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A court Wednesday found Apple had conspired to increase the prices of e-books, setting a separate trial for damages.

In a 159-page decision, U.S. District Court Judge Denise Cote wrote that “Apple played a central role” in the conspiracy, which the company flatly denied.

The government has charged Apple with working with five publishers together to undercut Amazon’s control of the market. In response to the verdict, some watchers opined that the government playing so openly into the hand of a monopolist like Amazon may reduce competition…

Reuters and Bloomberg have this quote from Cote’s ruling:

The plaintiffs have shown that the publisher defendants conspired with each other to eliminate retail price competition in order to raise e-book prices, and that Apple played a central role in facilitating and executing the conspiracy.

She also wrote that “Apple seized the moment and brilliantly played its hand”.

As a result of the collusion, some e-book prices rose to $12.99 or $14.99 from the $9.99 charged by Amazon, the court said. Apple was the only remaining defendant in the case, after publishers settled with the U.S. government and various states.

A trial for damages will follow soon. Apple will of course appeal the ruling. “We will continue to fight against these false accusations,” Apple told AllThingsD.

Apple did not conspire to fix ebook pricing and we will continue to fight against these false accusations.

When we introduced the iBookstore in 2010, we gave customers more choice, injecting much needed innovation and competition into the market, breaking Amazon’s monopolistic grip on the publishing industry.

We’ve done nothing wrong and we will appeal the judge’s decision.

In a statement, the U.S. Department of Justice called the ruling “a victory” for millions of consumers who choose to read books electronically.

Through today’s court decision and previous settlements with five major publishers, consumers are again benefitting from retail price competition and paying less for their e-books.

Apple executives hoped to ensure that its e-book business would be free from retail price competition, causing consumers throughout the country to pay higher prices for many e-books

Orin Snyder, Apple’s lawyer Orin Snyder said in a written statement in response to Judge Cote’s May statement that she believed the government would prove its case.:

We strongly disagree with the court’s preliminary statements about the case.

The court made clear that this was not a final ruling and that the evidence at trial will determine the verdict.

This is what a trial is for.

At the heart of the case was the launch of Apple’s iPad in 2010 and the iPad maker’s use of the so-called agency pricing model, which afforded publishers more flexibility in terms of pricing while Apple held on to its customary 30 percent cut.

“Without Apple’s orchestration of this conspiracy, it would not have succeed as it did in the spring of 2010,” Cote wrote.

Throughout the bench trial, which concluded June 20, Apple argued its innocence.

Apple CEO Tim Cook, Internet services guru Eddy Cue, and even a memo from the late Steve Jobs were part of the company’s testimony. In one statement, Jobs wrote this to HarperCollins’s James Murdoch:

Throw in with Apple and see if we can all make a go of this to create a real mainstream e-books market at $12.99 and $14.99.

Here’s Jobs touching on the subject in a brief chat with Walt Mossberg.

Tim Cook called litigation a “bizarre” case, arguing:

We’ve done nothing wrong there, and so we’re taking a very principled position. We’re not going to sign something that says we did something we didn’t do. So we’re going to fight.

Just days before the trial’s conclusion, Apple’s high-priced legal team virtually dismantled a witness from Google, making a direct eye-witness to the conspiracy admit the evidence was instead second- or third-hand.

As is customary, Apple had no immediate response to its court loss.

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Windows Defender Keeps Saying Threats Found But Nothing Found

If Windows Defender keeps saying Threats found in a popup message of the original interface, this guide will help you get rid of the issue. Even if you have taken action already, it might continue to display the message on your screen and interrupt you from doing your work. Therefore, you need to go through these tips to troubleshoot the problem on Windows 11 and Windows 10 PC.

Windows Defender keeps saying Threats found but nothing found

If Windows Defender keeps saying Threats found message, follow these steps to address the issue on your Windows 11/10 computer:

Delete scan history

Clear Windows Defender log

Add Exclusion

Disable Real-time protection temporarily

Let’s check out these steps in detail.

