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What felt like only a matter of time has finally arrived: Apple has just confirmed its plans for this year’s Worldwide Developers Conference in light of the global coronavirus pandemic.

Apple today announced via the Apple developers news and update page that it will be hosting “a completely new online experience” for this year’s WWDC. The announcement was also confirmed via an official press release sent out today as well. Here’s the announcement via the news portal:

This June, WWDC20 brings a completely new online experience to millions of talented and creative developers around the world. Join us for a fully packed program — including Keynote and sessions — to gain early access to the future of Apple platforms and engage with Apple engineers. Dive into an exciting learning experience and discover how to create your most innovative apps yet using the latest Apple technologies.

The announcement is a very Apple announcement. It speaks about innovation because of the new format, hosting the entire event online and yet still managing to deliver plenty of content and new information along the way. However, a quick search of both the news post and the press release reveals that Apple doesn’t actually specifically call out the novel coronavirus pandemic or COVID-19, the disease it causes.

However, Phil Schiller does mention the “current health situation”, and that can only really mean one thing:

We are delivering WWDC 2023 this June in an innovative way to millions of developers around the world, bringing the entire developer community together with a new experience,” said Phil Schiller, Apple’s senior vice president of Worldwide Marketing. “The current health situation has required that we create a new WWDC 2023 format that delivers a full program with an online keynote and sessions, offering a great learning experience for our entire developer community, all around the world. We will be sharing all of the details in the weeks ahead.

And Craig Federighi weighs in as well:

With all of the new products and technologies we’ve been working on, WWDC 2023 is going to be big,” said Craig Federighi, Apple’s senior vice president of Software Engineering. “I look forward to our developers getting their hands on the new code and interacting in entirely new ways with the Apple engineers building the technologies and frameworks that will shape the future across all Apple platforms.

Apple notes in the press release that there are more than 23 million registered developers across the globe, and this year’s WWDC will provide them with the tools and insights they will need to build the next great app for Apple’s ecosystem. Plus, we’ll see updates for iOS, iPadOS, watchOS, macOS, and tvOS, of course.

WWDC 2023 will happen in June, but the press release doesn’t block out any specific dates. So we’ll have to wait and see when, exactly, we’ll be tuning into this year’s developers conference online.

In addition to all of this, Apple has confirmed it will be donating $1 million to local San Jose organizations to “offset associated revenue loss”, which is tied to the new online-only format.

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Apple Announces Wwdc 2023 For June 8

Apple’s annual summer pilgrimage for its Mac and iOS developers, the Worldwide Developers Conference, is kicking off on Monday, June 8, 2023 and lasting through Friday, June 12, the company confirmed this morning.

The five-day conference, twenty-sixth in a row, will take place at San Francisco’s Moscone West, “with more sessions than ever before streamed” online.

Like prior WWDCs, this year’s conference will give Apple’s developer community and users around the world much more than a glimpse into the future of iOS and OS X.

“The App Store ignited an app ecosystem that is simply amazing, forever changing the lives of customers and creating millions of jobs worldwide,” said Philip Schiller, Apple’s senior vice president of Worldwide Marketing.

“We’ve got incredible new technologies for iOS and OS X to share with developers at WWDC and around the world, and can’t wait to see the next generation of apps they create.”

The conference will feature more than a hundred technical sessions, with over a thousand Apple engineers on site and hands-on labs to help developers integrate new technologies and fine tune their apps.

The Apple Design Awards are on the agenda as well, which typically showcase the best new apps in the last year.

Ticket registrations are open at the official WWDC website through Friday, April 17 at 10am PDT. Apple says it will randomly pick tickets to give everyone interested equal chance of attending the conference.

Developers will know the status of their application by Monday, April 20 at 5pm PDT. “There will also be up to 350 WWDC Scholarships available, giving students and members of participating STEM organizations around the world the chance to earn a free ticket”, said Apple.

Here are some conference highlights from Apple’s press release:

more than 100 technical sessions presented by Apple engineers on a wide range of topics for developing, deploying and integrating the latest iOS and OS X technologies;

over 1,000 Apple engineers supporting more than 100 hands-on labs and events to provide developers with code-level assistance, insight into optimal development techniques and guidance on how they can make the most of iOS and OS X technologies in their apps;

access to the latest innovations, features and capabilities of iOS and OS X, and best practices for enhancing an app’s functionality, performance, quality and design;

the opportunity to connect with thousands of fellow iOS and OS X developers from around the world—last year more than 60 countries were represented;

a series of get togethers for attendees focused on particular topics with special guest speakers and activities;

engaging and inspirational lunchtime sessions with leading minds and influencers from the worlds of technology, science and entertainment; and

Apple Design Awards which recognize iPhone, iPad, Apple Watch and Mac apps that demonstrate technical excellence, innovation and outstanding design.

