcomm’s claim of infringement” despite being in attendance. The International Trade Commission, Baker points out, has ruled that Qorvo’s “envelope tracker chip does not infringe the US counterpart to the patent at issue in this case.”

Intel has been similarly dismissive, claiming that Qualcomm is looking to “drive competition out of the market for premium modem chips, and to defend a business model that ultimately harms consumers.” In a statement by Steven R. Rodgers, executive vice president and general counsel of Intel Corporation, the chip-maker argues that Qualcomm is trying to distract from “unlawful” licensing practices.

As for Apple, it’s similarly blunt. While the company confirmed that it would be pausing sales of the smartphones, it also blasted Qualcomm for “charging exorbitant fees based on work they didn’t do” and pointed out that the chip-maker is being investigated for such practices.

“Qualcomm’s campaign is a desperate attempt to distract from the real issues between our companies. Their tactics, in the courts and in their everyday business, are harming innovation and harming consumers. Qualcomm insists on charging exorbitant fees based on work they didn’t do and they are being investigated by governments all around the world for their behavior. We are of course disappointed by this verdict and we plan to appeal. All iPhone models remain available to customers through carriers and resellers in 4,300 locations across Germany. During the appeal process, iPhone 7 and iPhone 8 models will not be available at Apple’s 15 retail stores in Germany. iPhone XS, iPhone XS Max and iPhone XR will remain available in all our stores” Apple

Update: Qualcomm has given us a statement on the injunction, and says that it expects to post bonds required by the court in a few days time.

“The injunction covers all models of iPhones that contain the infringing functionalities and apply to Apple’s European Union entities as well as Apple Incorporated. The judgment is immediately enforceable once Qualcomm posts bonds covering potential damages incurred by Apple should the judgment be overturned or amended on appeal. Apple’s request to the court for a stay of the injunction was denied. The court has also determined that Apple is liable for monetary damages in an amount to be determined at a later time.

“Two respected courts in two different jurisdictions just in the past two weeks have now confirmed the value of Qualcomm’s patents and declared Apple an infringer, ordering a ban on iPhones in the important markets of Germany and China,” said Don Rosenberg, executive vice president and general counsel, Qualcomm Incorporated.

The court also granted Qualcomm’s request for an accounting of the details associated with all sales, including revenues and profits of the accused devices in Germany and a recall and destruction of all accused devices from all retailers in Germany” Qualcomm

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Qualcomm Vs Ftc Trial: Apple Recalls Ipad Mini 2 Negotiations, Qualcomm Defends Double

As part of the Qualcomm and Federal Trade Commission trial this week, Qualcomm CEO Steve Mollenkopf continued to defend his company’s business practices. As reported by CNET, Mollenkopf said the practices are what’s best for the whole industry, while Apple continues to claim the tactics are monopolistic.

The FTC’s case against Qualcomm centers on the chipmaker’s “no license, no chips” policy. The trial is ongoing in front of Judge Lucy Koh in a US District Court in San Jose, with Mollenkopf testifying on Friday.

The “no license, no chips” policy refers to Qualcomm’s practice that requires companies like Apple to license Qualcomm’s patents before it will sell them modems. Apple, in its own separate case against Qualcomm, has likened this practice to double-dipping.

“We only sell to companies with a license because not all the IP [intellectual property] is covered in the chip. What we want to do is make sure the [phone makers] are covered,” Mollenkopf said.

He pointed to the security framework used when phones connect to a network as an example. “It’s not embodied in the chip, it’s not in the phones, but it’s in all these things,” Mollenkopf said. “There’s a tremendous amount of IP we generate that makes the system work.”

Meanwhile, Apple’s Tony Blevins, VP of procurement, testified on Friday as a witness for the FTC. Blevins cited an early meeting with Qualcomm when Apple was looking for modem suppliers for the iPad mini 2, CNET explains.

Blevins hoped that the iPad mini 2 could help begin a longer-term relationship with the chipmaker, and had a meeting with Qualcomm president Christiano Amon in 2013. Amon, however, simply told Blevins that, “I’m your only choice, and I know Apple can afford to pay it.” This is what kickstarted “Project Antique,” which we reported on yesterday.