1] Delete scan history

Windows Security or Windows Defender scans for the log or history to show the Threats found message on your computer. For your information, it stores the scan history files in the system drive or C drive. If you delete these history folders from your computer, it won’t be able to find the threats and eventually, it will stop showing the message.

Therefore, follow these steps to delete scan history in Windows 11/10:

Open File Explorer on your computer.

Navigate to this path: C:ProgramDataMicrosoftWindows DefenderScansHistoryService

2] Clear Windows Defender log

It is possible to delete the log of Windows Defender or Windows Security on Windows 11 PC using Event Viewer. As Event Viewer stores all the things happen on your computer, you can find the scan history of Windows Defender as well. Therefore, follow these steps to clear Windows Defender log using Event Viewer:

Search for event viewer in the Taskbar search box.

It will clear the log. Following that, restart the Windows Defender application.

3] Add Exclusion

Windows Defender scans every file on your computer. However, if you do not want to allow a file or folder to be scanned, you can add it to the Exclusions list. If the first trick on this article has not worked for you, you can add the Service or DetectionHistory folder to the Exclusions list. For that, do the following:

Open Windows Security on your computer.

Switch to the Virus & threat protection section.

Choose this folder: C:ProgramDataMicrosoftWindows DefenderScansHistoryService

Then, you should not find the same Threats found message again.

4] Disable Real-time protection temporarily

You should do this only if you have third-party antivirus software installed.

Real-time protection can be disabled using the Local Group Policy Editor. For that, follow these steps:

Choose the Enabled option.

Then, you should not find the same message again.

Read: How to disable Microsoft Defender in Windows 11/10

Windows Defender Threats found, Start actions not working

If the Windows Defender Start actions option is not working, you need to restart your computer first. If it is happening due to a bug, it might get fixed immediately. Following that, you can disable any other installed security software, check the Local Group Policy Editor setting, verify the Registry files, etc. Finally, you can run the SFC and DISM tools on your computer.

Windows Defender keeps saying Threats found but nothing found

However, if nothing helps, you can disable the real-time protection. For your information, it is possible to do that using the Local Group Policy Editor.

Read: Windows Defender will not turn off even when 3rd party AntiVirus is installed

How do I get rid of Windows Defender threats?

The easiest way to get rid of the Windows Defender threats is by removing them. You can either remove them from your computer or quarantine those threats. Both are possible using the Windows Security interface. Whether you use Windows 11 or Windows 10, the options can be found in the same location.

How do I get rid of quarantine threats in Windows Defender?

Google’s John Mueller Stresses Importance Of E

Search Advocate John Mueller stresses that Google is most concerned with expertise, authoritativeness, and trustworthiness (E-A-T) when ranking content that deals with health & finance.

This topic is discussed at length during the Google Search Central SEO hangout recorded on March 26.

Mueller says a medical ecommerce store likely falls into the category of a YMYL (your money your life) site, which Google holds to a higher standard than other types of sites.

Following SEO best practices is always a good idea. However, when it comes to ranking YMYL sites, it’s less about the individual tactics and more about making sure the content comes from an expert authority that users can trust.

Google’s John Mueller on Ranking YMYL Sites

On using SEO tactics to rank YMYL sites, Mueller says:

“I think that’s always hard. I don’t think there’s like one magic trick that gets you traffic from search automatically. I think following the best practices in general for making a good website is always a good idea. Making sure that you can get the word out is important. But especially for medical topics, anything that’s a little more critical, I would also keep in mind everything around the EAT. So the expertise, authoritativeness, and trustworthiness.

Kind of make sure that that the site that you’re providing represents like a really high standard. And that the content is of really high quality and that it’s put together by people who understand what they’re doing. That it’s not something like a run out of a garage kind of site. And that’s something that I think, especially for the medical area, is super critical.”