Even if you don’t have a few thousand bucks to spend on a ticket and flight to San Francisco come June 8, select sessions will be live-streamed throughout the week at the WWDC website here and via the official WWDC app for the iPhone and iPad.

“Videos from all technical sessions will also be available by the end of each day,” noted the firm. And yes, we’ll be providing detailed coverage of developments and report on any news that should interest you before, during and after WWDC 2023.

We’re of course excited about previews of iOS 9 and OS X 10.11 and expect the company to update us on the state of third-party Watch development.

Given the firm previously promised native Watch apps that run directly on the device (rather than stream off the iPhone) by year’s end, it’s safe to expect more news on that front.

And if I were a betting man, I’d put my money on a next-generation Apple TV with a full-blown software development kit with apps and games via an Apple TV App Store.

Source: Apple

As Xrp Sec Case Nears Conclusion, What Will Be Its Effects On The Industry?

The Hinman document becomes key evidence in the XRP SEC battle.

XRP shows positive sentiment and an upward trend amid ongoing legal proceedings.

The Hinman documents have been a contentious topic in the Ripple [XRP] SEC battle. The SEC and Ripple have engaged in a heated debate over its significance. The SEC tried to block its acceptance as evidence through various motions, but the judge ultimately denied their request. Recently, the judge classified the Hinman document as one of the “judicial documents” in the case.

Read Ripple’s [XRP] Price Prediction 2023-24

Hinman documents not to be redacted in the XRP SEC case

The ongoing legal battle between XRP and the SEC has been marked by a contentious document known as the Hinman document. Both sides fiercely debated its significance and argued for and against its inclusion. However, the judge ultimately ruled that it should be admitted as evidence. 

The significance of the Hinman docs in the XRP SEC case

The Hinman documents are a collection of internal communications within the SEC involving William Hinman. He was the former director of the Division of Corporation Finance of the SEC.

In 2023, Hinman delivered a speech where he stated that Ethereum [ETH], a different cryptocurrency, did not fall under the classification of security. This speech prompted questions regarding the SEC’s position on other cryptocurrencies, including XRP. The Hinman documents contain internal discussions and analyses regarding categorizing cryptocurrencies as securities, potentially shedding light on the SEC’s perspective on XRP.

Ripple Labs actively sought access to these documents to support its defense in the SEC case. Ripple argued that the documents might reveal inconsistencies and selective enforcement by the SEC, which could significantly impact the case’s outcome.

SEC asks for a week’s extension to file unredacted documents

Following the 16 May judgment, which required SEC and Ripple to release unredacted versions of certain documents, an extension request was submitted. According to a court document shared by James Filan on May 19, both parties requested an additional week, until 13 June, 2023, to submit public, unredacted versions of cross-motions for summary judgment and related exhibits, including the Hinman materials. 

This extension request demonstrated the willingness of both parties to comply with the 16 May ruling, enabling the public to access a selection of documents relevant to the case.

A summary of the XRP SEC tussle

In 2023, the SEC accused Ripple, the creator of the XRP cryptocurrency, of conducting an unregistered securities offering by selling over $1 billion worth of XRP to investors in 2013. The SEC charged Ripple, as well as its executives Brad Garlinghouse and Christian Larsen, with selling unregulated securities through XRP, totaling over $1.3 billion over several years.

The SEC’s filing included transactions spanning from 2013 to late 2023, involving the sale of over 14.6 billion XRP tokens for cash. In its defense, Ripple referenced statements former SEC director Hinman made to argue that XRP should not be classified as a security.

Some big moves from Ripple

Despite the ongoing legal proceedings with the SEC, Ripple has recently launched a central bank digital currency (CBDC) platform. This platform enables central banks, governments, and financial institutions to create and manage digital currencies.