Further, Blevins recounts his experience trying to source sample chips from Qualcomm. Qualcomm, however, wouldn’t offer any samples until Apple signed a licensing agreement:

“We would go out to potential suppliers and ask for samples and technical specifications to do value analysis,” Blevins said. With Qualcomm, “we were surprised. Instead of offering samples and specifications, we got a letter indicating they had a license agreement that had to be completed prior to getting any samples.”

Additionally, Qualcomm demanded as part of that license agreement that Apple cross-license its own IP to Qualcomm:

“We don’t understand why in order to buy a component from them we have to enter into a license agreement that requires Apple to license all its IP back to them. We don’t understand why that would be in anyone’s best interest other than Qualcomm’s,” Blevins said.

Mollenkopf also testified that Apple approached Qualcomm about exclusively supplying Qualcomm chips for the iPhone in exchange for a $1 billion incentive payment. Apple is said to have wanted the $1 billion payment to help cover transition costs.

Mollenkopf said an incentive payment was made, but did not disclose the amount. Meanwhile, Apple’s Blevins offered a different view, saying “with exclusivity, there would be no competition.”

Ultimately, Mollenkopf says its licensing strategies allow Qualcomm “to invest in technology early” and fund further research and development. Qualcomm will have to defend those practices as the case continues.

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Switch Case In Shell Scripting

Introduction to Switch Case in Shell Scripting

When we need to perform multilevel checks we can use multiple if and else conditions or nested if-else branches but when we need to perform all conditional operations on a particular variable then it better to use switch case. In shell scripting switch case is represented using keywords case and esac which will do multilevel branching and checking in a better way than multiple if-else conditions. Switch case will need an expression which it needs to evaluate and need to perform multiple operations based on the outcome of the expression. So, we will use a switch case conditional statement when we want to perform different operations on the outcome of a single expression.

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Syntax for Switch Case in Shell Scripting

The syntax for the switch case in shell scripting can be represented in two ways one is single pattern expression and multi-pattern expression let’s have a look now.

First Syntax Method


case $var in pattern) commands to execute;; pattern1) commands to execute;; pattern2) commands to execute;; pattern3) commands to execute;; *) Default condition and commands to execute;; esac

In the above switch case syntax, $var in the pattern is a conditional expression if it evaluates to true commands corresponding to it will execute like that it will check for all conditional patterns if nothing satisfies or evaluates to true then commands in default condition will execute. The default condition is optional but it better to have it. When one condition matches then “;;” indicates control needs to go the end of the switch case statement.

Second Syntax Method

Now, we will have a look at the syntax of the switch case conditional statement with multiple patterns.


pattern6) commands need to execute;; *) Default condition and statements need to execute esac

In the above switch case syntax method, we are having a single $var comparing against multiple patterns with an or condition. If one of the condition matches it evaluates to true then corresponding statements will execute until the “;;” which indicates the end of that conditional statement. *) indicates the start of the default condition and statements need to execute and esac indicates the end of the switch case. We can include wild characters, regex in the patterns. The conditional check will happen continuously until it finds a pattern otherwise default statement will execute.

Flow Diagram for Switch Case

The flow diagram of the switch case in shell scripting is like below and we will explain with a simple example too. An example of the switch case statement is explained below.


fruit = "kiwi" case $"fruit" in "apple") echo "apple is tasty";; "banana") echo "I like banana";; "kiwi") echo "Newzeland is famous for kiwi";; *) echo "default case";; esac

Flow Diagram:

In the above switch case example, we have a variable with kiwi as value and we have 3 patterns. It doesn’t satisfy or evaluates to true in the first 2 conditional statements and evaluates to true in the third conditional statement and executes the statement and control reaches the end of the switch case statement. In the above example first, conditional pattern is apple which is not equal to kiwi so it evaluates to false and second one is banana that also doesn’t matches and evaluates to false and the third statement is kiwi and it matches if it also doesn’t matches then it will execute default statement in the switch case and finally it comes to end of the switch case.


How Switch Case Works in Shell Scripting?