Mueller references a blog post from Google published in 2023 which goes into more detail with questions site owners can ask themselves about the quality of their website.

“We have a blog post that goes into some of that specific for the core algorithm update that we did I think last year at some point, where it goes through a bunch of questions that you can ask yourself and it also links to the raters guidelines that talk a little bit about these kind of sites.

So we call them YMYL, your money your life sites. And I would see a medical ecommerce site kind of falling into that category as well. And there are various things that you can think about there and I don’t think there’s like one simple trick to make it look official. You really need to make sure that you actually do have that official touch.”

Google’s algorithms are picky when it comes to YMYL sites, and Mueller views that as a good thing.

What site owners can do is look at Google’s quality rater guidelines and think about how their site might be perceived on a manual review by one of Google’s human quality raters.

“I don’t think there is one simple approach to that. And I think especially when it comes to medical content, I think that’s super important that our algorithms are very picky there with regards to what we show. So I would look at the quality rater guidelines and really think about how your site might be perceived by the quality raters.

The quality raters don’t make the algorithms, but they do give us a lot of insight into what we might do in our algorithms. So I would strongly recommend going through that. And I think it’s especially, when it comes to these kind of sites, it’s less about the tactics and really more about making sure that it really is a legitimate business and that it’s backed up by appropriate trustworthy sources.

So not just high quality content, and doing all of this syndication, all of these things. But really making sure that it’s written by doctor, it’s created by medical professionals who are legitimate in their field.”

An SEO named Marc Opitz adds to this discussion saying he’s had similar challenges writing about medical topics without being a doctor.

He notes that YMYL sites have been hit hard lately and asks Mueller for any tips that can be provided.

Mueller again suggests reviewing the quality rater guidelines.

“The core updates are not specific to medical sites, but a lot of the questions and input around them generally applies to that as well.

My recommendation would really be to go and look at the quality rater guidelines and really go through that and think about it more with the perspective of if a quality rater were looking at your site, or at the general area where your site is active in, like some of your competitors as well, how they might respond to review requests there.

And the quality raters are not one-to-one mapping to our algorithms, but rather they give us some input. Oftentimes going with that mindset and trying to be objective when looking at your website that gives you some ideas of what you might be able to do differently.”

At this point in the discussion Mueller begins suggesting a few specific enhancements that can be made to improve a site’s E-A-T.

If the content is being written by an authority on the topic, Mueller recommends doing more to highlight who is writing it.

Another way this can be handled is to at least get the content reviewed by a legitimate expert and highlight that somewhere on the page.

“And sometimes those are small things like just highlighting better who is creating the content, where it’s coming from, who has reviewed the content. Sometimes it’s bigger things where you kind of realize well, actually if I’m writing about medical topics maybe I should make sure that I have a doctor or some medical professional actually review the content. Kind of changing the perspective there a little bit.

But all of these things are, I think, trickier because it’s not a pure kind of like yes or no kind of situation. You kind of have to look at your site and think about what variations might there be that I could do. Or where might I be running into issues unexpectedly.”

Mueller concludes his thoughts with a non-specific shout out to SEOs in the field who focus on the E-A-T topic.

There have been several case studies by these individuals, which Mueller says are insightful.

“There are also a handful of really smart SEOs that have focused on the whole EAT topic and they write about this regularly. They present at conferences about this. I would definitely also look into that. Some of the case studies I have shown I thought they were really insightful.”

Hear the full discussion around E-A-T and YMYL sites in the video below:

What Is The Meaning Of “Conversation Not Found” Error On Chatgpt?

The “Conversation Not Found” error on ChatGPT indicates a problem with the chat thread, often caused by unclear input. Copying the conversation to a new thread can fix it.

Are you having trouble conversing with ChatGPT? Have you encountered an error message that says “Conversation Not Found” while using ChatGPT? Don’t worry, you’re not alone. Many users face this issue while conversing with ChatGPT. In this article, we will discuss the meaning of the “Conversation Not Found” error on ChatGPT and how to fix it.