Through Ripple’s platform, government institutions can customize and oversee the entire life cycle of their CBDCs, including minting, distribution, redemption, and token burning. Financial institutions can also participate in inter-institutional settlement and distribution activities using the CBDC. Notably, the platform supports wholesale and retail CBDCs, allowing for offline transactions.

CBDC team making significant progress with the launch of the new #cbdc platform 👌 Four countries now announced 👍👍 Grateful to the team at @Ripple who are developing the best platform for the future of Digital Currencies 👌 Palau 🇵🇼 Bhutan 🇧🇹 Montenegro 🇲🇪 Hong Kong 🇭🇰…

— Antony Welfare (@AntonyWelfare) May 19, 2023

XRP’s reaction to the latest developments

Since the 16 May development, Ripple (XRP) has experienced an upward trend in its price, despite the SEC still lurking. According to the price range tool, there has been an increase of over 11% in the value of XRP since the uptrend began.

However, at the time of writing, the excitement surrounding the asset waned slightly. XRP was trading at approximately $0.46, reflecting a minor addition in value of less than 1%. Nevertheless, the overall trend remained bullish.

How much are 1,10,100 XRPs worth today?

Analyzing the Relative Strength Indicator (RSI), the RSI line was above 55, indicating a strong bullish trend. However, XRP has struggled to surpass the short Moving Average (yellow line) around the $0.47 price range.

Furthermore, XRP investors have displayed positive sentiments towards the asset, as reflected by its funding rate metric on Coinglass. At the time of writing, XRP exhibited a positive funding rate. This suggests that there is an anticipation of a future price increase.

Wwdc 2023 Roundup: Everything You Need To Know

Here’s a look back at the WWDC 2023. Included here are first looks at iOS 12, watchOS 5, tvOS 12, and macOS Mojave. What was your favorite new feature to come out of the event?

iOS 12 Performance Enhancements

As expected, iOS 12 focuses heavily on performance and speed enhancements, rather than new features, although there were plenty of those too. The biggest news here perhaps is that iOS 12 will support iOS devices going back to 2013, as was the case with iOS 11.

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ARKit 2

ARKit 2 brings a lot of new tools to the platform, including native Adobe Creative Suite integration. The company also introduced an all-new Measure app so that you can measure real-life items just by using your iPhone.

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App updates

With iOS 12, you’ll also see search refinements in the Photos app and a new section called For You where you’ll find sharing suggestions.

Siri is also getting smarter in iOS 12 thanks to the introduction of a Workflow-like app.

Apps updated in iOS 12 include News, Stocks, and Voice Memos. The iBooks app is now called Apple Books. It comes with lots of new features and sections.

CarPlay also gains support for third-party navigation apps.

Digital wellness tools and Memojis

Two of the most significant new features in iOS 12 is the introduction of parental and wellness controls and all-new Memojis.

Do Not Disturb, Notifications, and Screen Time features are useful for parents and kids alike. The tools allow us to track our daily device usage and also quiet devices when needed.

The Do Not Disturb feature has been improved for bedtime and includes an automatic ending tool. You can turn Notification off during periods of the day or have them bypass the iOS Lock Screen.

Screen Time offers a weekly activity summary, which includes information on how long you use your device, right down to how often you pick the device up. You can also setup app allowances for yourself or your kids.

With Memojis, you can now create your own personal Animoji. The iOS 12 update also includes new Animoji faces and features too.

Group FaceTime

Group FaceTime is also arriving with iOS 12. With the new tool, you can have FaceTime chats with up to 32 people at the same time.

Precise text selection without 3D Touch

There’s now a keyboard trackpad mode on non-3D Touch devices. This includes older iPhones and the iPod touch.

New 3D Touch shortcuts

Apple’s added a pair of new QR code and document scanner options to iOS 12 that can be accessed quickly by pressing the Notes or Camera icon on the Home screen with 3D Touch.

Live Listen on AirPods

In iOS 12, AirPods are gaining the Live Listen feature found in hearing aids certified through Apple’s Made for iPhone hearing aid program. The feature, which is enabled in iPhone settings, turns an iOS device into a remote microphone, allowing you to hear a conversation in a noisy room.

Automatic updates

Introduced in iOS 12, a new Automatic Updates option permits your iPhone, iPad or iPod touch to automatically install the latest iOS software on its own as soon as new version is available.

Siri in low-power mode

iOS 12 adds support for Hey Siri even when your iPhone’s battery is running low.