We have discussed already what a switch case, its syntax is. Now, we will see in detail how it will work in shell scripting. Initially, we initialize a variable with an expression or value and conditional statement checks whether it satisfies any condition, if yes then it will execute the corresponding commands until it finds the ;; which indicates the end of the commands of that condition. It will check the condition until it satisfies otherwise it will exit the switch case. If there is a default case then it will execute the commands in it instead of exiting from the switch case. Let’s have a simple example and see how it works as below:

Let’s have a simple example and see how it works as below:

mode = "jeep"; case $mode in “lorry") echo "For $mode, rent is Rs.40 per k/m.";; "jeep") echo "For $mode, rent is Rs.30 per k/m.";; *) echo "Sorry, I cannot get a $mode rent for you!";; esac

In the above example, the variable mode is initialized with jeep and it checks all the conditions in switch case and executes the command which it satisfies and then it exits the switch case statement. In this case, it satisfies the condition jeep and executes the commands with a display message and comes out of the switch case statement.


Examples of Switch Case in Shell Scripting

Let’s have a look different at switch case examples and how they are working, what each example is trying to do with an explanation as follows.

Example #1

In this example, we are trying to tell the computer that it needs to do which backup based on the date.


NOW=$(date +"%a") case $NOW in Mon) echo "Full backup";; *) ;; esac

In the above example, we assigned now with a day and we are checking the statements, here the day is assigned dynamically so the output of this program will change based on the day you execute this program. In this case, it will display partial backup as output.


Example #2

In this example, we are trying to know the fare of a vehicle based on its type like bike, jeep, bicycle, car etc.

mode = "bike"; case $mode in "sportscar") echo "For $mode, rent is Rs.20 per k/m.";; "lorry") echo "For $mode, rent is Rs.50 per k/m.";; "sumo") echo "For $mode, rent is Rs.30 per k/m.";; "bicycle") echo "For $mode, rent is Rs. 5 per k/m.";; *) echo "Sorry, I can not get a $mode rent for you!";; esac

In the above example, we have a bike in the variable and checking against all the conditions but unfortunately, we didn’t find any match the conditions. So it will execute the default commands of the switch case and come out of it. In this case, it displays a sorry message.


Example #3

In this above let’s try to pass an argument to the shell script, and the argument will be compared against the conditions.


option="${1}" case ${option} in -f) file="${2}" echo "file name is $file" ;; -d) dir="${2}" echo "dir name is $dir" ;; *) esac

In the above example, we will pass an argument to the shell script and according to the argument, it will execute either the file or directory by default it displays the usage of the shell script. If we pass –f and filename it displays the file name, etc.



Finally, it’s an overview of the switch case in shell scripting. So far we have discussed what is switch case, its syntax, how it works, its flow using a flow diagram and example, different examples to show use cases of switch case statement in shell scripting. I hope after reading this article you will have a better understanding of switch cases in shell scripting.

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Best Iphone Se Waterproof Case In 2023

The iPhone SE, an electronic marvel, needs protection against sweat and water. Now dry and cloudy, it remains a constant threat for people to go out with umbrellas and rainwear. While you care much about yourself, you should be equally worried about your iPhone SE’s health. Waterproof iPhone SE cases are essential, especially in the United States, where climate changes occur anytime. This list of the best iPhone SE waterproof cases is for you; each comprises superior quality materials to prevent water or sweat from damaging your iPhone.

1. iThrough

Very few accessories makers request you to test their products before you actually install them on your dear iPhones. iThrough does it effortlessly as the brand is confident about its high-quality waterproof case for iPhone SE. iThrough uses top-notch TPU as material, which makes all the difference as your phone remains protected against scratches.

Even though it is a waterproof case, it is ultra-slim and lightweight. It weighs only 42g, and still, it is one of the thinnest and most rugged cases available on the market.

2. Spidercase

Can you expect a waterproof case to be compatible with iPhone touch ID biometric scanner? Spidercase has done this efficiently in its full-body protective cover for iPhone SE. The waterproof case from Spidercase is fully compatible with your iPhone’s Touch ID sensor.

You can submerge your iPhone SE sixteen feet underwater, thanks to Spidercase’s tested IP68 certified waterproof case, which can also endure accidental drops from the height of two meters. Normally, waterproof cases are not expected to be beautiful, but Spidercase has shattered this myth and crafted a slim and sleek case.