See Also: How to Use Jasper AI for Free: A Comprehensive Guide

ChatGPT is an AI-powered chatbot that can answer complex queries. However, sometimes users may encounter an error message that says “Conversation Not Found” while using ChatGPT. This error message indicates that the server has lost the chat due to a potential issue with the conversation thread between the user and the ChatGPT system. It means that the input provided by the user is not in a structured format, making it unclear for ChatGPT to understand.

The most common reason behind the “Conversation Not Found” error is due to unclear input provided by the user. The input may not be in a structured format that ChatGPT can comprehend or process. Another reason could be due to the server losing the conversation due to problems with the conversation thread between the user and the ChatGPT system.

Read More: What is Gamma AI? How to Use It?

If you encounter the “Conversation Not Found” error while conversing with ChatGPT, there are several methods that you can try to fix the issue:

The most common reason for the “Conversation Not Found” error is due to unclear input provided by the user. Ensure that the query provided is in a structured format that ChatGPT can understand. Here are a few tips that can help you provide clear input:

Be clear and concise: Ensure that your input is concise and to the point.

Use complete sentences: Use complete sentences while providing input to ChatGPT.

Avoid abbreviations and jargon: Avoid using abbreviations and jargon that ChatGPT may not understand.

Another method to fix the “Conversation Not Found” error is to clear the conversation history and start a new chat. This will clear any potential issues with the conversation thread and allow you to start fresh.

If the error persists, you can try contacting ChatGPT support for assistance. They may be able to help you diagnose the issue and provide a solution.

If you encounter the “Conversation Not Found” error on ChatGPT, try ensuring that the query provided is in a structured format, clear the conversation history and start a new chat, or contact ChatGPT support if the error persists.

The “Conversation Not Found” error occurs on ChatGPT due to a potential issue with the conversation thread between the user and the ChatGPT system or due to unclear input provided by the user.

While you may not be able to prevent the “Conversation Not Found” error from occurring on ChatGPT entirely, you can ensure that your input is clear and concise and follow the tips mentioned above to minimize the chances of encountering the error.

In conclusion, the “Conversation Not Found” error on ChatGPT can be frustrating, but it can be easily fixed by ensuring that the query provided is in a structured format that ChatGPT can understand, clearing the conversation history and starting a new chat, or contacting ChatGPT support if the error persists. This error occurs due to potential issues with the conversation thread between the user and the ChatGPT system or unclear input provided by the user. By following the tips mentioned above, you can minimize the chances of encountering this error.

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1St Gen Moto E Vs 2Nd Gen Moto E

Our Verdict

The screen is bigger, it has double the storage, a quad-core processor, support for 4G and a front-facing camera. It’s a very easy choice between the old and new Moto E: the second generation phone is another winner.

We’re big fans of Motorola’s strategy for cheap Android phones. Pair plain Google Android with the bare essential hardware necessary for a smartphone today and sell it for a competitive price. The new Moto E improves on the original, and here was compare the first-generation Moto E with the 2023 Moto E so you can see why the new model is a much better buy.

You can also read our in-depth reviews of both smartphones for more information:

Old Moto E vs New Moto E: 4G

While we really like the 2nd generation Moto G, it’s strange that Motorola still doesn’t offer a 4G version. Not everyone wants or needs 4G, but it’s great that the 2023 Moto E is available in a 4G LTE version from the off.

Yes, it’s £20 more expensive than the original Moto E, but it isn’t only faster mobile data you’re getting.

Old Moto E vs New Moto E: Front camera

One of the problems with the first Moto E was the lack of a front-facing camera. The new Moto E fixes that, albeit with a low-quality 640×480-pixel sensor. So it’s not good for selfie queens, but it does mean you can use Skype or record video clips to send via other services.