Previously disabled automatically as part of Low Power Mode, the untethered Hey Siri function has been upgraded in iOS 12 to work even when the battery is running low.

Changes to Lock screen during restart

iOS 12 prevents taking screenshots and accessing the Camera shortcut from the Lock screen when your iPhone, iPad or iPod touch has just been restarted or turned on.

Easier process to close apps on iPhone X

On iOS 12, iPhone X users can now swipe up to instantly close apps without holding them. This change was brought out to ensure iOS 12’s task switcher behaves consistently across iPhone and iPad.

Face ID improvements

You can now add an “alternative appearance” under Face ID. In other words, you can now add another person who can open your iPhone X using their face.

Plus, unlocking an iPhone X after an unsuccessful Face ID attempt is easier in iOS 12, thanks to a useful new gesture available from your Lock screen.

On iPad, some iPhone X gestures

From Apple’s website:

“iOS 12 for iPad includes updated gestures that make it easier to navigate. You can now go to the Home screen by swiping anywhere on the Dock. Get to Control Center more conveniently with a swipe from the top-right corner.”

watchOS 5

The latest software for Apple Watch doesn’t include third-party faces as some had rumored. But it does add some new fitness-based tools and communication features.

New challenges

The update includes the ability to challenge friends through weekly competitions. You’ll also find new workouts for yoga and hiking, and for runners. Finally, watchOS contains automatic workout detection too.


One of the best watchOS 5 features may turn out to be Walkie-Talkie, which is available through Cellular and Wi-Fi.

Updates to Siri face

Apple Watch is also adding new content to the Siri face, which first arrived last year. There’s also support here for predictive shortcuts and third-party apps. You can even talk to Siri without saying “hi Siri.”

Podcasts, WebKit

Podcasts have also arrived on Apple Watch, as has a WebKit on watchOS. The latter will allow you to few web content in mail or messages.

Rearranging Control Center

You can now rearrange Control Center toggles on your Apple Watch. This is the first time Apple Watch wearers have been able to customize the layout of their Control Center, directly from their wrist.

Connect to nearby Wi-Fi networks

WatchOS 5 brings a handy option in the Settings menu that permits customers to manually connect their Apple Watch to nearby Wi-Fi networks.

Bye-Bye original Apple Watch

The original Apple Watch won’t receive the watchOS 5 update when it arrives this fall. Indeed, it’s the end of the line for those first Apple Watch Edition models cost five figures.

Bring up Control Center from anywhere

watchOS 5 brings a subtle yet hugely satisfying usability improvement: now you can launch Control Center or access your Notification Center from virtually any Apple Watch screen—and more importantly—from inside apps, including Apple’s stock apps as well as third-party ones.

tvOS 12 Dolby ATMOS support

The most critical feature in tvOS 12 is the introduction of Dolby ATMOS support. You’ll find this support added to iTunes content already purchased.

Easier sign-in

Apple also announced a zero sign-on feature that logs you into an app by merely being on your Wi-Fi network.

Do you love the wallpapers that come with Apple TV? You can now use your Siri Remote to tap and learn more about the aerial location, which will now include wallpapers from the International Space Station.

macOS 10.14 Dark mode and updated Mac App Store Time-shifting wallpapers

MacOS Mojave brings a new Dynamic Desktop feature that automatically changes the new desktop wallpaper to match the time of day.

The operating system includes just one Dynamic Desktop example in form of a desert-themed photograph that changes seamlessly from day to night as time goes on.

Desktop Stack feature

With Desktop Stacks, you can arrange your files by kind, dates, or tags. New Finder features include a gallery view, sidebar view with metadata, and quick actions. Quick Look now provides Markup support. MacOS Mojave is also adding a lot more screenshot tools including easy markup.

Continuity Camera

With the all-new Continuity Camera feature, you can shoot a photo on your iPhoto and see it on your Mac automatically. New Mac apps include News, Stocks, and Voice Memos. The Home app also arrives on Mac.

More Privacy

Safari also gained new privacy features, and you’ll see a new fingerprinting tool too. A lot of the Mac developer tools aren’t arriving until 2023.

AirDrop saved website and app passwords

iOS 12 and macOS 10.14 bring improvements to AirDrop, Apple’s proprietary peer-to-peer file transfer feature, which can now be used to wirelessly send any saved passwords or usernames from one iPhone, iPad or Mac to another.