3. AceTeah

Keep your iPhone SE as dry as a bone with AceTeah waterproof case, which has a dual swivel lock and sealable closure clip design. If you frequently take part in outdoor activities, this case is a must-buy for you as it protects your iPhone SE along with your ID, credit cards, cash, etc.

The case is made of environmental nontoxic food-grade polyvinyl chloride and sturdy ABS material. AceTeah has got IPX8 certification; it can easily resist heat, cold, and pressure. It can protect your iPhone SE 15 meters underwater.

4. Effun

The Effun has crafted this case with the precise cutout so that you can use all buttons and controls like Touch ID, cameras, speakers, power button, mute key, charge ports, and volume buttons on your SE.

5. LifeProof

LifeProof is one of the premium brands that manufacture high-end accessories for your precious iPhone SE. One of the most important features of this case is a built-in screen guard, which is nearly invisible to your eyes and touches.

This case is not only waterproof but also snowproof and shockproof. You can dive into the water and play aquatic games for one hour; however, you cannot go below two meters underwater.

6. OtterBox

When it comes to strength and security, everybody relies on OtterBox – a brand that manufactures exceptionally sturdy cases for smartphones. This case is taken from OtterBox’s popular Armor series. The case is so strong that your phone is secure even if it is dropped from a height of 10 feet.

To let you live extreme life, this screen protector is made crush-proof up to two tons. The dust-proof case doesn’t allow any dust particle to enter your phone.

7. CarterLily

CarterLily iPhone SE waterproof case is robustly built with an aluminum metal frame that protects your phone against harms and damage. Check out its rubber button that plays a dual role in protecting your phone and supporting fingerprint function.

You can uncover the rubber button when you have to use the fingerprint scanner. The gorilla glass screen guard protects your phone’s touchscreen from high impacts and shocks. The waterproof case protects your phone from rainwater and daily life water.


HESGI has good protection and waterproof effect. The screen protection film is made of PET material, which can resist water and snow weather or any other similar environment.

The waterproof case boasts the IP68 standard, which allows you to submerge your iPhone SE 6.6 feet underwater. Enjoy complete access to all the key functions like volume, charging, headphone jack, home button, mute, power, etc. Capture high-quality photos and videos with its front and back lenses.

That’s all!

Signing off

Waterproof cases are the need of the hour, especially when you live in a country with an unpredictable climate. For comprehensive protection, you can rely only on waterproof cases for your iPhone SE.

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The founder of iGeeksBlog, Dhvanesh, is an Apple aficionado, who cannot stand even a slight innuendo about Apple products. He dons the cap of editor-in-chief to make sure that articles match the quality standard before they are published.

Qualcomm Snapdragon 855 Revealed As 5G Flagship

Qualcomm Snapdragon 855 revealed as 5G flagship

Qualcomm has revealed its first 5G solution for next-gen smartphones and more, the Snapdragon 855 Mobile Platform. The new flagship at the top of the chip-maker’s processor range, it’s not just a chip, Qualcomm insists, but a full architecture for making the most of 5G.

As Qualcomm sees it, that means paving the way for more immersive extended reality (XR) experiences – that’s virtual reality and augmented reality to you and I – along with new artificial intelligence (AI) products. Multi-gigabit 5G, meanwhile, will help cut data transfer times and latency considerably over 4G LTE networks, assuming you have the 5G network to deliver it.

Key will be a new, 4th generation multi-core AI Engine, drawing together the Adreno, Kryo, and Hexagon components of the SoC. Qualcomm says it’ll deliver up to three times the performance compared to its predecessor in the Snapdragon 845, currently found in phones like the Pixel 3 XL and Galaxy Note 9, by intelligently choosing which core to task each time. The focus there is on-device AI processing rather than having to rely on the cloud, whether that means delivering portrait mode photos with a single camera, scene detection, or analyzing photos and videos for visual search.

Snapdragon 855 will also include a Computer Vision (CV) ISP, which Qualcomm says it’s a world’s first. That will pave the way to new computational photography and video capture features, the chip-maker suggests. Meanwhile, Snapdragon Elite Gaming will focus on the silicon’s potential in mobile games.

Of course for those to be practical, they need more than just a 5G modem inside. For a start there are battery and power management questions to be addressed: your 5G smartphone is no use if it only lasts an hour before you need to charge it, but neither will consumers settle for thicker, heavier devices that add extra-large batteries. Beyond that, though, are questions around coverage and use-case.