The rear camera has the same 5Mp sensor as on the old Moto E, but now has auto-focus instead of fixed focus. It also supports auto HDR and slow-motion capture, and captures video at 720p (1280×720) instead of the paltry 854×480 of the original Moto E. Video quality still isn’t great, but it’s a big step up.

The only niggle is the continued absence of an LED flash, which would also double as a torch.

Old Moto E vs New Moto E: display

There’s not much of a change as far as the screen is concerned: the size has increased from 4.3 to 4.5in, but resolution stays the same at 960×540 pixels. It means a slight drop in pixel density from 256- to 245ppi, but it isn’t noticeable. It’s a shame Motorola didn’t opt for 1280×720 as you get on the 2nd gen Moto G, but it had to save money somewhere.  

Old Moto E vs New Moto E: Processor and storage

As ever, Motorola has spent the budget in the right places, and the upgrade to a Snapdragon 410 processor – a quad-core chip rather than the original Moto E’s dual-core part – makes a noticeable difference to the phone’s responsiveness.

It’s worth noting that even though the 410 is “64-bit capable” Motorola has chosen to use the 32-bit version of Android Lollipop. It’s unlikely it will ever move to 64-bit Android since this really requires a minimum of 2GB of RAM. On a budget phone, this is of little consequence to most people.

There’s still 1GB of RAM, but the updated processor integrates slightly faster graphics too. In our benchmarks the new Moto E was significantly faster than its predecessor in benchmarks such as Geekbench 3, but only a little faster in game tests. You can see how the two phones compare in all our benchmarks, as well as many other phones in our article  what’s the fastest smartphone 2023

Storage is doubled to 8GB – another welcome update – and you can pop in a 32GB microSD card for a maximum of roughly 40GB.

Old Moto E vs New Moto E: Software and battery life

There’s also Moto Display which lets you check on notifications without unlocking the screen. As on the Moto X it shows a monochrome icon which you can drag upwards to see a summary of the notification – such as an email or text message. On the Moto E, it doesn’t save as much power since the phone doesn’t have an AMOLED screen: it’s a more common IPS panel.

Still, the battery capacity has been increased by around 20 percent, and in our tests so far, the new Moto E easily lasts a day before needing a recharge. If you’re quite sparing and don’t play lots of games or stream video via 3G or 4G, you could eke it out to a full two days without much trouble.

Old Moto E vs New Moto E: Design

A casual glance at the old Moto E made you think it had stereo speakers because of the two metal bars (just like the second-gen Moto G). In fact, it didn’t: the top speaker was for phone calls, and the bottom one for hands-free calls.

The new Moto E is easily identifiable because it has only one metal bar at the top, and also has only a mono speaker for hands-free calls, music and other audio.

We like the new removable band which covers the microSIM and microSD slots. You can buy replacement bands in different colours and there’s a choice of a black or white phone. Motorola also sells ‘Grip shells’ for the new Moto E, but we suspect there will also be a choice of third-party cases for those who don’t want to spend £20 on a case.

The new Moto E is marginally larger at 130x67mm, and the same thickness at 12.3mm. The edges taper to 5.2mm, making it feel a lot thinner. Weight is up 3g to 145g, which is no difference at all.

Old Moto E vs New Moto E: Verdict

The choice of budget smartphones is bigger than ever, and the £109 Moto E is by no means the cheapest. However, it’s the most phone you can get for this price, and it’s well worth spending the extra £20 on top of the first-generation Moto E.