No more social integration

Facebook, Twitter, and other social networking sites no longer have third-party integration in macOS Mojave. The shift follows a similar move that was enacted with iOS 11 in 2023. With the change, accessing and sharing information with those services on your Mac will require a few more steps.

Favicons return

Mojave brings back the long-awaited favicons to help visually distinguish between multiple open tabs. What’s more, favicons are available for the first time on iPhone and iPad thanks to iOS 12.

iOS apps come to Mac

In macOS Mojave, Apple is bringing apps from iOS to the Mac for the first time, including News, Stocks, Voice Memos, and Home. The News app for Mac offers all the content you’ve come to expect from the curation app in a design that looks familiar.

WWDC 2023

We’ll have much more to say about all of these software updates and the rest of WWDC 2023 over the coming days and months. In the meantime, what software features announced at WWDC did you like the most? Let us know below.

Apple Store Unionization Movement Continues In Oklahoma City; Prepared For Union

The Apple Store unionization movement is showing no signs of slowing, with the Penn Square store in Oklahoma City the latest to seek to join a union.

Around 70% of staff have applied to join the Communications Workers of America union, and they say they are prepared for any union-busting tactics Apple may deploy …


We first learned of retail staff plans to unionize back in February.

Groups at two stores prepared paperwork to file with the National Labor Relations Board, with about six more locations at earlier stages of planning at that time.

The main source of dissatisfaction is due to wages. Apple pays retail employees in the range of $20-$30 per hour, depending on role and seniority. Workers say these rates have not kept up with inflation. However, a recent union survey revealed that pay is far from the only concern.

Things progressed in April, with a formal start to the process at Apple’s flagship Grand Central Terminal store in New York, with a number of goals for a better deal for staff. This was followed by similar moves in Atlanta and Maryland, before expanding internationally to the UK and Australia.

Apple has so far reacted aggressively, hiring the same union-busting lawyers employed by Starbucks. The company is now facing multiple accusations of using illegal union-busting techniques. Employment experts have warned that these techniques can work, but may have long-lasting negative consequences.

Oklahoma City store joins Apple Store unionization movement

Bloomberg reports on the latest development:

Apple Inc. workers in Oklahoma City petitioned Thursday to unionize their store, extending a wave of organizing within the company and the broader retail industry.

Employees filed a petition with the National Labor Relations Board (NRLB) seeking a vote on joining the Communications Workers of America union […]

“This is a really great time to bring back the labor movement,” said Oklahoma City employee Michael Forsythe, one of the leaders of the campaign there. Roughly 70% of the store’s eligible workers have signed up with the union, according to the CWA, which represents a swath of industries including technology, airlines and media.

The NLRB will check that at least 30% of eligible workers have signed up in order to progress to the next stage. That will be a formal election in which the majority of staff have to vote in favor.

As with other stores, it is likely that Apple will oppose the move. It has previously been accused of intimidation and failing to live up to its own values in the way it responds.

Union organizers say that they know what opposition they expect to face from Apple, and are prepared for it.

The Oklahoma City workers said they were inspired by the Atlanta campaign, and have consulted with employees behind it to know what pushback to expect from the company and how to withstand it.

Issues unions may seek to address with Apple

Unions consult with their members to choose which issues to prioritize in their negotiations with an employer. We recently learned about a survey being carried out by Maryland Store union organisers. This asked members to rate the importance of each of a long list of issues, from “Not important” to “Essential.”

General wage increases

Transparency on wages/pay brackets

Premium pay for special skills (e.g., non-English-speaking employees)

Reduce time it takes to reach maximum rate of pay

Add cost-of-living adjustment 

Add pension plan (see attached)

Add profit sharing

Improve 401(k) savings plan

Improve medical coverage

Improve dental coverage

Improve vision coverage

Improve mental health coverage

Improve pet insurance coverage

Improve accident and sickness coverage

Improve life insurance coverage

Medical costs containment

Overtime procedures

Increase paid holidays

More vacation time

Improve sick leave benefits

Improve policies/procedures for approval of paid time off

Improve bereavement pay and/or policy/ies

Implement seniority language (i.e., layoff, recall rights, transfers, promotions & shift prefs) 

Improve job security

Respect shown to employees from management

Improve communication from management to employees

Workplace safety and/or security

Health and welfare of employees (i.e., ergonomics, air quality at workplace)