Even with the various carriers talking up their 5G roadmaps, getting service will be the exception not the rule for some time to come. That means any 5G device will also need to deliver top-notch 4G LTE to fall back to, too. Qualcomm is also pitching its talents in multi-gigabit WiFi, as part of a combined 5G, 4G LTE, and WiFi connectivity solution that, if all goes to plan, operates seamlessly from the perspective of the user.

That’s vital since the focus has to be on how you benefit from 5G and multi-gigabit, not just how technologically impressive it is. Qualcomm, of course, doesn’t make the devices itself, only the Snapdragon 855 Mobile Platform, but it has a vested interest in making sure that there’s more than just fast download speeds to tempt consumers into upgrading.

“A new technology phase has begun,” Cristiano Amon, President of Qualcomm Incorporated said during the company’s opening keynote at the Snapdragon Summit. “Virtually everything is becoming connected and intelligent.”

With device-makers like Samsung, OnePlus, Motorola, and more expected to bring 5G smartphones to market in 2023 – and Apple after that, with an iPhone 5G probably not arriving until 2023 at the earliest according to the latest leaks – there’s really not much time to set out those must-have use-cases.

“”Everything we can do with the smartphones we have now, it is not going to be that different with 5G,” Amon argues. Still, he’s predicting a significant evolution ahead. “This transition is different to transition we had with 3G and 4G … 5G will be bigger than 3G and 4G,” he insisted. “It has the potential to be one of the largest industry transitions we have in wireless.”

Qualcomm is playing most of the Snapdragon 855 details relatively close to its chest, at least for today. It’s promising to run through the specifics of the mobile platform tomorrow, on the second day of its Snapdragon Summit 2023. We’re out at the Summit as guests of Qualcomm, and will be bringing you all the news this week.

Smart Home Turns Informant: Police Want Echo And Iot Data In Murder Case

Smart home turns informant: Police want Echo and IoT data in murder case

The case centers around James Andrew Bates, who is accused of the strangulation and drowning death of Victor Collins on November 22. Police found Collins in a hot tub, after Bates called emergency services to report finding the body. He later pleaded not guilty to murder charges, and will face trial in 2023.

As part of the evidence gathering process, investigators looked to Bates’ smart home technology. One example is the Amazon Echo, which uses always-on microphones that listen out to trigger words – either “Alexa” or “Amazon” – before doing cloud-processing on whatever the spoken request is. Amazon was served with a warrant to hand over any recordings those microphones might have made.

According to The Information, Amazon declined to give full details of what was stored on its servers. It did, though, grant access to Bates’ Amazon account details, in addition to a list of purchases he had made. The police say they were able to extract some data from the Echo speaker itself, though it’s uncertain at this point what that might comprise.

MORE INFO: How private is Amazon’s Echo?

The privacy issues around Echo – and other smart home speakers, such as Google Home – have been a topic of controversy for some time. While the processing of the trigger words is done locally, on the speaker itself, any subsequent audio is streamed to the cloud where Amazon’s analysis takes place. However, that audio also includes a small amount of cached content kept from before you actually said the wake word.

“When you use the wake word, the audio stream includes a fraction of a second of audio before the wake word, and closes once your question or request has been processed,” Amazon explains. The company also stored those audio streams: users can review them in the companion Alexa app on their smartphone, rating how accurately Amazon recognized what was actually said. There, they can be deleted too, though they’re not removed by default.

Exactly what might have been stored on the Echo in question, therefore, and what Amazon might still have on its servers is a matter of speculation. On the one hand, if the wake word hadn’t been heard – or mis-heard, as can sometimes be the case with Echo – then the smart speaker would have had no cause to transfer any recordings to the cloud. At the same time, it’s uncertain how much cached speech data was kept in the 4GB of local storage found inside.

Alexa isn’t the only unexpected witness in the case, mind. Investigators are also looking at data from a connected water meter, they confirmed, which logged 140 gallons-worth of usage between 1am and 3am on the night of the incident. According to the police’s version of that night, the Bates used that water to wash away evidence of the crime.

VIA Engadget; The Information

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