Specs Motorola Moto E 4G: Specs

Android 5.0 Lollipop (with guaranteed upgrade to the next version of Android)

4G LTE bands 1/3/7/20, 3G 900/2100MHz, 2G 850/900/1800/1900MHz

4.5in qHD (540×960, 245ppi) IPS display, with Gorilla Glass 3 and anti-smudge, splashproof coating

1.2GHz Qualcomm Snapdragon 410 quad-core processor

400MHz Adreno 306 GPU

1GB of RAM

8GB of storage, expandable through microSD up to 32GB

802.11b/g/n Wi-Fi

Bluetooth 4.0 LTE, GPS

5mp rear- and VGA front cameras, 720p video at 30fps

2390mAh battery



Researchers Found Signs Of Human Pollution In Animals Living Six Miles Beneath The Sea

Tens of thousands of feet below the surface, deep-sea fish and crustaceans thrive amidst extreme pressure, freezing cold, and absolute darkness. Food is scarce in this remote environment, and fish carcasses and detritus drifting down from shallower waters are a vital source of nutrition.

Turns out they’re also a prime source of toxic mercury, scientists reported on November 16 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Researchers found mercury in creatures dwelling deep within the Pacific ocean’s Mariana and Kermadec Trenches, depressions in the seafloor that form the deepest areas of the ocean’s bottom, and concluded that sinking carrion is the main route by which this pollution infiltrates the ocean’s abyss.

“Mercury pollution is a global problem and the mercury we emit goes nearly everywhere on Earth,” Joel Blum, a geochemist at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor and coauthor of the new findings, said in an email. “[Our study] shows there is a conveyor belt of sorts rapidly delivering surface mercury [accumulated] in fish to the deepest parts of the ocean.”

Each year, power plants, factories, mines, and other human operations release more than 2,000 metric tons of mercury into the atmosphere. This mercury eventually reaches the sea in rain, dust, and runoff from rivers and estuaries. Microbes convert this mercury into a particularly toxic form called methylmercury that builds up in fish and can harm the nervous, immune, and digestive systems of people and wildlife that eat the contaminated seafood.

This year, Blum’s team and two other groups of researchers reported that mercury pollution also reaches organisms in deep-sea trenches. When Blum and his colleagues collected snailfish and shrimp-like amphipods from depths of about 19,685 to 33,628 feet, they found high concentrations of mercury in the creatures’ tissues.

For perspective, says Carl Lamborg, an oceanographer at the University of California, Santa Cruz, who was not involved in the research, “we would discourage anybody from eating a fish like tuna if it had [a mercury concentration of] more than half a part per million, and these things are six to [nearly] 30 times that on the high end.”

Blum and his team also compared the ratios of different varieties, known as isotopes, of mercury found in the deep-sea critters to their previous measurements of mercury in fish living at shallower depths and bits of zooplankton, fish, and other detritus that fall to the deep sea. To their surprise, Blum said, the composition of mercury isotopes in the deep-sea fish strongly resembled that of fish inhabiting the upper 1,600 feet or so of the ocean. They did not match mercury isotopes in the detritus. These findings suggest that most of the mercury in deep-sea critters comes from human activities, rather than being released by undersea volcanoes and hydrothermal vents, and is devoured by scavengers when they encounter newly sunk fish carcasses.

Trenches are considered to be among the most pristine and remote ecosystems. In recent years, though, scientists have discovered lead, “bomb carbon” from nuclear weapons testing, chemicals banned in the 1970s, and plastic near the bottom of the ocean. So it’s not surprising that mercury has made its way to the deepest reaches of the ocean as well. How the influx of mercury affects the organisms living in these habitats is not yet certain, but “this is probably not a big concern to deep-sea ecosystems,” Blum said.

Lamborg and his colleagues have measured high concentrations of mercury in organisms living near hydrothermal vents, cracks in the seafloor which pump mercury into the surrounding waters; it’s possible that some deep-sea denizens are less vulnerable to mercury than animals that live elsewhere. “If these creatures have been living with it for millions of years, maybe they’ve evolved to detoxify themselves better, or are just able to live with it more effectively,” Lamborg says.

While the seafood we dine on comes from much shallower waters, investigating mercury in the deepest fathoms can help us understand its movement and persistence across the entire ocean, Lamborg says.

This could help scientists make predictions about mercury pollution in the sunlit waters where we fish.

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