Increase input in work design and/or production numbers (to achieve sustainable workload)

Improve management’s commitment to employee professional growth and development

Clear guidelines for attendance policy

Clear guidelines for promotions 

Improve scheduling and availability

Improve work-life balance 

Implement four-day work week

Implement one work-from-home day per pay week

Improve “clocking-in/out” policies

Increase staffing

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A Coronavirus Vaccine Will Save More Lives If We Share It Widely

Developing a vaccine that might protect a large portion of the population would bring us a step closer to ending the COVID-19 pandemic. But making the vaccine is only one step. A new report from the Gates Foundation puts dire numbers on what public health experts have been worried about for some time: When (if ever) a COVID-19 vaccine arrives, who will be able to access it?

In the foundation’s annual Goalkeepers report, influenza modelers from Northeastern University estimate that equitable vaccination—that is, if vaccines were distributed to all countries around the world proportional to their population—could avert 61 percent of global deaths caused by COVID-19 infection, compared to a baseline of no vaccine existing. If, however, 50 high-income countries around the globe hogged the first 2 billion doses, only 33 percent of deaths would be averted.

Developing and manufacturing vaccines, which are significant challenges in their own right, “won’t end the pandemic quickly unless we also deliver them equitably,” the report notes. However, it’s not entirely clear how the world’s leaders will organize this collaborative response.

One thing that could address this is a multilateral agreement to both share vaccine doses equitably and provide funding—whether collectively, through an international initiative like the COVAX Facility or in some other way—for the initiatives necessary to produce and distribute vaccines to lower-income countries.

“We have a potentially very short window to get this multilateral commitment, especially from high-income countries,” says Alexandra Phelan, a professor at Georgetown University affiliated with both the Center for Global Health Science and Security and the school’s faculty of law.

Such an agreement currently exists for pandemic influenza, Phelan notes, but not for any other kind of disease or vaccine. COVID-19, being a coronavirus, is not covered under the existing plan.

As it currently stands, wealthy countries and unions—including the United States, the United Kingdom, and the European Union—are making deals with the pharmaceutical companies creating vaccine candidates, in the hopes that their drug will be the one to work, and the country will get priority access. This strategy will likely result in substantial death and suffering in countries that are not able to pursue these deals.

The United States and the United Kingdom are two countries in the English-speaking world that have already entered into deals with potential vaccine makers. But even for those who have not taken this path, says Phelan, “There is a risk and a concern that governments will use things like export controls to stop a vaccine developed in their country from leaving.” That’s happened already with personal protective equipment.

Beyond this, says Danielle Wenner, a Carnegie Mellon University bioethicist, “It’s not like, if we hoard all the [doses of] vaccine for ourselves, suddenly America will be out of this crisis.” As this pandemic shows, we live in a highly networked world, and it’s unlikely that borders can remain shut indefinitely.

The Goalkeepers report also highlights the fact that health benchmarks in the developing world—including vaccination rates for established diseases such as polio—have dropped dramatically since the COVID-19 pandemic began, returning to levels last seen in the 1990s. Vaccine coverage is a good proxy for the state of that country’s healthcare access, the report notes.

“I think there are many ways in which the persistence of poverty and lack of robust healthcare institutions in low income countries can be attributed to the behaviors and policies and decisions of larger countries,” Wenner says. That historical and present injustice lends weight to an argument that those in low income countries actually have a greater claim to a COVID-19 vaccine, she says.

If someone in a low income country gets COVID-19, there are far fewer resources available to them that would ensure their survival and continued wellbeing. On the other hand, if somebody in a wealthy country gets COVID-19, their country has more resources to support them.

Creating a vaccine that is effective at least 80 percent of the time, which is the threshold the Goalkeepers model uses, is only part of the battle. Establishing the manufacturing infrastructure, the supply chain and the community support to distribute the vaccine equitably is complicated too, says Narveen Jandu, a cellular microbiologist and professor at the University of Waterloo’s School of Public Health and Health Systems.

In addition, she says, “I do worry about the vaccine hesitant group of individuals.” People around the globe need outreach to prepare them to understand and accept a vaccine, she says, and that needs to start now so when a vaccine is developed, people are willing to get it.

The whole endeavor will be both financially and politically complicated. But it’s essential if we want to end the COVID-19 pandemic. “It really seems to me that the only effective way out of a global pandemic is global cooperation,” Wenner says.

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